Antonio Gramsci

Antonio Gramsci [anˈtɔːni̯oˈgramʃi] (* 23. January 1891 in Ales on Sardinien, Italy; † 27. April 1937 in Rome) was an Italian writer, politician and a philosopher, a theoretician of socialism, Communist and anti-fascist.

Antonio Gramsci (1891 - 1937)

Gramsci has the term civil company substantially coined/shaped, which he derived from the practice of the revolutionary movements since 1917, it presents a integrative theory, those the political and the private(when political practice, when self-activity) as well as learning and instruction interconnect.

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Gramsci, since 1913 member of the psi (Partito SocialistaItaliano, a socialist party of Italy), took part 1918/19 in the revolutionary fights in Turin (Turiner advice movement). 1921 it was prominently involved in the establishment of the KPI (a communist party of Italy, ital.PCI = Partito Comunista Italiano), thoseas splitting off from the psi came out. 1922/23 for the first time was it with the communist international one (AI) in Moscow, where it became acquainted with its later wife. On operation of the AI it entmachtete 1924/25 as a KPI Secretary-General the left-communist KPI leader Amadeo Bordiga and setthe Bolschewisierung of the KPI through.

1922 became the fascist Benito Mussolini head of the government in Italy, but the KPI remained first legal. 1925 were selected Gramsci in the parliament. November 1926 forbade the KPI to Mussolini and let the entire party leadership, under it Gramsci, arrest.Gramsci spent the years until briefly before its death 1937 in the prison and died at the consequences of the detention. 1937 gave it an international campaign for the release of the critically ill communist. In the detention time it wrote numerous in the “prison booklets”Studies to the marxism and to problems of the Leninism. Gramsci thought about the causes of the balance of power. It meant to recognize it in the mental supremacy of the fascists in that time. Its concept of the “cultural hegemony “becamein the 68er student movement again taken up. It became a firm term of the sociology and the Cultural Studies.


Gramsci wrote into its shank more than 30 note books, fully from historical analyses. These writings, also admitsas prison booklets, Gramscis contain opinions to the nationalism and Italian history, exactly like some ideas of a critical theory and a theory of educating, which are connected with its name, like

  • the cultural hegemony, with that the civil, capitalisticState maintains itself. as well as
  • the necessity that the workers form, around also from the working class intellectual ones to create

for Gramsci is a starting point the defeat of the Turiner advice movement and the victory of capitalism at its time.

Important terms, thoseto the self-activity and the subject turn off, are solidary, social and emancipatory self authorization, self identification, self order and self-instruction with the adjectives. The even becomes however here not as a direct way to the realization due to the experience, but as a split,plurales thing seen, the 'understanding of everyday life 'as confused more zusammgensetzer, with elements of the but faith beside the science. The marxschen fire brook theses form important orientation for it.

It must be granted to its texts that Gramsci here in the isolation of thePrison tried to keep its intellect to sharpen its thinking - one can learn on the basis the texts, how thinking is actually developed, and how one can provide also under the adverse circumstances of Italian fascism “thinking means”. Itmany topics approach excursively again and again on.

With the cultural hegemony - Gramsci introduced the term to the sense of Lenin into the Marxist theory - it developed an exact explanation, why in the orthodox marxism “inevitable” revolution of the Proletariatsneither in Italy nor in Germany took place. Socialism did not only suffer a defeat, seemed it, as if capitalism was also still strengthened in the time of the Fordism. Capitalism, so Gramsci, does not only receive powerby force and political and economic obligations, but also ideologically by a hegemoniale culture, in which the values of the Bourgeoisie would be generally accepted ideology of all. Marx expressed this with the following words: The thoughts of the dominant class are in everyoneEpoch the dominant thoughts, i.e. the class, which is the dominant material power of the society, is at the same time their dominant mental power. (The German ideology. Marx/angel, MEW 3, S. 46, 1846/1932).

