Anthroposophie

Das Goetheanum in Dornach/Schweiz (erbaut 1928) ist der Sitz der Anthroposophischen Gesellschaft
the Goetheanum in thorn oh/Switzerland (1928 build) is the seat of the Anthroposophi society

as Anthroposophie, literally the wisdom of humans, people wisdom, one of Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) justified mirror-image-ritual world view with European roots, represented world-wide, designated. ThoseAnthroposophie is regarded of it intimate ones as realization teachings, which are to train to independent research in mental area. Steiner stressed thereby the liberty of humans, who were to emanzipieren themselves from all forms of patronizing , also more religiously, around oneindividual, to attain although systematic entrance to phenomena „of the übersinnlichen world “.

The impulses, which go out with the Anthroposophie, cover as different areas of life as Pädagogik/Heilpädagogik (Rudolf Steiner School, Camphill), medicine (anthroposophisch extended medicine), agriculture (biological-dynamic agriculture),Society (three-arrangement of the social organism), movement art (Eurythmie) and religion (the Christian community, even not belonging to the Anthroposophie). As center of the Anthroposophi society the Goetheanum was built with Basel.

Table of contents

distinguished

7 literature 7,1 to the Anthroposophie from the anthropology. The latter treats that that humans throughits senses and the understanding holding by the sense observation about the world to know itself knows; first against it is „the knowledge of the spirit human being “, and it extends to everything that can notice these in „the mental world “. From this starting point ondevelops Steiner into the Anthroposophie comprehensive („cosmological “) theory of humans, who are based on the conception of Karma and Wiedergeburt.

Steiner calls the Anthroposophie realization way, and/or. as a scientific method for the study „of the mental world “, overthe science created on „sensory perception and understanding activity “goes out. It rejected therefore a firm name for „the realization and life practice represented by him “, since it wanted to work against the impression of a closed instructional system. Synonymously to the designation „“it used Anthroposophie alsoother terms, like „secret science “or „Geisteswissenschaft “, in order to mark its thought building. „Geisteswissenschaft “he took over the term from William Dilthey.

Strictly speaking the term was used „Anthroposophie “of Steiner as title fragment of a remained writing from the year 1910(Total expenditure [GA] 45). In this program writing the Anthroposophie was settled in tying at Ignaz Paul Vitalis Troxler as an intermediary between Theosophie and anthropology. Anthroposophie is for Steiner thereby the creation of a consciousness of the Menschentums. It concerns to it the formulationa comprehensive theory of knowledge to the human conscious becoming. Since Steiner presents „I “and „world “not binaryistic divorced, its Anthroposophie wants to offer guidance at the same time for the self and world realization of humans. This is the monistische program of the anthroposophischen realization way, - with Friedrich Nietz and max of Stirner - free, individualistisch coined/shaped humans presupposes. The Monismus is thereby nature realization and at the same time realization of the mental world.

The term of the Anthroposophie used here refers thus to realization practice justified by Steiner. In the broader senseone in addition, the sum of Steiners writings and lectures call and the life reality of the Anthroposophi society begründeteten by him „Anthroposophie “.

The Anthroposophie had and has many admitting representatives in the first number of the culture life, in particular in the art, under it Joseph Beuys, Wassily Kandinsky, Christian morning star, Bruno walter and Michael end.

the origin of the term Anthroposophie

the term „Anthroposophie “originates already from the early modern times. In an anonymous book with the title Arbatel de magia veterum, summum sapientiae study (1575), the Esoteriker and Neuplatoniker Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa attributed by nice home, is added the Anthroposophie (just like the Theosophie) „to the science of the good one “and with „knowledge of the natural things “and/or. „Intelligence in humanAffairs “translates.

Beginning 19. Century took over Swiss physician and philosopher I.P.V. Troxler (1780-1866) the term „Anthroposophie “and arranged it the Biosophie too (elements of the Biosophie, 1806). In the sense of the forerunners of the philosophy, above all the nature philosopher Schelling, with which Troxler had studied, Biosophie should mean „nature realization by self realization “. The realization of human nature called Troxler Anthroposophie. Philosophy - and all philosophy is nature realization - must become it according to to the Anthroposophie. This becomes as one „objektivierteAnthropology “presented, which is to proceed from „original humans “. In human nature therefore God and world unite in a mystischen procedure.

