term antique one (of lat. antiquus, dt. old, anciently) the epoch of the antiquity in the Mediterranean area designates. It is enough for instance from 1200 v. Chr. (and/or. 800 v. Chr., see temporal demarcation) to approx. 600 n. Chr.and differs from preceding and following epochs by common and constant cultural traditions. Since the first century n. Chr. formed besides the Mediterranean area in the context of the Roman realm a political and cultural unit. Strictly speaking one designateswith the antique one the history of the archaischen and classical Greece, the brightism and the Roman realm (republic, Prinzipat and late ancient times).
In the broader sense the antique one refers also the history of the old-eastern Middle East advanced cultures of Egypt, Mesopotamiens, Syria, Persia and small Asia also, those for instance with the beginning of the writtenness around 3500 v. Chr. begins. This universalhistorical, beginning going beyond the classical antiquity science became among other things of the historian Eduard Meyer in 19. Centurydemanded. Again this was taken up lately for instance an expert for antique Persia, recognized by the German old historian Josef Wiesehöfer.
table of contents
historical designates antique ones in the sense of the classical antiquity science the time ofthe gradual development of the Greek state world up to the end of the westRoman realm in the year 476 and/or. up to the death of the eastRoman emperor Justinian I. 565. Lately also the year 632 becomes frequent - death Mohammeds and thosethe following Islamic expansion - as possible final date of the antique ones mentioned.
At the beginning of the antique culture in the classical sense becomes generally with the time of origin of the Homeri Epen and the beginning of the Greek Kolonisation of the Mediterranean area in 8. Century v. Chr.set. The Greeks spread its education and culture in the following centuries in the entire Mediterranean area and since Alexander the large one also in the Orient and to central Asia inside. The Romans brought the antique culture until to central and northwest Europe, where themsince the early Middle Ages to the Christian abendländischen culture changed itself.
Depending upon research direction however quite also the times of the minoischen and the mykenischen culture of approximately 1900 become - 1100 v. Chr. as well as the epoch of the dark centuries in such a way specified 1200- 750 v. Chr. to the Greek-Roman antique one counted.
As epoch borders to the Middle Ages the already following years were suggested:
- 325: Council of Nicäa
- 393: last olympic plays of the antique ones
- 498: Baptism of the Franconia king Chlodwig I.
- 529:Establishment of the first abendländischen Benediktinerklosters and locking of the Platonic academy after the death of the last antique philosopher Boëthius 524
- ,565: Death emperor Justinians I.
- 568: End of the people migration with the Langobardeneinfall in Italy.
Thereinto comes to the expression, howheavily it is to be found a clear cut between antiquity and the Middle Ages.
For the end of the antique ones see above all late ancient times.
origins of the antique culture
the origins of the European antique ones lie in the dark. Their prehistory is aboutin the time of approx.2000 - approx. 1600 v. Chr.to settle, in the Mittelhelladikum. At the beginning of this time period - partly already in the last section of the Frühhelladikums FH III approx. 2200-2000 v. Chr. - immigrated indoeuropäische trunks to Greece.Obviously under influence of the so-called minoischen culture on Crete, the first advanced culture of Europe, those their bloom approx. 1900-1450 v. Chr. , developed on the mainland from the culture of the Mittelhelladikums the mykenische culture had (approx. 1600-1050/00 v. Chr.).It has your starting point probably in the Argolis and appears sudden with rich pit graves (off approx. 1600 v. Chr.). Among other things the mykenische culture of the minoischen writing took over. On Crete (among other things) so-called used. Linear writing A),however so far to be not completely decoded could, since the texts in unknown quantities language are written, became the so-called.Linear writing B modifies. One meets the linear writing B among other things on numerous Tontäfelchen the palaces in Pylos, Theben, Mykene upthe Greek mainland and meanwhile the mykenisch controlled Knossos on Crete.
admits is the magnificent centers of the mykenischen culture. Important discovery sites are Mykene, Pylos and Tiryns on the peninsula Peloponnes, Orchomenos and Gla in Böotien (the latter no castle), Milet in west small Asia etc. The centers had called upper cities, castles, in 13. Jh. in many cases were strongly fastened. Hands dome graves, purify, partly richly painted ceramic(s), artful gold, silver and Faiencerarbeiten etc. witness from the wealthand of the specialization of the economic system, which was central steered. Intensive commercial contacts were maintained with the Near East, Assyrien and Egypt. Mykeni ceramic(s) was in far parts of the Mediterranean area likes; probably there were even Greek commercial establishments in South Italies. Approximately forthe period 1200 - 750 v. Chr. one sets traditionally the dark age , from which only little is delivered to us.