Therefore the profit placed itself for Gramsci as political major taskthe “cultural hegemony” by the party as “collective intellectual ones”, the “translation” (Marxist) of philosophy in everyday life consciousness and their confirmation as “philosophy of practice”: Those are starting points for the overcoming also of the metaphysical materialism designated as Stalinismus in connection with onedogmatisch commandadministratively marxism Leninism through-drilled. Gramscis thinking flows into the “western marxism”, z. B. into the euro communism of the 1970er and 1980er years. With Gramsci a new reading made possible by Marx in the interest of the active subjects in the ensemble social conditions(Marx), one can be thought thinking at comprehensive emancipation oriented philosophy of practice = historical materialism alive and decisively. Marxism as orthodox training buildings is dead, with Gramsci lives plurale Marxisms. These find among other things their expression in the state derivative debate,in work like those of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, which suggests a post office-Marxist, neo gramscianischen hegemony term, or Robert W. Cox, which makes the hegemony term for the range of the international relations fruitful (see. Neo Gramscianismus).


  • Antonio Gramsci - prison booklets. Given change by Klaus Bochmann and Wolfgang Fritz Haug. argument publishing house, Hamburg/Berlin 1991ff
  • education. Gramsci reader 1, given change of of Andreas's noticing. Argument publishing house, Hamburg 2004 ISBN 3-88619-423-X
  • IL materialismo storico e la filosofia di Benedetto Croce.3. edition, OD. Riunti, Roma 1996
  • philosophy of practice. A selection, given change and translates of Christian Riechers. Fischer publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1967


  • rule = “consent armored with obligation” (Gramsci)
  • volume 6, number 1, §12: “Onenew culture to create does not only mean to make individiuell› original ‹discoveries it meant also and particularly to spread truths already discovered critically as it were too› ‹and they nationalize it thereby basis of vital actions, element of the co-ordination and the intellectual andto let become moral order. That a mass is brought by humans to think the material present coherently and in uniform way one is› philosophical ‹fact, which is more original many more importantly and› ‹, as if a philosophical› genius ‹a newTruth discovered, the hereditary yard of small groups of intellectual remains. “Antonio Gramsci of prison booklets, critical total expenditure, volume 1 - 10, given change of Klaus Bochmann, Wolfgang Fritz Haug, Peter Jehle, Argument publishing house Hamburg, 1991ff


  • Christian Riechers: Antonio Gramsci. Marxism in Italy.European publishing house, Frankfurt/Main 1970
  • Perry Anderson: Antonio Gramsci: a critical appreciation. Olle & Wolter, Berlin (west) 1979, ISBN 3921241456
  • Hans's Heinz wood, Giuseppe Prestipino: Antonio Gramsci today. Current perspectives of its philosophy. Pahl Rugenstein, Bonn 1992
  • utopia and civil company.Reconstructions, theses and information to Antonio Gramsci. Hg. v. Uwe deer field and. Werner Rügemer, elephant-press, Berlin 1990
  • Wolfgang Fritz Haug: From Marx to Gramsci - from Gramsci to Marx. Historical materialism and philosophy of practice. In: Haug, W.F.: „ThirteenAttempts Marxist thinking to renew “. Karl Dietz publishing house, Berlin 2001
  • Uwe deer field (Hg.): Gramsci perspectives. Contributions for the conference of establishment “citizens of Berlin of the institute for critical theory” e. V. of 18. to 20. April 1997 in the hunting seat Glienicke, Berlin, argument publishing house, Berlin/Hamburg 1998
  • Karin Hofer: The political theory Antonio Gramscis. SFP, Salzburg 1991
  • Sabine Kebir: Antonio Gramscis civil company. VSA publishing house, Hamburg 1991 ISBN 3879755566
  • Theo Votsos: The term of the civil company with Antonio Gramsci. Argument publishing house, Berlin 2001 ISBN 3886192814
  • Giuseppe Fiori: Vita di AntonioGramsci. Ilisso, Nuoro 2003
  • Zogholy, André: Politico-cultural strategies of the FPÖ and the hegemony theory after Antonio Gramsci, writings of the Johannes Kepler university Linz: Lines up B, economics and social sciences; 61, Trauner publishing house, Linz 2002 ISBN 3-85487-336-0 /2002

See also

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