|this side is a term clarifying for the distinction of several terms named the same word.|
Anthropology (Greek ανθρωπολογία, anthropo~ of άνθρωπος - humans and ~logie of λόγος - teachings, too German science of humans) is more ambiguousTerm, which primarily (from each other separated) single sciences are named. The term is understood partial also than generic term for several of these single sciences as well as for the associated attempt to combine these into a spreading science.
the philosophical anthropology regards the position of humans in the total reality. It compiled its nature. In addition it asks itself: “Which is humans?”. It seizes in particular itsPosition to the dead world, to the animals, to other humans as well as to God.
Nietz calls humans “the not determined animal”, since there would be at first sight some thing in common, but on the second view nevertheless a great manyDifferences. The largest difference is that humans can interpret themselves (“if we before the mirror to stand, recognize each other we”) and that the animal is not in addition able. In addition humans have the urge in addition, itselfalways “hold back”; practically each action was considered before its execution and committed non as with the animal - from instinct. Both theses must be regarded due to the results of experimental research however in the meantime as disproved.
In Germany are here forwardsall max of Scheler as founders of the philosophical anthropology as well as Helmuth Plessner and Arnold Gehlen to call (to the newer argument thereby see. also the biosociological studies of Dieter Claessens). Further to call are Ernst Cassirer and its philosophy of the symbolicForms as well as William Kamlah as one the founder of the Erlanger constructionalism.
A broad introduction to the philosophical anthropology offers Kuno Lorenz with its book of the same name, which offers a dia.-logical beginning.
See also: Philosophical anthropology.
the biological anthropology (English. physical anthropology) understands itself as the comparative biology of humans. “Comparatively” with it sits down from its far origin, to anatomy off. Subsections are Primatologie, evolution of humans, historical (prähistorische) anthropology, population biology, population genetics,Growth (Auxologie), constitution, Forensik. Always both described and causally analyzed, will become genetic bases likewise considered as environmentaldetermined. Superordinate groups of fans are biology (with the further subjects Zoologie, Botanik, microbiology etc.) or human biology(with the further subjects anatomy, physiology etc.).
There are institutions in the German-speaking countries at universities and at museums in Kiel, Hamburg, Berlin, Goettingen, Jena, pouring, Frankfurt, Mainz, Ulm, Freiburg, Munich, Zurich and Vienna. Usually there the designation is only “anthropology”,Additives as biologically become only in recent time necessary, because the competitive American term of “anthropology” admits also here becomes.
Areas of the forensischen anthropology:
- Identification according to pictures,
- identification of skeletons and teilskelettierten corpses, also in mass graves
- age diagnosis, in particular with young offenders
- descending appraisal (morphologic)
- twin diagnosis
the forensische anthropology serves the anthropology with the meanswith the clearing-up of crimes. Forensi Anthropologen has particularly with the identification of bank robbers, high-speed drivers etc. to do, then also frequently with or completely skelettierten corpses decayed strongly. Pretty often they are last hope for clearing-up oneCrime.
There are several practices for forensische anthropology, main area is there the identification according to pictures. Some call themselves also “office” or “Institut”.
Web on the left of:
- Society for anthropology
- society for right medicine
- working group identification according to pictures
the term historical anthropology is used in at least two different meanings:
- As part of the sciences of history it describes a historiography, which particularly considers the nature and the fate of humans.
- As part of the anthropology it is equivalent to the comparative biology of humans.There above all skeletons become from historical grave fields concerning number of deaths, physical characteristics, diseases etc. examined.
as culture anthropology one designates the systematic comparison of cultures of different peoples and epochs. It is related therefore (if also not completelyidentically) to Ethnologie and people customer.
to social anthropology
as cybernetic anthropology one designates the attempt of the terminological coupling of anthropology and cybernetics with an technology-induced theory formation. Is to be called: Humans and its relationship with the technology.
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The educational anthropology is a scientific Subdisziplin with their assistance the implicit and explicit acceptance of the Pädagogikover humans to be reflected. It uses the newest realizations of the research (in the special one of the brain research) and is anxious to make the realizations for the education usable. Empirical single data are to be summarized under a uniform educational basic idea, in addition categories serve.Fundamental categories are the education education and the Erziehungsbedürftigkeit/flexibility. To the Unterkategorien for example the theory of learning and instruction belongs to the educational anthropology or the gift and interest.
anthropology as generic term and/or. Roof science
becomes anthropology sometimes asGeneric term for several of the single sciences specified above understood. In particular in the USA there are corresponding efforts, biological anthropology, culture anthropology, to unite Ethnolinguistik and archaeology under a roof. () see also for this the article Anthropology of the English-language Wikipedia.
famous ones (partly also notorious) Anthropologen
- G. Acsadi
- harsh ore brook
- Johann Jakob brook furnace
- Gregory Bateson (philosopher)
- Franz Boas
- Alfred Czarnetzki
- Egon baron von Eickstedt (Rassenfo, LV race consultant)
- Paul Ekman
- Brian M. Fagan
- Fernando Ortíz Fernández
- Helen Fisher
- Vilém Flusser
- Gisela group
- of Hans Friedrich Karl Günther (relevant author of the LV racial theory)
- Marvin Harris
- Winfried Henke
- Bernd God-dear gentleman Mr.
- Rainer Knussmann
- Louis Leakey
- Mary Leakey
- Claude Lévi bunch
- Bronislaw Malinowski
- Rudolf Martin
- Margaret Mead
- Karl Valentin Mueller - LV race teacher
- J. Nemeskeri
- Adolf haven man
- Alfred Reginald Radcliffe Brown
- Friedrich William Rösing
- Karl Saller (Rassenfo, late opponent of the LV racial theory)
- peace man Schrenk
- Ilse Schwidetzky (Rassenfoscherin, LV-Rassengutachterin)
- M. Stloukal
- Maria Teschler Nicola
- protect Xiaotong
- Christoph Wulf: Anthropology. History, culture, philosophy. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2004. ISBN 3-499-55664-2
- peace man Schrenk, Timothy G. Bromage, Henrik Kaessmann: The early period of humans. Back to the roots. in: Biology in our time. 32.2002, 6, S. 352-359. ISSN 0045-205X
- WinfriedHenke, Hartmut Rothe:People becoming. Fischer, Frankfurt M 2003. ISBN 3596155541.
- Werner fox and. A. (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia to the sociology. 2. , and extended Aufl., improved West German publishing house, Opladen 1978