Anwar as-Sadat

Anwar as-Sadat (1978)
Anwar as-Sadat (1978)

Mohammed Anwar as-Sadat (Arab أنورالسادات) (* 25. December 1918 in with Abul kum, a village in the Nile - delta; † 6. October 1981 in Cairo) was an Egyptian statesman. Beside wet and other one he was joint founderthe secret federation of the free officers, since the coup d'etat 1952 he dressed high offices. As a successor Nassers it became 1970 president. Sadat loosened the diktatorische regime, led Egypt into the October war 1973, loosened the country from the close connection to the Soviet Union and closed 1979 peacewith Israel. For its efforts in peace peacetime with Israel it received the Nobel peace prize together with Menachem Begin 1978. Sadat fell an assassination attempt to the victim, whom opponents of his politics of the reconciliation with Israel committed.

Table of contents

childhood and youth

Anwar Sadat became to 25.December 1918 in with Abul kum, a village in the Nile - delta, at that time still under the surname Sadati, born. It was very connected with its homeland, which showed up also in the fact that he gave all proceeds of his biography as well as the prize money of the Nobelpreises to the village. Sadatit was always proud on his rural origin and stressed that he was original fellah (farmer). Some critics accused to him however to instrumentalisieren this descent for political reasons.

Sadat buildup with his 13 brothers and sisters in with Abul kum with his grandmother, during its father,Mohammed Mohammed el-Sadaty with his second Mrs. Kheirallah in the Sudan lived, where he worked at a British medical troop as an interpreter. Sadat felt obviously in the village community well, where he basic values of living together such as Zusammengehörigkeit, neighbourhood assistance, respect for older ones, in addition, traditional values and Religiositätlearned. Apart from this feeling of security experienced he in addition, illness, poverty and illiteratism. These early impressions were reflected in its later social politics again, in which it exerted itself for arm welfare service, a good health system and education for all.he referred 1924, with six years,with its father a dwelling in the Kairoer suburb Kubri el-Kubba.

Sadat, that in a revolutionary manner

the following years in Cairo were coined/shaped for Sadat by the search. After Sadat short time had been interested in the looking plaything and also inRoles applied, decided he finally nevertheless for the entrance into the army, which enjoyed a high reputation at this time. With some difficulties it created it to the military academy to be taken up which it after a short training course of nine months in February 1938 as a second lieutenant that Infantry left.

After its dismissal of the military academy he married the daughter of the local chief of with Abul Kum Eqbal Affifi. To germinate it shifted in the Kairoer suburb mA' adi to a signal unit and here began its political interest. And this meant above all that thoseFrustration over the status of Egypt as quasi-vassal state of Great Britain in it grew. He found it infuriating that Egypt was dependent on a monarchy, was not Egyptian and that the Egyptian politicians would tolerate and even legitimized the British crew.

Sadat had come to the conviction thatEgypt only by force both from the Englishmen and from the corrupt government of that time to be released could. In addition it wanted to form an organization within the armed forces around the revolution to implement. During its stationing in Manquabad he found some Gleichgesinnte. At this time it meetsalso for the first time Gamal Abdel of wet. 1939 were based then the first secret organization of military, which called itself and by Sadat was led „The Free Officers “.

The Second World War out and also Egypt became about at the same time fallow the combat scene. The sympathies of the Egyptians layon sides of the Germans, which the hated British fought and with whom one, for lack of opportunity, had made never bad experiences. Also Sadat, who was shifted in the summer 1941 after Marsa Matruh, was fascinated of this man. But with it it did not remainthe bare admiration for the enemy of his enemy, it forged secretly plans, as one could make oneself the Germans useful. It turned out for contact with the Germans to contact with a secret federation within the Egyptian Air Force, a whose goal was it, to take up and the British alsoto drive out their assistance. Sadat became member of this troop and it actually came to a conspiracy attempt with two German feeler gauges. Sadat should be helpful these to transfer a transmitter in the British. That Komplott flew up and Sadat by the British state police was arrested. Itfirst in the foreigner prison in Cairo and shifted then at the end of of 1942 was brought into a prison in the 260 kilometers southern Minieh.

In October 1944 it succeeded to flee Sadat from a military hospital, after it had spent two years in different prisons. From now on it had as a refugeein the underground live. The years of the arrest had not passed without trace Sadat. In the prison he had to deliberate himself much time upon itself and think about the sense of the life. Although it was isolated from its group now, it did not stop itself, asTo feel part this community and believe far in the goal of the revolution.