Also Immanuel Hermann spruce used the term 1856 in „anthropology - the theory of the human soul “andnamed one „thorough selfrecognize-eats humans “, who lay „only in the exhaustive acknowledgement of the spirit “. True detention thoroughly or fathoming cannot recognize each other „the people spirit “however, without thereby „the presence or probation of the göttlichen spirit by it toobecome “.

The religion philosopher Gideon Spicker (1872-1920), the one „religion in philosophical form on scientific basis “aimed at and the conflict between faith and knowledge, between religion and natural science as the Grundproblem of its life and thinking regarded, formulated the program of the Anthroposophie,likewise in the sense „highest self realization “: „It concerns however in the science around the realization of the things, in philosophy against it in last instance the realization of this realization, then the actual study of humans is humans, andphilosophy most ambitious goal is self realization or Anthroposophie. “(The philosophy of the count von Shaftesbury, 1872). Spickers ideal covered the unit of God and world in the religion as answered for realization with use of reason and experience.

ThatAustrian philosopher and Herbartianer Robert Carpenter (1824-98), creators „of the philosophical Propädeutik “, selected the designation „Anthroposophie “1882 as title of a program writing, which sought to describe a system of ideal world view on realistic basis („Anthroposophie in outlined. Draft of a system of ideal world viewon realistic basis “, 1882). Carpenter, with whom Steiner Philosophie-Vorlesungen heard, wanted in his system over „the barriers and contradictions, which the common experience point of view carries in itself “, goes out and one „for philosophy of the people knowledge “to establish, which proceeds as science from the experience,but, where it requires logical thinking, beyond it it extends.

1895 took over Steiner, strongly affected by philosophy , nature philosophy , idealism and irrationalism, the term Anthroposophie of Carpenter and relied thereby also considerably on the contentwise development of the termwith Troxler, spruce and Spicker. 1916 it described the suggestion by Carpenter: „As it before a number of years to give to our thing a name there purged I acted on such, which had become dear me, therefore,because a philosophy professor, whose lectures I heard in my youth time, called Robert Carpenter, its Hauptwerk “Anthroposophie”. “(Collected essays, GA 35, S. 176)

the Anthroposophie with Rudolf Steiner

Rudolf Steiner im Alter von 18 Jahren (1879)
Rudolf Steiner at the age of 18 years (1879)

The Anthroposophie Rudolf Steiners understands itself as a Christian and human method of the consciousness development. She draws from okkulten and esoterischen sources and covers elements of the Gnostizismus and rose cross ore around.Due to this connection of very different rivers it already became from criticsto Steiners lifetimes for instance as synkretistische world view, eklektischer Mystizismus or generic term cure anti-mash arranged. It contains a comprehensive („cosmic “) evolution term as well as a multilayered picture of the reembodiment (Reinkarnation) and the fate (Karma). Differently than out in the Theosophie,that it came out, plays into the Anthroposophie the Christianity - in „more individualized “form - a central role.

By „Anthroposophie “with Rudolf Steiner one understands on the one hand its teachings, on the other hand about him developed „spirit-scientific “training course way, which makes it possibleis to reconstruct the theoretical teachings.

Steiner wanted the Anthroposophie always as „realization way “and/or. scientific method for the study „of the mental world “understood know: „Under Anthroposophie I understand a scientific study of the mental world, which the one-sidednesses of a bare nature realization likewisehow the usual Mystik checks up those, and those, before she makes the attempt to penetrate into the übersinnliche world in which recognizing soul only in usual consciousness and in the usual science yet active forces does not develop, which suchPenetrate make possible “(philosophy and Anthroposophie, GA 35).