At the beginning of this phase many of the castles of the Greek mainland were destroyed, with which the basis of the palace culture went down. Thosemykenische tradition existed however still approx. 150 years further, before the transition to the so-called. Protogeometri period (approx. 1050-900 v. Chr.) took place. After the excessive quantity set approx.1050 v. Chr. those very disputed Ioni migration, in their process thoseInhabitants of the Greek mainland the islands of the Ägäis and small Asia colonized. On the Greek mainland a vague picture is offered: Few settlements were so far discovered and most to make one - in the comparison to the mykenischen time ärmlichen impression. Completelydifferently however Lefkandi on Euböa: there beside a settlement with a large building of the prince by Lefkandi graves were found, which were very richly equipped.
The dark age brightens itself in the last decades - owing to many new finds- ever more up. After acceptance of the Homerforschung different passages of the Ilias reflect conditions of this time. It was obviously importantly for the development of the Greek society, also to the Greek Polis. Starting from that 8. Jh. were the contactsto the front Orient again very intensively and commercial stations on Cyprus ( Kition) developed and in Syria (aluminium Mina). Probably already in late 9. Jh. v. Chr. one took over the alphabet from the Phöniziern.
Greece and the Hellenic world
of beginnings classical Greece
major item: Antique Greece
with the archaischen age in such a way specified began in early 8. Century v. Chr. the actual antique one. Since the year 776 v. Chr.is thoseWinner list of the olympic plays delivers. From approximately 770 to 540 v. Chr. if the Greeks spread during the large Kolonisation in the western Mediterranean (above all Sicily and Unteritalien, see also Magna Graecia), to the northern Ägäis and to Black sea out. In small Asia Greeks resided already before. In this time (for instance between 750 and 650 v. Chr.) also the Homeri Epen (Ilias and odyssey) was in writing fixed, the oldest literature monuments of the evening country; also Hesiod worked at this time (700 v. Chr.).
See also: Greek literature
emergence of the Polis
developed the system of the Greek city states, that at the same time pole ice, whereby the majority only from a very small populationexisted. The becoming military state Sparta in the south of the Peloponnes subjected between 720-600 v. Chr. Messenien and controlled thereby the entire southwest part of the peninsula. The city with its oligarchischen condition can as the first example of the Polis controlling from now on- Apply for structure.
Also in many other Greek city states conditions regulated a living together of the citizens, in addition, the Tyrannis, like them around 650 v. Chr. for example in Korinth and Megara , was no rarity existed. In Athens formed step forA democratic system walked out. After the legislation Drakons (621 v. Chr.) and Solons (594/593 v. Chr.) it succeeded to Peisistratos and its sons for instance between 561 and 510 v. Chr.again, oneTo establish Tyrannis. To 501 v. Chr. the reforms of the Kleisthenes of Athens brought however the final break-through for the attische democracy.
bloom time of Athens
with Athens support of the smallasiatic Greek cities in the Ioni rebellion around 500 v.Chr. an approximately two-hundred-year conflict began with the Perserreich, first in shape of the Perserkriege, over which us „the father of the history “, which historian Herodot, times, informs more less reliably times. As the Perser to a punitive expedition in, Became they occurred to Greece 490 v. Chr. from the Athenern in the battle with Marathon defeats. Ten years later the Persian large king was subject to Xerxes I. the athenischen fleet under Themistokles in the sea-battle of salamis and 479 v. Chr.thatcombined armies the Greek pole ice in the battle of Plataiai. Persia was for the time being back-pushed, while the Greek pole ice in small Asia were released.
with the establishment of the Atti sea-federation 477 v. Chr.under the supremacy of Athens setthe bloom time of the city, those up to the end of the reign of the Perikles in the year 429 v. Chr. was enough. At that time some the most important philosophical, literary and architectural works the Greek antique one, for instance the tragedies of Aischylos , Sophokles developed and Euripides or the Parthenontempel on the Akropolis. Also the philosopher Sokrates, the teacher Platons, worked at that time in Athens.
fight for the hegemony
the increasing rivalry between the sea power Athens and land power Sparta flowed 431 v. Chr. into that nearly 30 years lasting Peloponnesi war, which the historian Thukydides urgently described. The very changeful running conflict ended, also due to the support Spartas by the Perserreich, to 404 v. Chr.with the complete defeat of Athensand the establishment of a temporary spartanischen hegemony over Greece.
