Table of contents
history of the apartheid
the conflict „the races “(see. Racingism for the term „of the race “) in the southern Africa decreases/goes back into the beginnings of the colonialism and was intensified after British conquest 1806. Beginning with discrimination with the claim due to and soiltook place with the discovery from diamonds - (1867) and Goldvorkommen (1886) further impairments of the black ones particularly in the freedom of movement.
From 1903 to 1905 the South African native Commission (SANAC) should a common Ethnienpolitik for allfour South African provinces (Natal, cape colony, orange Free State and Transvaal) specify. The commission suggested the establishment in the sense of the practice of the native administration dominant in Natal . With that native administration act from 1927 became thisSuggestion consequence performed. The native administration had been expanded thus on the whole South African union.
apartheid among the British
1910 was created the South African union by the union of the four republics. The union was from the outsetin the hands of the white minority. Black like also colored ones and Asians received no right to vote. They were excluded from the national government. Only at the province governments they were allowed to participate. The moreover one any sexual contact between the different „races was forbidden “.The segregation politics were supported by the white ruling powers with a multiplicity of laws.
1911 were specified by the Mines and Works act the unequal treatment of the white ones and black ones in the economy. The probably most substantial law of the spatial separation, that Native country act, was discharged 1913. In the consequence the black population was allowed to only acquire country in them attributed the reservations. Approximately 7.3% of the entire South African surface were reserved for black ones, the Homelands. Ten years laterthat carried out native Urban AREAs act the spatial separation also in urban areas. The native Trust and country act of 1936 expanded the existing law of 1913. Some reservation surfaces were increased.
apartheid under the Buren
The year 1948 takes an important place in South African history. The party of the African nationalists won the elections at that time superior. Thus for the first time a burische party came to the power, which kept it until 1989. The victory of the burischen Nationalists was closely linked with the Second World War. The retiring prime minister January Christiaan Smuts had pulled South Africa in on British side into the war. The nationalists however were against an interference into the martial event and sympathized openly with thatGerman Nazi - regime. The people entitled to vote agreed by the majority with the nationalists. Prime minister became Daniel François Malan. This change of government provided that for many Buren, which had before found connection under British rule hardly to the prominent point of the country,Door from the poverty. Many pulled into urbane areas and found there in the rising economy a good job. The nationalists, who tried in all other respects to distinguish itself from the British, steered the Indigenenpolitik into new courses.
The nationalists pursuedthree goals: First of all they wanted to consolidate political power, secondly their vision of the race relations to convert and thirdly should the status of the education and the economics of the Buren be raised.
Before 1948 the black ones were usually from the policy and thatgood positions in the economy impossible. The race order was partially given by the law and partially by the unofficial custom. The order was not however very strict. There were quite colored ones, which lived beside white ones, Indian dealers, whoin the city centre their business transacted or black ones, which managed their farms outside of their reservations. These holes in the racial segregation plugged the nationalists with various measures. As the first they divided the whole South African population in four classes: White one, black one, colored one and Asians (see also: Population of South Africa). The allocation to one of these groups happened according to certain criteria. The interpretation of the test results often lay in the discretion of the test manager. This particularly concerned the organization into black ones and colored ones. Came therebydifferent tests to the employment, like for example whether a pin fitted into the hair falls down, if the rehearsing and vibrates the head. If the pin fell out, then the rehearsing and was considered as colored, remained the pin putting, was considered it as black one. Thisit had the consequence that short hair hair-styles became popular.
The race order determined from now on the entire life. At public places a strict separation from white ones and non--white was prescribed. Mixed marriages were forbidden. With the Group AREAs act of 13. June 1950 became thoseSeparation of the populated areas fixed. In urban areas separate living ranges for the different races were created; the training depended likewise on the appropriate race. Black ones had to carry a passport outside of their reservations. Thus only those black ones should in urban areasare waited, which also worked there. All remaining black ones were regarded as foreigners. The black ones working in the cities were accepted as immigrant workers. These black ones lived in Townships so mentioned at the outskirts of a town. Urban black ones were not allowed itself in accordance with that native ones Laws Amendment act of 1952 without permission only 72 hours in cities stop. The apartheid was creates. Were nevertheless the standard of living, the educational facilities higher by schools and universities as well as the medical supply and thus the life expectancy of the black ones than inall other African countries, why South Africa was confronted also during the apartheid with illegal immigration from the northern neighboring states.
large one and small apartheid
the apartheid were divided into two aspects: the small apartheid, also petty apartheid mentioned andthe large apartheid. The small apartheid contained the rassische separation within the service range. Among them fell for example the prohibition of entering public parks for black ones, the separate compartments in public means of transport or the separate schools.