The anthroposophische movement is sociologically, world descriptive religious and politically very heterogeneous. The interpretation of Steiners work is also due to the different topic areas and the large extent (28 writings and approx. 5900 lectures) withinthe Anthroposophie not uniformly.

the history of the Anthroposophie

Rudolf Steiner took over important suggestions of his Viennese teacher Robert Carpenter, who had published already 1895 a Anthroposophie as system of ideal world view. In the first years 20. Centurydeveloped Steiner from it in Berlin as a free journalist in numerous lectures and essays the fundamentals of the today's world view. According to first still close connection with the Theosophie - he was a chairman of the German part of the Theosophi society - separatedSteiner 1912 of the organization and created the Anthroposophi society , without religious requirement, in Cologne in addition, in more express spacerdistance from the rational-scientific clearing-up.

In the same year into thorn oh with Basel (Switzerland) the first Goetheanum one built,as meeting area and center of the society. At the same time various activities within the social, cultural and social range began.1919 created for instance Emil Molt, general manager of the cigarette factory Waldorf Astoria, in Stuttgart for the children of its employees the first Rudolf Steiner School with anthroposophischer adjustment. 1921the Pharmafirma Weleda AG was created, which manufactures and drives anthroposophische and homöopathische medicaments out. 1922 created a group of theologian the Christian community, a movement for the renewal of the Christianity with anthroposophischer adjustment.

Opponents were formed simultaneous. In New Year's Eve 1922from wood established first Goetheanum up to its foundation walls burned down, probably by unknown quantities in fire set. Thereupon sketched Steiner a second, larger Goetheanum, which only 1928 was finished. 1923 reorganized itself the Anthroposophi society as a controlling body of independentNational companies in numerous European states; Rudolf Steiner became a chairman and in addition directors/conductors of the free university for Geisteswissenschaft. After Steiners death took over Albert Steffen this position.

the Anthroposophie in the national socialism

at the 1. November 1935 became AnthroposophiSociety because of their „relations with foreign Freimaurern, Jew and Pazifistenin the German Reich forbade. All Jewish members had already before delivered their offices in the society. A majority from them had withdrawn. After the prohibition strove someAnthroposophen around a readmission. These attempts failed 1939 finally, when Rudolf Hess arranged „equal treatment with former Freimaurern “. The eight Rudolf Steiner Schools were allowed to make no more first days at school to 1940. Two schools were forbidden (1938 Stuttgart and 1941 Dresden). The remaininghad to conclude from financial reasons. Three substantial were threatened, closed by the eight anthroposophischen welfare-educational homes of it two. Despite these repression measures there were also members, that arranged themselves with the system or cooperated even actively in the committees of the NSDAP.High appreciation found the biological-dynamic agriculture with some LV sizes, which is to due originalness however to of them „“and not to the mirror-image-ritual reason.

post-war period

after the war was again-created the movement; Emphasis of their activity remained Pädagogik, medicine and agriculture (see. Demeter - agriculture). Numerous Rudolf Steiner Schools and whale village kindergartens , which are based on Steiners Pädagogik, in enterprise are world-wide (as per. Self-manifestation: 877 schools in 57 countries), in addition appropriate courses of studies and courses in Waldorf Pädagogik. A bank with anthroposophischer objective became 1960in Bochum based (GLS community bank). 1969 developed the community hospital stove corner, at the time at that time a modern mechanism. Also the University of jokes/stove corner, of Germany only private university, was originally anthroposophisch coined/shaped. At present are according to statements of the Anthroposophi society world-wide over10,000 anthroposophische mechanisms in 103 countries actively.

anthroposophische realization practice

Steiners of realizations came of according to its data to a conscious to it since its childhood and from him methodically deepened mental übersinnlichen look (S. e.g. Akasha chronicle). In its more stronglyphilosophically coined/shaped early work developed it an epistemological Monismus, which is based substantially on an argument with Kant („criticism of the pure reason “) and the Neokantianismus. Steiner pleaded to ethical individualism for one “, that in max of Stirner and that Anarchy mash of Benjamin R. Tucker or John Henry Mackay relative finds. Further influences are Goethe, Hegel (Phänomenologie), spruce (German idealism), Nietz and Ernst Haeckel. Their teachings became however very selectively, individual from Steiner and/or. eklektizistischconsulted and laid out (S. esp.Truth and science and the philosophy of the liberty).