In the first half 4. Century v. Chr.the Greek cities led a nearly permanent war of all against all - in changing coalitions and under continual interference of the Perserkönige, howthe longing after a general peace also for propagandistic purposes was used (see the king peace of 386 v. Chr.). Theben solved Sparta 371 v. Chr. after the battle of Leuktra as Hegemon off, but also Thebens supremacy was onlyof short duration; the Peloponnesi war had thus destabilized, as afterwards was it shown, that power equilibrium lastingly.
On Sicilies meanwhile the powerful Syrakus maintained ground in relation to the commercial republic Karthago, which with the Greek pole ice (west Greek) since thatearly 5. Century v. Chr. in the conflict lay. Sicilies held itself besides, contrary to the motherland, in many cities the Tyrannis as system of government (see Dionysios I. of Syrakus, Agathokles of Syrakus and others).
The continuous struggle for power in the GreekMotherland made only the agreement by force of Greece by Philipp II. of Macedonia an end. The king regarded of Athenern such as Demosthenes as a non-Greek barbarian achieved 338 v. with his shining trained army in the battle of Chaironeia. Chr.the hegemonyover Hellas, which was affirmed in the year after in the Korinthi federation.
the brightistic time (336 to 30 v. Chr.)
major items: Brightism
after the murder Philipps 336 v. Chr. its son Alexander that ledA large Greek-Macedonian army to Asia and conquered the entire Perserreich in few years. The Alexanderzug cleared for the Greek culture generally speaking at that time admitted of Orient the way, from Egypt over Mesopotamien and Persia to the borders of India. AfterAlexanders death 323 v. Chr. in Babylon divided its successors, the diadochi, in wars the realm under itself, lasting for a long time. In all partial realms - of ptolemäischen Egypt in the west up to the Seleukidenreich in the east - the brightism formedin the following centuries the coining/shaping culture.
The age of the brightism was coined/shaped by a nearly persisting fight of the three great powers (Ptolemäer, Seleukiden and Antigoniden) around the supremacy. Rome intervened at the beginning 2. Century v. Chr. in Greece. 146 v. Chr. subordinated the Roman realm the members of the supporting Achaii federation of the province Macedonia; Korinth as prominent Polis was destroyed. However many pole ice remained at least formally for the time being independently such as Athens and Sparta. Soon thereafter followedthe acquisition Pergamons and 64/63 v. Chr. the removal of the remnants of the Seleukidenreiches. As a last succession state of the Alexanderreichs 30 v. became in the year. Chr. ptolemäische Egypt, its last Herrscherin Kleopatra VII.was integrated, in the Roman realm. Thusthe brightistic state world was extinguished as power-politics factor. The Greek culture however lived with unreduced Kraft in the Roman realm away and coined/shaped it beyond that up to its fall in the west 476 and into the time of the Byzantine realm.
major item: Roman realm
after the Greeks the Romans became the second carriers and mediators of the antique culture. The further they penetrated as conquerers into the countries of the Levante, they left themselves the strongeraffect of their culture. Literature, philosophy, art, architecture and everyday culture of the Greeks were then spread by the Romans also in the western Mediterranean area - and far beyond that up to the Rhine and to the British islands.
origins of Rome
Rome, the legend after 753 v. Chr. based, developed according to for newer research only toward end 7. Century v. Chr. from the union of several village settlements at a ford at the underflow of the Tibers. Politically and culturally Rome stoodbe enough under etruskischem influence. The Etrusker again maintained already early contact with Greek Kolonisten.
the Roman republic (approx. 500 to 27 v. Chr.)
major items: Roman Republic of
Around 500 v. Chr.freed themselves thoseRomans of the etruskischen Stadtkönigtum and probably formed around 475 v. Chr. a republican system of government out. In the twelve-board laws, around 450 the v. Chr. developed, first were held civilian, punish and process-legal standards of the Roman right. The condition sawfrom then on cooperating the three institutions senate, Magistratur and popular assembly forwards, whom were limited their power theoretically mutually. The official designation of the republic read S.P.Q.R. for Senatus Populusque Romanus (dt.: Senate and people of Rome). Actuallydominated however the senate, who itself from member of the noble families, who built Patrizier up. From it also the consuls followed , two on one year selected highest municipal authorities of the republic. The highest not-noble Plebejern accessible office was thatpeople grandstands, which possessed a right of veto against senatorial decrees.