The apartheid laws did not only concernBlack one. Also colored one and Asians suffered from it. The concerning separated itself likewise of that in each case different group. Colored ones kept figurativy seen, the same distance to black ones as white ones to black ones.
the entire everyday life of the Nichtweissen by the small apartheid one coined/shaped. Unmistakable regulations through describe reached, on those, for example at the beach, apart from a prohibition for dogs, which was expressed prohibition for Non Whites. Hospitals,Post-office building, city halls, banks and toilets had in principle two, through describe characterized entrances. Many areas of life were not clearly defined. Restaurants and bars under Nichtweissen were called by mouth propaganda, in which one was served or was not desired. Courageous ones constantly tested thoseBorders of the acceptance by the white ones. The careful ones shrank from themselves to leave their safe range. Thus they lived more calmly and not like dogs were hunted or by the police were not examined.
The large apartheid means the spatial separation generally speaking yardstick,actual segregation or Homeland politics.
Beyond the Homeland politics the apartheid worked also within South Africa. Thus the legally ordered affiliation to a race category, according to the skin color (black one, colored one/Asian) meant:
- separate populated areas in each city, in each village,
- separate educational systems alsodifferently qualified teachers and
- exclusive right to vote for white ones.
The race category was registered into the document of identification documents by mnemonic codes, for example - C for Coloureds.
The populated areas of the white population, also Europeans mentioned, were appropriate throughout into that geographically and for structurally most pleasant districts of everyoneLocality. If the fixed ranges for the white ones became too close, the colored ones, also mentioned and Asian, had Coloureds parts of their populated areas to vacate and within again assigned ranges to again build. A famous example was those evacuation of the District Six inConvenient sandige Khayelitsha removes hearts of Capetown and the obligation resettlement of approximately 60,000 humans into that for about 30 km. The black population was in her remote populated area so far outside of the municipalities, often behind natural or artificial hills as well asIt banishes garbage dumps that it not when part of the municipality could be regarded.
The also contentwise different educational systems, with qualification of the training body and the equipment gradated in each case, were with responsible for unequal career opportunities.
The exclusion of all Nichtweissen of the active and passive right to voteworked into the local range.
The apartheid was expression of an irrational feeling of a white, Christian superiority opposite the heidnischen black ones. This feeling was based on an actual technical-civilization superiority. The apartheid essentially reflects a thinking of the burischen Calvinisten .
In order to be able to convert the columns of the apartheid, an enormous administrative machinery was necessary. Approximately four million black ones are to have been arrested alone due to missing residence permits; however this demanded an enormous administrative expenditure. The moreover one millions black ones had to be resettled. Approximately3,5 million black ones had to give their past dwellings up. This taken place not without protests, which led to innumerable arrests. The governments destroyed whole settlements, in order to force so the black ones to the resettlement, which Resettlement act of 1952, native on that, was based.
resistance of the black ones
also after subjecting the Bantu led the discriminating Indigenenpolitik of the white ones to substantial resistance.
African national Congress
already 1912, only straight two years after the establishment of the South African union,based the lawyer P. Seme, the clergymen J. L. Dube, W. Rubusana as well as the author Sol Plaatje the African national Congress (ANC). Although about men from the elitären society based, understood yourself the ANC not at all as elitäre organization. Itwas open in principle to all, all the same whatever skin color, and both the Christianity accepted as well as the English language. The ANC understood yourself as a black resistance party, which demanded the full middle class. Long time opposed it friedfertig by boycotts and strikes. Thus organizedit into the 1920er - years strikes of the mine workers, in order to improve the bad conditions of work of the black ones.
The ANC became ever more the mass organization. Hundredthousands obeyed calls to demonstrations or strikes. For example in the year 1946, two years before the beginningthe apartheid, approximately 70,000 black mine workers struck. In particular against the passport law, according to which the urban black ones had to at any time carry a passport with itself, in order to be able to prove to be employees, the ANC protested by demonstrations and by burning the disputedPassports. Nevertheless by any means all non--white, not even all black ones, did not stand behind the ANC. Saw some black one the Homeland politics of the government as chance to finally terminate the racingism and its traditions again live.