After his escape, which was war terminated, Sadat became the political fighter, as a goal still the removal of the British before eyes. It involved itself into different Mordkomplotts against the EgyptianFührungsriege, which co-operated with British crew power. The first goal of the conspirators was Nahhas pasha, the leader of the Wafd - government, that had been installed with the help of a British ultimatum 1942. When an assassination attempt failed on it, amine Osman became, also a member thatGovernment Nahhas, to the next target. This time the notice, Osman succeeded became to 6. January 1946 shot. Sadat and its accomplices were seized and arrested.

Sadat waited two years for his process, which took place starting from January 1948 and stressed 84 meetings. Critics call itFarce. The chairman Richter of the Kollegiums, which finally acquitted eleven of the accused including Sadat, should later from its hands the highest Egyptian honor, which receive ‚Nile chain'.

Sadat becomes a president

at the 1. July 1953 was proclaimed the Republic of Egypt. King Faruq went to 26. July 1953 in the exile and from now on had the revolutionary command advice, like the guidance advice of the free officers now called itself, a saying. After some internal debates Egypt was explained in March 1953 as the republic. Ali Muhammad Nagib was appointed the first president and many members of therevolutionary command advice became Ministers, wet dressed the post of the Minister of the Interior.

Sadat did not receive ministerial positions, some from the revolutionary guidance faced him sceptically. Sadat became first publisher of the daily paper „Gumhuriyeh “, which functioned as language pipe of the revolutionary command advice. After the combination of Egypt and SyriaUnited Arabic Republic 1958 was appointed Sadat the speaker of the common parliament. This mechanism proved however as illusion and disintegrated already 1961 again. 1966 were selected Sadat to the speaker of the Egyptian parliament.

The year 1967 brought a catastrophic defeat with the six-day war forthe Arab states and concomitantly for Egypt. After the Suizid of the Egyptian Secretary of Defense Abdel Hakim Amer only Hussein Shafei, Zakarah Mohieddin and Anwar el-Sadat remained of the revolutionary command advice. Wetter worked around the clock on the reconstruction of the army and the country.Wetter Sadat before its takeoff swore in to the Arab summit conference in Rabat than vices-president. In this position Sadat up to Nassers death remained to 28. September 1970. Sadat took over now the office for president kommissarisch, how it was intended by the condition also. After this it should a transition period of 60 days give, in which by an opinion poll a new president should be determined. To 15. October 1970 was confirmed Sadat as a new president of the Egyptian republic by a popular vote, it received 90 per cent of the voices.

the long wayto the peace

the failed peace initiative of 1973

Anwar Sadat stood at the beginning of its term of office before large challenges. The 6-Tage-Krieg of 1967 had left a trauma in Egypt and the entire Arab world. One did not want to resign oneself to the consequences of the war,disgrace and humiliating had been too large. The populations looked for reasons, tried a guilty one to find and lost themselves in self refusal and depression. Another effect of the bitter defeat was the rebudding of the Islamism, which took in also Sadat. It connected with the voice of thePeople the voice of God and believed that it was implementing a göttlichen mission. The ambitions with regard to foreign policy of Egypt were certain since the war: Back conquest of the occupied areas, revenge at Israel and support of the Palestinians.

The first task, which had to master Sadat, was, the struggle for power relating to domestic affairsto decide for itself. There were many critics and competitors, particularly in the army guidance. Some had set on Sadats' weakness and waited in Lauerstellung, around a favorable moment to the seizure of power abzupassen. There were large differences particularly with the per Soviet group around AliSabri, which set everything to cut Sadat's power. But this pointed fast that he knew to deal with power, it occupied all important positions to government, cabinet and mass media with loyalen supporters.

Sadats' first, unexpected step with regard to foreign policy was announcing one „peace initiative “to 4. February 1971, thus only four months after its seizure of power. He had proclaimed the year 1971 as „a year of the decision “, he wanted not to let which elapse, without a progress in the controversy with Israel to have achieved. Since it was not in addition able,the war against Israel to continue, he wanted to drive now Israel with this initiative into the defensive. Contents of its peace plan were following: Israel should withdraw itself from the Sinai to the passports, in response became Egypt the Sueskanal to again-open. In the connection a truce should signatorylywill, the diplomatic relations with the USA would restore Egypt and should finally a peace treaty with Israel with the help of the UN - special envoys for the Near East, Gunnar Jarring, to be closed.

The 1971 peace initiative announced by Sadat did not have by far the effect like beingRaid six years later. It seemed the fact that the time for such an initiative was not yet ripe and exists it serious doubts in regard to the reliability Sadat, who had been prevented only by the missing means from a continuation of the war of attrition with Israel. Thosefirst official reaction from Israel came from Prime Minister minister Golda Meïr in a NBC interview to 6. February 1971. A more detailed and more careful reaction of the Prime Minister minister gave it to 9. February after a long debate in the Knesset. You are much too vague the expressions Sadats,she said, and she sees the repetition of usual cliches in them.