up to the year 272 v. Chr. the Romans subjected completely to Italy south the Poebene. In the Puni wars against the sea power Karthago in the 3. and 2. Century v. Chr.the ascent of Rome began to the antique superpower, that controlled the entire Mediterranean world for centuries. After 200 v. Chr. Rome interfered also into the policy of the brightistic great powers and became protectorate power in the eastern Mediterranean area. 148 v. Chr.became Macedonia of the Antigoniden, 63 v. Chr. the realm of the Seleukiden, and finally 30 v. Chr. the Egypt of the Ptolemäer Roman province.
At the same time it came however on the inside to a whole row of crises, in thosethe fight of the Optimaten holding to the traditional socio-economic structures against the popular ones pushing on reforms was reflected. In the epoch of the civil wars the crisis of the late Roman republic reached its high point and it appeared that the republicas such had survived itself: Thus the Prinzipat became possible, thus the transformation of the republic into a monarchy with republican front. Gaius Julius Caesar had already attained a quasi monarchische position as a dictator on lifetime (dictator perpetuus). FirstRoman emperor applies however its large nephew and inheritance Augustus, to which it succeeded to set with the Prinzipat a durable monarchische state order to the place of the wrecked republic.
the Prinzipat (27 v. Chr. to 284 n. Chr.)
the Empire of ( Prinzipat ), established by Augustus, were led still surely by it and its successor Tiberius. Under Caligula, Claudius and Nero however first decay features arose.After one crisis year (four-emperor year) the Flavier ( Vespasian, Titus , Domitian ) began the government, which quite successfully prevailed both to outside and altogether relating to domestic affairs. After the murder Domitians, which fell a conspiracy to the victim, followedhowever a further crisis of the rule system, which could be repaired however among the foster emperors in such a way specified to a large extent.
The Imperium experienced its largest bloom and expansion also among evenly these foster emperors in the first half 2. Century (expansion under Trajan, cancelling and safety device of the borders under Hadrian). Soon after the center 2. Century n.Chr. however the pressure increased to the realm borders ever more strongly. In the north and northeast the Teutons pressed part ago, in the east (despite some defeat to maintain ground could) and later the Sassaniden the realm. With the death of Marks of Aurel, the philosopher emperor in the spirit of the Stoa, that itself against its inclinations soon after assumption of the rule functions almost constantly too, ended in the year 180 forced one age, which many had understood as a golden, saw to martial defense of the realm borders - which can apply however probably only with reductions.
After the weak Commodus, which was murdered 192, the emperors stabilizedfrom the house of the Severer, whereby Septimius Severus is to be particularly emphasized, the borders at least partly. To the murder of the Severus Alexander 235 it came however among the soldier emperors in such a way specified to the realm crisis of the 3. Century, which was coined/shapedof rapid changes of government, centrifugal tendencies on the inside (splitting off of the Imperium Galliarum; Loss of several provinces at Palmyra) and the constantly growing pressure on the borders. Beside different Teuton trunks (like the Alamannen and Goten), above all that practiced Sassanidenreich in the east an enormous pressure out. After the fall of the last part ago king in the year 224, the Sassaniden renewed the Perserreich following the realm of the Achämeniden. Large king Schapur I.defeated several times a Roman army and tookEmperor Valerian even imprisoned - a unique procedure in Roman history. Also the successors Schapurs should show themselves to the Romans as usually grown opponents.
late ancient times (284 to 565/632 n. Chr.)
major items: Late ancient times
itsucceeded toward end of the 3. Century with the introduction of the Tetrarchie by emperors Diokletian again a stabilization of the realm. This time of late ancient times beginning is characterized by pagings. The acknowledgment and granting privilege of the Christianity among emperors Konstantin I.(whichbefore pursued) represented already a substantial break with the antique culture was partly bloody, in particular from antique philosophy and the Religionspluralismus.
A last attempt to also animate the heidnischen cults by the connection again-Platonic ideas again failedwith death emperor Julians in the year 363; all following emperors were Christians.