Starting from 1902 Steiner arose clearly like a Christian and esoterisch. The question, to what extent this is to be attributed to a transformation in its life (he speaks of a “arousing experience”),actual also under Anthroposophen - did not decide. Also like the turn philosophically Steiners complete work affected, could not be clarified so far at least yet finally. After Steiner are humans (and the entire, thus also the mentalWorld) in steady development (evolution). The goal of the anthroposophischen training course way can it be attained by Meditation, self-instruction and observation on a lifelong “search”, higher consciousness levels. This training course way is to be out-arranged individual and can by each humans be walked on.

Humans,for the Anthroposophie in the center stands, - in tying to the Theosophie - as a compound natureness one introduces. It exists according to Steiner in several interlinking levels, which are called also nature members: „Physical body “, „ether body “or „life body “, „branch ral body “and „I “. Participates important:With “body” is to be marked, what “shape” to a nature of any kind, “form” gives. One is not to confound the expression “body” with sinnlicher body form. (GA 9, S. 38/39)

  • The physical body

under the term „physicallyBody “seizes Steiner the visible mineral-physical body of humans, animal, plant and stone. This is exposed to the physical occurences of the earth, if he, as with humans, animal and plant still from others „bodies “did not pull through becomes. According to Steiner that disintegratesexclusive „physical body “with humans, obeying the chemical regularities, a process, which is characterized by the decay process with the death of humans, and with death begins a dissolution process „of the body structure “.

  • The ether body or life body

Steiner has in the course of its lifethe designation „ether body “never as satisfyingly felt. In different places also the terms emerge „life body “and „picture force body “. “Ether” calls here something else the hypothetical ether of physics. One takes the thing simply as designation…(GA 9,S. 38)

The ether body is arrested according to Steiner as übersinnlicher part very the physical one or outward one. It should be animating part of the physical-mineral body. Contrary to latter one, which finds its shape by outside forces, arrange the ether body from thatThe internal human nature out constantly the physical body again. With humans it is also carrier of intellectual capacities and habits.

  • The branch ral body

with the branch ral or feeling body reacts humans to the external world. This nature member is the feeling in humansas part of its soul, so Steiner in Theosophie. In the branch ral body humans experience his longings and passions.

  • Which is

I 'I 'the actual nature core of humans, who would have therefore to be regarded as eternal, if one Steiners remarksfollows:Because with its “I” is humans all alone. - And this “I” is humans. That entitled it to regard this “I” as its true natureness. It may call therefore its body and its soul the “coverings”;within whose it lives; and it may regard it as physical conditions, by which it works.(GA 9, S.49) which is not I to confound with „Alltags-Ich “, who presents itself to humans as its personality. The understanding “I” inthe Anthroposophie points it beyond this, resident the mental of humans.The sense features reveal themselves “I” of the one, the spirit from the other side. Body and soul give themselves “I”, in order to serve it; that“I” however gives myself the spirit that he fulfill it. “I” lives in body and soul; the spirit however lives in “I”. (GA 9, S. 50)

After Steiner are humans on a development way to „the Läuterung “thatdescribed bodies. Penetrating the own passions, habits etc. by “I” am among other things the present development way.Which I becomes ever more ruler over body and soul. (GA 9, S. 50)

Steiner describes seven members of terrestrial humans:

  1. The physicalBody
  2. the ether or life body
  3. the feeling soul body
  4. the understanding soul
  5. the spirit-filled consciousness soul
  6. the life spirit
  7. the spirit human being

by the death, with which the higher bodies separate from the physical body, separates first the ether body, later the branch ral bodyin a special operational sequence up, and which I enter mental realm, by affecting with the help of higher naturenesses the physical world and for the Wiedergeburt in a changed physical environment prepares. This becomes also ofthe individual fate and the concrete life organization of humans determines.

criticism at Steiners Anthroposophie

missing scientificness

from critical perspective concerns it with Steiners as synkretistisch understood world view a Pseudowissenschaft and/or. a kind of playthe Esoterik. Straight are characterised their central of terms by the fact that they are not scientifically examinable (i.e. not inter+subjectively, falsifizierbar, empirically examinably and generally accessible).