The first larger act with regard to foreign policy Sadat was the signing of a friendship and an alliance contract with the Soviet Union to 27. May 1971. This confused not least the Americans, because it was incomprehensibly why Sadat first itspro-Soviet cabinet members had eliminated and afterwards such a contract signed. Sadat succeeded it despite strongest monitoring by the Americans to hide Saudis and Russians its motives with regard to foreign policy. Secretly it had however probably long decided already in addition, what it to 8. July 1972 into thoseAct converted: The classification of all Soviet experts. Cause for this drastic step was renewed being missing of Soviet weapon supplies. Sadat ordered that all experts (approx. 15.000) Egypt within one week abandoned and all equipment, under it four MiG-25 should - airplanes, into which USSR back should be brought.

the Yom Kippur war and the consequences

Sadat had thought already longer of 1972 carried out course changes in the Egyptian foreign policy. Particularly by the Saudis it suggestions had been passed on, the USA could it in the recuperation of the occupied areas be helpful. Sadat, “limited” war began to flat with a double aiming hitting a corner: The honour of the Egyptian army, which they had lost in the disgrace of 1967, by a revenge at Israel recover and the superpowers alarm, in particular the USA, around it for intervention in the peace process toomove.

The consequence of this politics was the Yom Kippur war. He was prepared carefully in coordination with Syria and started with a surprise attack to 6. October 1973. Already briefly forwards and during the war a crucial development begins itself to strengthen: The commitment of the USAin person of the minister of foreign affairs of the 1972 selected Nixon - government Henry Kissinger. It contacted Sadat already four days after beginning of war, in order to communicate to it, which insisted a good chance by an armistice on a satisfying solution. This initiative, and two days later by the BritishPrime Minister Edward Heath with the same goal were rejected by Sadat, who was at the impression of the Egyptian initial successes. This and the opening of the second Egyptian attack wave to 14. Octobers caused Washington to the release of the weapon air lift to Israel. In the long run however the pressure of the USA led andalso the Soviet Union, which likewise pleaded for an armistice, to the fact that the Egyptian president consented to an armistice due to the UN-resolutions 242 and 338. The same did Israel and to 24. October was stopped the fire.

In November 1973 Sadat a 6-Punkte-Plan von Golda Meïr was correcttoo and was agreed upon, at the kilometer stone 101 discussions Egyptian-Israeli at the road Cairo - Sues over a withdrawal of the armed forces and a return to the front lines of 22. To begin October. These negotiations were led under supervision of the United Nations, pulled themselves however for a long time. In January 1974 the first agreement was signed for troop decartelization between Egypt and Israel.

The relationship to the USA began itself despite reservations on both sides to intensify. Washington pursued an embrace tactics as reaction to the October war and the Arab oil embargo in relation to the Arab front states,above all Egypt, which meant a revision of the past premises. This new foreign policy found its precipitation in Nixons Cairo symbolic - to attendance in June 1974. With the resumption of the diplomatic relations and the demonstrative conclusion of a economic agreement were the American readiness, Egypt and Syria nowto treat apparently with equal standing beside Israel, tell-done. The Nixon and/or. Ford - government made its advance notice gradual true and granted to the Middle East and oil politics after the conclusion of the Viet Nam agreement 1973 priority. Contrary to these interests of the USA, which had also a strong economic reason,the demands of the Arab states stood: Areas, re-establishment of the national rights of the Palestinians and an end of the settlement politics occupied retreat of the Israeli troops from the 1967. The most important factor in the strategy Sadat was recovering the occupied country. The Nixon attendance 1974 woke in Sadatnew hopes. It made clear that Egypt will fetch itself back its lost territories, whether by force or without. Kissinger, which remained also under Ford ministers of foreign affairs, convinced Sadat finally of the fact that a gradual procedure was to be preferred to a comprehensive peace treaty. At the 1. September became a second troop agreement on deconcentrationsigned.

from the Sadat initiative to Camp David

Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter and Anwar as-Sadat in Camp David

the installation of the Carter - government marked the beginning of an attempt to address the conflict parties and points at issue more comprehensively. During the election campaign 1976 Carter had a more ambitiousStrategy demanded, which should lead to diplomatic relations between Israel and the Arab states. New US - strategy did not seem to come up yet. It moved from one for the Arab states little hopeful linear Middle East policy off, but became the one-sided for Israel inall contentious questions maintain. This expressed itself in a continuation of the US veto politics in the UN security council, where one blocked 1976 and 1977 against an overwhelming majority resolutions, as well as the one complete retreat of Israel ultimatively demanded the Palestinians legitimate rights to self-determination been entitled.