Valentinian I. stabilized the west of the realm, but came it in the course of the people migration 378 to the battle of Adrianopel and to a new crisis period. Emperor Theodosius I. again and was at the same time the last emperor, who should prevail over the entire Imperium Romanum, could stabilize the east of the realm; he explained the Christianity finally as the state religion. However still leave themselves to at least in 6. Centuryprove inside heaths on the soil of the Imperiums.
After the division of the realm among the sons of the emperor Theodosius 395 provedin the long run only of Konstantinopel (Byzanz) from governed, predominantly griechischsprachige eastRoman realm in the long term as lebensfähig (latin remained here however still to in 7. Century office language). The westRoman realm in such a way specified had the attack of the Hunnen and Teutons alwaysto oppose less. It came to a slow dissolution of the westRoman army, while the Teutons took and to the place of the Roman authorities stepped direct possession of several west provinces. The change processes in the course of the people migration do not seem thereby by farto have been so simple, as one believed for a long time, and is today again the subject of scientific discussion.410 Rome was geplündert by the Westgoten , 455 of the Vandalen. In the year 476 the Teuton prince Odoaker , set a Skire, thatlast west emperor Romulus Augustulus off (although the last recognized west emperor Julius Nepos lived still to 480) and took shelter to the nominal upper rule of the eastRoman emperor.
The traditional historiography often saw in this at that time only little considered act the end to thatAntique one; today one got off this aspect. Rather that becomes 6. Century today usually with good reason still ranked among the antique one. The eastRoman emperor Justinian I. (527-565) again with good reason considerable success a re-establishment of the total realm tried, thosein the long run however did not succeed - particularly at the east border the Sassaniden the realm under pressure continued to set (see also Herakleios). In the eastRoman realm antique culture and world of thought lived however still until far in the Middle Ages away, however here those formed Arab expansion 7. Century a clear cut, which separated late ancient times the earlyByzantine realm from the Byzanz of the Middle Ages.
meaning and having a lasting effect of the antique
meaning of the antique ones for the further process of world history cannot at all highlyenough to be estimated. In this epoch the roots for the development of the western world lie. Ioni nature philosophy, attische democracy, Roman right and religious Pluralismus were inheritances, to the modern reconnaissance aircraft, state State of, scientist, human right advocate etc. to tie could.
To received todayCertifications of the antique ones are - beside delivered texts of philosophical, literary or historical nature - numerous objects of the Greek and Roman art: from large sculptures to the small art, pottery etc. Important antique collections are in Rome, Athens, Neapel, Paris, London, Munich, pc. Petersburg, Vienna and Berlin. For the knowledge of the antique everyday life above all archaeological excavations are like in Pompeji, Olympia, Delphi or Pergamon of importance.
It must be noted however that the antique one the Middle Agescompletely and it was also never disappeared, beside the Byzantinern and Arabs, among other things the activity of the monks and the Karolingi Renaissance to owe was that still more was not lost. In the newer research it is also stressed that quitecertain continuity lines between the antique one and the Middle Ages exist.
Since that 18. Century stepped the classical Greek art due to the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann increasingly into the center of the interest. In 19. One spoke century in connection with the workof architects and artists such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Leo of Klenze and Bertel Thorwaldsen of one Renaissance of the Greek antique ones, today of the new human.
Above all however the Wiedergeburt of the antique spirit in the Renaissance of century-long dominance setreligious thinking an end and flowed finally into the age of the European clearing-up and into the modern trend. Nearly all ideas of the modern clearing-up have antique forerunners. Without Greek science and philosophy, without that Roman right, without architecture and art of Greeks and Romans the modern western culture and civilization are not conceivable.
the source situation
the majority of the antique literature (and concomitantly the historiography) is not received,so that our knowledge about the antique one is affected by the excessive quantity situation. It became estimated that hardly 10% of the Greek literature are delivered to us (see Hermann Strasburger:Umblick in the rubble field of the Greek historiography, in: Historiographia antiqua, anniversary publication for Willy Peremans,Leuven 1977, S. 3–52). In parts it sees particularly hopelessly out (brightism), better within other ranges somewhat (classical time of Greece as well as late ancient times). Altogether the source situation is however problematic. Beside the telling sources naturally also inscriptions and speeches must as well asarchaeological and numismatische sources etc. are consulted. The appropriate articles (historiography) in the appropriate encyclopedias offer a summary with detailed data (see below).
in the following are mentioned some the most important (received) antique authors.