Secret science (Okkultismus) is one of Steiner themselves used designation, alsowhich it expresses that its teachings go beyond the bare „understanding thinking “. At H.Tying Blavatskys Secret Doctrine secret teachings, the secret science represents a core of its works from the early theosophischen phase (1902-10). Advanced pupils are capable of übersinnlichen perceptions. Thosesecret sciences so mentioned establish thinking buildings, which are comprehensible only for „inaugurating “.

Steiner took all knowledge over past and future to a kind cosmic memory for itself in requirement, in the Akasha chronicle in such a way specified (Blavatsky) „reads “to be able, in that be storedis. From this source Steiner detail communicated corrected Christian gospels, revealed secrets of Egyptian priests over Atlantis, or met prophecies, approximately over coming „the Christ into ethereal “in the thirties 20. Century. The Anthroposophie justified by itis based thus according to critics on the requirement to have entrance to irrefutable truths. These truths, so Steiner, would not contradict however the empirical science. They are rather inter+subjectively examinable.

However at these two proclamations, so the philosopher Sven Ove Hansson, could be falsifizieren Steiners statements. First of all anybody, which went on Steiners training course way, did not succeed until today to be read as these in the Akasha chronicle and secondly would leave itself alone on the basis Steiners statements about quantum physics and Easily it shows relativity theory that its mirror-image-ritual realizations led to other results, as the experiments of the modern science. These and similar considerations induced to deny the proclaimed scientificness - Steiner speaks of Geisteswissenschaft - to critic , the Anthroposophie.

Rassismusvorwürfe

In Steiners repeat statements about human races, thus völkische ideas, are to by far-seizing work (however often been based on unchecked Mitschriften of its lectures) how them also with Arthur Moeller van bridge occur, whom Steiner could do personally, or Oswald Spengler, whose book rezensierte several times „the fall of the evening country “it. The presence of human races in different Entwicklungsstufen is a fact, which resulted from its research.

From left-progressive circles therefore already early the reproach arose, SteinersTeachings are faschistoid (Ernst Bloch: Inheritance of this time. Frankfurt 1956). Later an explicit Rassismusvorwurf was raised, particularly from the surrounding field of left criticism. In Steiners work actually particularly isolate passages, those are before the background of the laterLV racial policy are problematic. Thus Steiner took up for instance the root race hypothesis of the Theosophie and was occupied, although predominantly reserved critically, with „Rassenmystikern “like Guido from cunning and Lanz from love rock, which he could do personally. A central acceptance in thatTheosophie is, the human races is stages of a development from low to ever higher stages. This idea building was taken up later by the Ariosophie, an ideologically coined/shaped thinking direction, those with speculative derivations a superiority by races of allegedly Germanic descent opposite allother peoples to prove and according to that „the arische hero race looked for “the highest stage to the perfection represents.

1997 - in the Council of Europe year against the racingism - became the use of these and similar conceptions on the part of the Anthroposophie Rudolf Steiners into the viewtaken. In the Netherlands a commission was educated by scientists, who the Anthroposophie is close, under line of an internationally active human right lawyer, which überpüfte entire 300 volumes the comprehensive Oeuvre with 89,000 pages systematically on appropriate statements. The commission cameto the result that of it 67 passages in the text have discriminating contents, 16 contained statements, which were punishable in the Netherlands today. The commission judges however altogether: „The anthroposophische people picture Rudolf Steiners stands on the basis of the equivalence of all human Individualitäten andnot on an alleged superiority of the race opposite another. “Would be a number of very problematic expressions in Steiners work, which were not konstitutiv however for the Anthroposophie. The commission knows the reproach of the Antisemitismus back. Itit explained that itself Steiner always against Antisemitismus assigned, although he underestimated its spreading substantial. Altogether divided opinions prevail over the consequence of the appropriate passages in the text: During some therein a convicition Steiners anti-Semitic others see, argue the proof nevertheless that alonethe quantitative listing (< 1 parts per thousand) show that the expressions could not have been central for Steiners work, besides have it in its work clearly against anti-Semitic convicitions expressed, how becomes clear at other passages in the text.