Sadat decided, into go the Knesset to meet in order to make the representatives clear of the Israeli people that it lay with them, the choice if they wanted really the peace. Its goal was it to pass on the Israelis the ball. Thus it came to that historical speech to the Egyptian opening of parliamentto 9. November 1977, in which Sadat announced, it would go to to the end of the world, even to Israel into the Knesset, if it could avoid thereby the death of only one soldier.

In addition, the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin was ready for negotiations, placedConditions. The reaction on the part of the Arab states were devastating.Syria, Iraq, Libya and Algeria broke the diplomatic contacts off with Egypt , the PLO condemned the initiative energetically. Sadat had hoped the fact that the Arab states would participate in the negotiations and believed also further,that an Egyptian-Israeli peace could have a kind domino effect on the region. Sadat's principal interest and to this goal he applied for the recuperation of the Sinai up to the extreme one would fight.

To 19. November came it then to the spectacular Israel attendance Sadat, as it on the Ben Gurion airport with Tel Aviv landed. Begin and his entire cabinet welcomed it and thousands Israeli cheered it on its way after Jerusalem. On the day after Sadat before the Israeli parliament, the Knesset spoke. For the first time recognized Arab head of state Israels life rights on, without if and however.

In his speech Sadat, it explains did not come to Israel, in order to close a special treaty with Israel, because such cannot lead to a durable peace in the region. In addition a solution of the Palestinian problem is necessary and it wants this problem not to shift,separate now a comprehensive solution cause. As bases for a peace it calls the complete Israeli retreat including east Jerusalem, the acknowledgment of a Palestinian state, internationally recognized and safe borders, the reason of bilateral relations on principles of the Charter of the United Nations, thus force renouncement toSolution of diversities of opinion and the completion of the state of war in the Near East.

It took nearly a whole year, until Sadat and Begin withdrew themselves after tough bilateral negotiations and by the intervention of Jimmy Carter induced to peace discussions after Camp David. After 13 hard days of the hearing became finallya peace agreement with historical value agrees, because it was first between an Arab state and Israel at all. Fast it had however shown up that the conceptions, which Sadat in its Knesset - speech of the world public had presented, illusorily and realistically not convertible had been. To onecomprehensive peace, which there is not until today, the time was not for a long time ripe. The Arab states reacted hurt, them felt betrayed and were so ready for no negotiations. The Palestinians, likewise in a shock-similar condition by the single-handed attempt of Egypt, had alwaysstill no sufficiently legitimized guidance, which could have participated in negotiations. In the long run also Israel was for no larger concessions ready, Sadat received the Sinai back, which strengthened the Arab moral and which futile myth of Israel Unbesiegbarkeit made. 1978 received Begin and Sadat for theirEmployment for the peace the Nobel peace prize.

To 6. October 1981 was shot Mohammed Anwar as-Sadat during a military parade in Cairo by an assassination attempt by an Islamic soldier of its army. The Islamics justified the murder Sadats with the fact that after the teachings Ibn Taimiyyas a ruler,the other laws than those the Scharia for application, no more Muslim brings is and than Murtadd may be killed rightfully. To his funeral not one Arab head of state traveled. In Libya and in south Lebanon its death was even celebrated. In Iran a road becameafter the murderer Sadat designated.

Successor became Mohammed Hosni Mubarak.

literature

  • El - Sadat, Anwar: On the way to the justice, Vienna and. A., 1978 - German translation of the memoirs Sadats. Very subjectively, a little critically, partially varnishing. In addition, informative in view upits personality.
  • Heikal, Mohammed: Sadat, the end of a Pharao: a political biography, Duesseldorf, Vienna, 1984 - very critical biography of Mohammed Heikal, Egyptian journalist and former friend Sadat. With it is however questionably whether it the necessary distance from the objective view of the things possesses.
  • Finklestone, Joseph: Anwar Sadat: visionary who dared, London [among other things], 1996
  • Israeli, Raphael: One OF defiance: A political biography OF Anwar Sadat, ton-towa, NJ, 1985 - both Finklestone and Israeli orient themselves rather at the biography Sadat

films

  • Days OF Sadat (AyamEl-Sadat). A film from the perspective of Sadat and his Mrs. Jehan. Basis of the film were loud link up the respective memoirs of the two. Sadat masterfully easily of Ahmed Zaki, which a short while before already played wet.

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