- Herodot: Histories.
- Thukydides: The Peloponnesi war.
- Xenophon: Hellenika.
- Xenophon: The course that ten thousand.
- Arrian: Alexanders large course by Asia.
- Pausanias: Description of Greece.
- Plutarch: Large Greeks and Romans.
- Polybios: Histories.
- Livius: Roman history.
- Diodor: Library.
- Sallust: The conspiracy of the Catilina.
- Sallust: The war against Jugurtha.
- Caesar: The Galli war.
- Caesar: The civil war.
- Tacitus: Annals.
- Tacitus: Germania
- Flavius Josephus: The Jewish war.
- Sueton: Life thatCaesaren.
- Ammianus Marcellinus: Res Gestae.
- Zosimos: New history.
- Anonym: Historia Augusta.
- Prokopios of Caesarea: Wars, buildings and secret history.
See also the source collection in the Perseus Project.
- to portal antiquity
- list antique places
- Philosophy of the antique
- systems of government of the antique
- dark centuries
- antique Greece
- brightism and diadochus
- Roman realm
- Roman Republic of
- Roman Kaiser era
- westRoman realm
- Byzantine realm
- late ancient times
- fall of the Roman realm
- latin Wikipedia
expenditures for source
an extremely important collection represents Jacoby :
- Felix Jacoby: The fragments of the Greek historians (FGrHist). Feasting man, Berlin 1923 FF. (Nachdr. Brill, suffering 1995ff., ISBN 90-04-01102-1; CD-ROM ISBN 90-04-14137-5) Provisional register.
general: The central bibliographic reference book of the antiquity science represents still L to' Année Philologique (L' Année Philologique. Bibliography critique et analytique de l' Antiquité greco latine, hrsg. of J. Marouzeau and J. Ernst, Paris1923ff.). Detailed data are to be inferred either from the bibliographies of the works specified down (is referred particularly thereby to The Cambridge Ancient History and Oldenbourg sketch of history) or the bibliographies, which are specified in the HU-Linkliste (see for example bibliography of theHist. Seminar of the university meals or the KU calibrate-corrode (commentated)). To the Ankürzungen usual in the old person history see. beside the encyclopedias also Aristarchos.
- Paulys Realencyclopädie of the classischen antiquity science (RH), hrsg. of G. Wissowaamong other things, in 2 rows, Stuttgart 1894-1980, ISBN 3-476-01193-3. (Pauly Wissowa)
(Neudr. starting from 1997ff. ; despite the age in its whole outdated basic work.)
- the small Pauly. Encyclopedia of the antique ones, hrsg. of K. Ziegler, W. Sontheimer, 5 Bde.,Pressure Mueller (kind bad), Stuttgart, Munich 1964-1975, ISBN 3-423-05963-X.
(Reproduction dtv, Munich 2002; hervoragendes encyclopedia on basis of the RH, however with shortened and again-written articles.)
- the new Pauly. Encyclopedia of the antique ones, hrsg. of H. Cancik, H. Cutter, Metzler, Weimarand Stuttgart 1996 FF., ISBN 3-476-014XX-X.
(26 Bde., varying quality of the contributions.)
- encyclopedia of the old persons world (LAW), hrsg. of C. Andresen among other things, Albatros, Duesseldorf 2001 (lp), ISBN 3-491-96036-3.
- Material encyclopedia of the Germanic antiquity customer (RGA) justifies from Johannes Hoops, 2.completely again treatment. and strongly erw. Aufl., hrsg. from Heinrich Beck, harsh ore January-boldly, Hans's bold, short climb, pure hard Wenskus. de Gruyter, Berlin - New York 1973 FF.
(So far 49 Bd. ersch., revision of the important encyclopedia of Hoops.)
- The Oxford ClassicalDictionary (OCD), hrsg. of S. Hornblower, A. Spawforth. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford 1996 (3. Aufl.).
(Best einbändiges encyclopedia over the antique one with partly outstanding articles.) ISBN 0198606419
- material encyclopedia for antique ones and Christianity (RAC), hrsg. of Th. Klauser among other things, Stuttgart 1950FF.
(So far 21 Bde. appeared, special attention applies for late ancient times.) ISBN
- Rosemarie Günther: Introduction to the study of the old persons history. Paderborn 2001.
