Antonin Artaud

Antonin Artaud (born 4. September 1896 in Marseille; died 4. March 1948 in Paris) was a French actor, dramatist, a director, a draughtsman, a poet and a theatre theoretician.

Haven-guesses/advises Antonin Artaud of one Ray around 1926 as approx. 30-Jähriger

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it comes in a good-civil parents' house into Marseille to the world. It brought it in the work intoxication on one Co-operation in 22 films (among other things Fritz along Liliom 1934), were author of 26 books. It lived among other things of its activity in the Alfred Jarry theatre in Paris.

Artaud is regarded generally as a joint founder of the performance - art. It was member of the movement of the Surrealismus, with which it broke because of the new revolutionary adjustment 1926. Of1926 to 1935 he dedicated himself to the realization of his theatre idea, among other things Establishment of the Alfred Jarry theatre with Roger Vitrac and Robert Aron 1926. 1935 establishment of its theatre of cruelty: Artaud produced Les Cenci of Henri Stendhal.

1936 it undertook a journey to Mexico,where it some months with the Tarahumara - Indians lives. On its next journey to the celtic Druiden to Ireland believes he, the stick of pc. Patrick to have attained. After the return trip to France in the faith in the imminent Apokalypse he became starting from 1937 patientin closed psychiatric hospitals because of danger for the public order and security. Schizophrenia was diagnosed. It came to treatments for many years with electrical shock, lithium, insulin, mercury - and bismuth preparations. 1946 it became by the assistance of friends (financial Sicherstellung) from the institute Rodez dismisses. Artaud compiles the piece of “Pour EN for the radio finir avec le jugement de dieu” out; and it holds by the Sorbonne a lecture against the psychiatry.

Artaud took drugs because of chronic pain over decades such as Laudanum, Opium, heroin and Peyote (until 1930 were heroin not yet as drug forbidden, Artaud put among other things with René Crevel public protests against the prohibition).

To 4. March 1948 it was dead found, in sitting attitude in bed with a shoe in the hand.

theatresthe lack and the crisis

Artaud an idea of a theatre of the lack and the crisis publicised, the theatre of cruelty. In this shaping should not form text, language and movement on the stage suggestive unit more. Rather Artaud wanted the central role of theText in the theatre it reduces and ensures that the performance, thus, moved pageant of the production into the foreground. A production meant a readable text always closed in itself already for Artaud, so that the words actually got a smaller value.

Artaud placed itsTheatre of cruelty under three premises:

1. The absent-minded text - the occurrence of text on the stage does not follow logical connections, how it is otherwise in traditional western production practice the case. This fragmenting of text provided a rebellion for Artaud against those Civilization and culture .

2. The disfigured body - here Artaud found much inspiration in the traditional balinesischen theatre. The arbitrary action of indications like a certain gesturing or Mimik, costume or only the occurrence of a body was important actually for its theatre theory. Aggressions andDesires should be represented by such physical indications. The physicalness of the breath was important for Artaud; the breath was for it something from representing and spectators dividing and thus a connection between stage and public.

3. The suppressed voice - the blockade of the voice, thatArticulation and the belonging becoming played an important role with Artaud. For it the own suppression became visible by mute cry, and in certain way straight by the silence also audibly. It concerned to it less words than around noises, which affect the spectator painfullyshould.

saw the theatre and its

double Artaud as double of the theatre the plague, the Metaphysik and cruelty. A performance should for it no Mimesis, thus imitation of the reality, its, but was reality for itself. The theatre is thus no double of the reality, but the reality, which was always cruel for Artaud, doubles the reality of the theatre. - The results desired of the Artaud' schen theatre utopia can thus be abstracted to the statement that borders within the theatralen area on different levels their, existing so farMeaning lose and/or. decidedly to be dissolved: It falls the border between stage and public area, aesthetic value and Unwert of the produced happening, between Signifikat and significant. In order not to face the “uncertainty of the times” delivered, Artaud postulates a concept, that the picture of a “unreality”, asmythischer reason is understood, which is suitable the mass, such it produces that it occupies the everyday life reality from the position of the requirement for reality displaced and even this place. The fact that the processing to it “would fear-fulfill katastrophischen period” appears only possible, by turning away from this, around internal forcesto mobilize to be able, it appears to the mass company finally against it paradoxically - like also the fact that the straight draft of a theatre of “cruelty” owes itself an immanently moral drive.

The idea of a “non-representative” theatre, a theatre that articulated by Artaud for the first time in their full sharpnessdirectly converted energies of the Seins, has on many artists and theoretician inside 20. Century large influence exercised: among other things on Jerzy Grotowski, Tadeusz Kantor, Werner Schwab and Sarah Kane, on the performance - and action art, in addition, on philosophers how Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari.


  • early writings. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich 1983.
  • Van Gogh, the suicide by the society. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich.
  • Letters from Rodez. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich.
  • The latterWritings to the theatre. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich.
  • The theatre and its double. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich. TB ISBN 3-596-26451-0
  • Mexico. The Tarahumara. Revolutionary messages. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Berlin.
  • Surrealisti texts. Matthes & Seitz publishing house, Munich 1985. ISBN 3-88221-227-6


  • Karl Alfred Blüher: Antonin Artaud and the “Nouveau Théâtre” in France, fool, Tübingen 1991, ISBN 3-87808-958-9
  • Michel Camus: Antonin Artaud. Une autre langue you corps, opal, Bordeaux 1996, ISBN 2-910627-05-5
  • Raymond Chirat: Scene Paris, PhilippeGarrel, dossier “Antonin Artaud and the cinema”, Centre d'information cinématographie de l'institute française de Munich, Munich 1985
  • Andreas Franzke (Hrsg.): Artaud, a produced life. Films, designs, documents, museum art palace, Duesseldorf 2005 (exhibition catalog)
  • Bernd of matte hay: Antonin Artaud (1896-1948). Life and work of theActor, poet and director; to the exhibition in the museum of modern art, donation Ludwig, Vienna, (batteries; Bd. 3), Matthes & Seitz, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-88221-202-0
  • Bernd of matte hay, Cathrin Pichler (Hrsg.): Over Antonin Artaud. To the exhibition in the museum of modern art donation Ludwig, Vienna, Matthes & Seitz,Munich 2002, ISBN 3-88221-834-7
  • Ulli Seegers: Alchemie of seeing. hermetic art in 20. Century; Antonin Artaud, Yves small, Sigmar Polke, (art-scientific library; Bd. 21), king, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-88375-701-2 (Zugl. Thesis University of Stuttgart 2002)
  • Paule Thévenin, Jacques Derrida: Antonin Artaud. Designsand Portraits, Schirmer & Mosel, Munich 1986, ISBN 3-88814-158-3

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| | * Literature of and over Antonin Artaud in the catalog of the DDB



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