thoseProblem of the anthroposophischen Christology

the anthroposophische Christology contains gnostische elements, which became apart from the theory of Reinkarnation and Karma points of attack of the konfessionellen criticism. Steiner stresses „the scientificness “the Anthroposophie, the worth-free explanation about the different religions thatMankind history to give is:In relation to the religions it [the Geisteswissenschaft, note] can have simply only the task to lead to a deeper understanding of the religious truths. [...] It is so often misjudged that the Geisteswissenschaft in the reason on one completelyfor other soil stands than any religion-admit-eat (GA704, S. 196). On the other side Steiner speaks of „Christian science “, which shows the problem of its science term. Of it the Christian [the anthroposophischen science, note] consists that one looks for reconciliation [...] however without superstitious, withoutto be frömmelnd. (GA723, S.232) these religious components of its work are often criticized, so e.g. the eklektische linkage of Christianity and Reinkarnationslehre. Thus the release stands not at the end only one, but at the end of many lives in the Anthroposophie. It placesitself, if humans developed by many embodiments through to a nature, which takes its own place in the himmlischen hierarchies.

literature

to the Anthroposophie generally

  • Becker, briefly E.: Anthroposophie.Revolution from the inside, Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt, 1984
  • Ziegler, Renatus: Anthroposophie: Source texts to word history. In: Contributions to the Rudolf Steiner total expenditure, booklet No. 121, autumn 1999 (Hrsg.: Rudolf stone oh letting administration, thorn oh)
  • Heisterkamp, Jens: What is Anthroposophie? An invitation for the discovery of humans. Thorn oh: Verl. at the Goetheanum,2000.ISBN 3-7235-1089-2
  • Baumann Bay, Lydie and Andreas: Attention, Anthroposophie! : a critical Insider report. Zurich: Cross, 2000. ISBN 3-268-00255-2
  • bath vienna, January: The Anthroposophie Rudolf Steiners. Munich: Evangelist press federation for Bavaria, 1994. ISBN 3-583-50662-6
  • Barz, Heiner: Anthroposophie inMirror of science theory and environment research. Between alive Goethe anise mash and latent Militanz. Weinheim: German study publishing house, 1994. ISBN 3-89271-458-4
  • Lutterbeck, Ernst: Anthroposophie understand: an introduction after personal experiences. Paderborn: Möllmann, 1997. ISBN 3-931156-21-4

to special topics

  • binder, Andreas: Is the Anthroposophie how Christian? Locatings from the view of an Evangelist theologian. Stuttgart: Urachhaus publishing house 1989. ISBN 3-87838-611-7 (2. Aufl.)
  • Kriele, Martin: Anthroposophie and church. Experiences of a border crosser. Freiburg in mash gau; Basel; Vienna: Herder, 1996.ISBN 3-451-23967-1
  • Okruch, Stefan: Economics and Anthroposophie - representation and criticism of the concept Rudolf Steiners. Bayreuth: Publishing house PCO, 1993. ISBN 3-925710-50-7
  • Werner, Uwe: Anthroposophen in the time of the national socialism: 1933 - 1945. Munich: Oldenbourg, 1999.ISBN 3-486-56362-9
  • Ravagli, Lorenzo: Under hammer and swastika: the volume-gravel-CH-National Socialist fight against the Anthroposophie. Stuttgart: Publishing house free spirit life, 2004. ISBN 3-7725-1915-6
  • Bierl, Peter: Root races, ore gel and people spirit: the Anthroposophie Rudolf Steiners and the Waldorfpädagogik.Updated and extended New edition. Hamburg: Concrete literature publishing house, 2005. ISBN 3-89458-242-1

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