- Hartmut Leppin: Introduction to the old person history. Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-53527-5.
- The Cambridge Ancient History. Div. Hrsg., 14. Bde. (partly in volumes) Cambridge 1970ff. (2.Aufl.)
(comprehensive and very important overall display of the antique one. The second Aufl. .) history
- of the antique ones was completely revised. A study book. Hrsg. of H. - J. Gehrke and H. Cutter. Metzler, Stuttgart 2000.ISBN 3-476-01455-X
- History compactly antique one. Scientific book company (in Vorber., good introductions with a partly protruding, into the representation integrated research overview (e.g. R. Schulz, Athens and Sparta, Darmstadt 2003).
- Blackwell Companions ton the Ancient World. Different Hgg., Blackwell Publishing, Oxford 2003ff.
(So far 8 Bde. appeared and/or. in preparation; offer altogether a good entrance on basis the current research situation.)
- Wolfgang Schuller: First Europe, 1000v. Chr. - 500 n. Chr. (Manual of the history of Europe, volume 1). Ullmer, Stuttgart 2004. ISBN 3-8001-2791-1
(very much knappe representation of event history, for which a good structural and research-historical representation is ordered.)
- Oldenbourg sketch of history. Hrsg. of yokes Bleicken and others,Bd. 1-4, Munich 1980 FF. (versch. Editions)
(three-division of each volume: 1) very much knappe representation, 2) research overview and 3) comprehensive bibliography. Irreplaceably for the entrance into the scientific work!)
- Oldenbourg history text book: Antique one. Hrsg. of hitting a corner hard Wirbelauer. Oldenbourg, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-486-56663-6
(comprehensive and at the same time original, funny entrance into the antique history, which covers all important topics; event history is treated however only very much, very scarcely.)
- Routledge History OF the Ancient World (Routledge publishing house, London/New York):
- Amélie Kuhrt: The ancientNear East, 2 Bde., 1995.
- Robin Osborne: Greece into the making 1200-479 B. C., 1996.
- Simon Hornblower: The Greek world 479-323 B. C., 3. Aufl., 2002.
(Outstanding overall display of the classical time.)
- Graham Shipley: The Greek world afterAlexander 323-30 B. C., 2000.
(With the best overall display of the brightism.)
- Timothy J. Cornell: The beginnings OF Rome. Italy and Rome from the bronze Age ton the Punic Wars (C. 1000-264 B. C), 1995.
- Martin Goodman: The novelworld 44 B. C. - A. D. 180., 1997.
- David S. Potter: The novel empire RK Bay, AD 180-395, 2004, ISBN 0-415-10058-5.
(Outstanding representation, the also soziokulturelle aspects with includes.)
- Averil Cameron: The Mediterranean world in Late Antiquity A.D. 395-600, 1993.
(A whole distinguished English introduction to late ancient times.)
(partially become outdated)
- Edward Gibbon: Purge and fall of the Roman Imperiums. 6 Bde. dtv, Munich 2003.
(For the first time completely andunabridged up to the end of west Rome, the history of Byzanz still.) ISBN 3-423-96406-5 Karl Julius
- Beloch is left blank: Greek history. 4 Bde. (into 8 volumes). Strasbourg 1893ff. (2. over work. Aufl. 1912ff.).
(Important one, but not always undisputed representation.)
- JohannGustav Droysen: History of the brightism. Perthes, Gotha 1877.
- Theodor Mommsen: Roman history. Feasting man, Berlin 1902. (Nachdr. dtv, Munich 2001) ISBN 3-423-59055-6
- George Wissowa: Religion and Kultus of the Romans. Beck, Munich 1902 (2. Aufl. 1912, Nachdr. 1971) (=Manual of the antiquity science V.4) ISBN 3-406-03406-3
- Eduard Meyer: Caesars monarchy and the Prinzipat of the Pompejus. Internal history of Rome from 66 to 44 v. Chr. Cotta, Stuttgart Berlin 1918 (3. Aufl. 1922, Nachdr. Phaidon, meal 1984). ISBN 3-88851-051-1
- Helmut Berve: Sparta. Bibliographic Institut, Leipzig 1937.
(Colored politically strong)
- Matthias Gelzer: Julius Caesar. The politician and statesman. Callwey, Munich 1941. (3. Aufl., Nachdr. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1983, ISBN 3-515-03907-4)
(older date, but still very useful, are thoseAnd Eduard Meyer bus-oils representations to the Greek history of Karl Julius Beloch, George.)
- Hermann Bengtson: Greek history. From the beginnings into the Roman Kaiser era. Manual of the antiquity science III. 4, Reprint of the 5. examinedand suppl. Edition of 1977. Munich 1996.ISBN 3-406-06660-7
(as expenditure without scientific apparatus: Greek history, 9. Edition, Munich 2002. ISBN 3-406-02503-X; ) Detlef Lotze contentwise however
- partly becomes outdated: Greek history. From the beginnings to the brightism.Munich 2000.
(See also further volumes from this series of Ernst Baltrusch, Klaus bringing man, hard vienna Brandt, Peter Funke, Mischa Meier, Karl William Welwei etc. However: only for the first overview suitably.)
- Oswyn Murray: The earlyGreece. Munich 1982 and reproduction.
(Excellent representation of the Greek early period up to the Perserkriegen.)
- John K. Davies: The classical Greece and the democracy. Munich 1982.
- Christian Meier: Athens. A new beginning of world history. Berlin 1993.
(Great ones Overall display of Athens in 5. Century, but without footnotes, for it well written.)
- franc W. Whale bank: The brightistic world. Munich 1983.
- Ernst Kornemann: World history of the Mediterranean area. Of Philipp II. from Macedonia to Muhammed. 2. Aufl., Munich 1967.
- Hermann Bengtson: Sketch of Roman history with source customer. Republic and Kaiser era to 284 n. Chr. Manual of the antiquity science III. 5. Munich 1982. ISBN 3-406-08617-9
- Klaus bringing man: History of the Roman republic. Munich 2002.
- Karl Christian: History of the RomanKaiser era. 4. aktual. Aufl., Munich 2002.
(Best German representation of the Kaiser era to Konstantin the large one.)
- Alexander Demandt: Late ancient times. Manual of the antiquity science III. 6, Munich 1989.
(As contentwise shortened expenditure without scientific apparatus: History of late ancient times,Munich 1998.ISBN 3-406-44107-6)
- Arnold Hugh Martin Jones: The Later novel Empire 284-602. A Social, Economic and administrative Survey. 3 Bde. Oxford 1964 (lp in 2 Bde. Baltimore 1986).
(Representation that wrote most comprehensive modern, of an author Late ancient times, however by the fact density partly with difficulty readably and in the meantime partly overhaul.)
- culture history of the antique world. Different authors, Bd. 1ff., Mainz 1977ff.
- Yokes Bleicken: Condition and social history of the Roman Empire of, 2Bde., Paderborn, Munich, Vienna, Zurich 1981
- Ders.: The athenische democracy, 4. Aufl., Stuttgart 1995.
- Donald Kagan: The Peloponnesian was, London 2003.
(See also Kagans four-restrain representation of the Pelop. War; here an intelligent and recapitulatory representation for a broaderPublic.)
- Michael steel: Society and state with the Greeks. 2 Bde. Schöningh, Paderborn 2003.
(Very good overview work.)
- Karl William Welwei: Classical Athens. Democracy and power politics in 5. and 4. Century, Darmstadt 1999.
(Representation of the policy of Athens detailedand its ascent to the hegemonial power.)
- Karl William Welwei: Sparta. Ascent and fall of an antique great power, Stuttgart 2004.
(Well-being the best German-language representation of history Spartas.)
- Karl William Welwei: The Greek Polis. Condition and society in archaischer and classical time, 2. Aufl.,Stuttgart 1998.
- Josef Wiesehöfer: Antique Persia. Of 550 v. Chr. to 650 n. Chr., 3. Edition, kind-badly and Winkler, Duesseldorf/Zurich 2002.
(Property overview work concerning antique Persia; there also further references.)
Web on the left of
|Wiktionary: Antique one- Word origin, synonyms and translations|
- very extensive link list of the HU Berlin.
- KIRKE - Link portal antique one (dt.)
- Perseus Project - source collection to the antique one (English)
- Navicula Bacchi - gathering of material old person languages and antique history
- Livius.org (English) - with partly very recommendable articles
- Antiquitas - introduction to the old person history
- link list of Hartmut Leppin
- GANPH - society for antique philosophy registered association.
- Greek mythology and history
- materials to the old person history (University of Kiel).