In later years these diversities of opinion should in particularbetween urban and rural black ones to armed arguments lead. Thus unrests demanded approximately 4,000 victims with Pietermaritzburg between 1987 and 1990. With this conflict it acted around disputes within the Zulu. Other opinions than those represented urban Zuluin the Inkatha Freedom party combined rural Zulu. Into the early 1990er-Jahren, thus already after the official end of the apartheid, the Inkatha trailers turned then in the special one against the Xhosa. People from both sides lost thereby their life.
ThoseGovernment tried to prevent the human right fighters of the ANC always their work by avoiding these. Gebannte were reduced in its freedom of movement, it were allowed an exactly defined territory not to leave. The moreover one the government solved frequently meetings of theANC up.
militant resistance organizations
uniting members went the usually peaceful actions of the ANC not far enough. They created 1959 a further resistance organization, the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). Contrary to the ANC the PAC rejected the open attitudein relation to all races. It positioned itself as pure black organization and rejected any co-operation with the white ones. Later also the ANC created an armed wing.Nelson Mandela led this wing with the name Umkonto incoming goods Sizwe, which translatesas much as Speer of the nation means. Umkonto incoming goods Sizwe did in the following years in particular by acts of sabotage out.
One year before the establishment of the armed wing of the ANC ended one of the PAC organized demonstration in the Township Sharpeville in oneBlood bath, which the policemen come into panic arranged. 69 African found thereby death. This event released national unrests, which the South African government with iron fist fought. Approximately 20,000 demonstrators were arrested. In the consequence both the PAC becameas also the ANC forbade. Both organizations operated from now on from the underground. Prominent ones opposing heads such as Nelson Mandela or walter Sisulu were condemned 1964 during the so-called Rivonia process to life imprisonment. The court accused above all participation in acts of sabotage to them.
new self-confident its
into the late 1960er - power in churches and schools, affected by the Black - movement in the USA, the Black in such a way specified Consciousness developed for years - movement. Steve Biko is considered as a founder of this movement. Caused by thatthey saw new self-confident its no more than over powerful to the black one the culture of the white ones, which was tried to copy them. Rather they condemned the white culture now; their own values however lifted it out. Artists, like Miriam Makeba engaged themselvesfor a world-wide boycott of the apartheid regime. The consequences of new consciousness were partially violent student unrests. To 16. Pupils in Soweto instruction boycotted June 1976. This stood in connection with the tried, obligatory introduction of the language hated with black ones Africa to. By brutal police employments lost in few days 160 to 1000 black ones their life and many children and young person were arrested. The photo of the dying 13-jährigen Hector Pieterson is world-well-known in the arms of a schoolmate. Afterwards the armed tookResistance precipitously too. In the next two years following unrests disconcerted the country. Hundreds of black ones were killed by the police. The students found support with hundredthousands of black workers. For the South African economy this devastating extents assumed.Some unbedeutendere laws of the apartheid were loosened, in order to meet the displeasure of the black ones.
the end of the apartheid
the protests of the black ones as well as other factors let the apartheid crumble starting from 1974 ever more. The plenary assembly of the UN took to 2. December 1973 a convention on, after which the apartheid was outlawed and even as crime applied. The burische government approached in slow steps the black conceptions on. The black opposition continued to increase, although its most well-knownLeaders in the prison sat. High points of the resistance into the 1970er-Jahren were strikes in Natal (1973) as well as the rebellion in Soweto 1976. The government with emergency measures, which blew up however the national capacities, met the black resistance. The costs of the apartheid were no longer longer portable.
The ANC was regarded by the west during the cold war as revolutionary and per-communist. Despite certain sanctions - the USA and Western Europe supported the white apartheid regime as bulwark against communism, also because South Africa importantUranium deposit has. Particularly after the Portuguese colonies became Mozambique and Angola independently and the scene of bloody wars, the support of South Africa appeared still more important. After the cold war this element lost its meaning and the old regime of South Africa became from the westfall calmly.
Further Ungemach seized South Africa 1983 with beginning of the purge of the gold price on the world market. The economic situation already weakened by the European and American sanctions continued to intensify thus.
Those increasingly improved organization of the not-white opposition, inthe 80's actually took over, led the administration of the Townships to the confrontation with the regime, which kulminierte in the permanent state of emergency of 1985-90. At approximately 1988 negotiations kept secret first began with the leaders of the ANC in the exile.
1989 stepped Frederik Willemde Klerk the follow-up of Pieter Willem Botha as South African president on. De Klerk took up immediately negotiations with the ANC leader Mandela arrested still. It promised the immediate release to Mandela, if this certain conditions, as for example thoseBreak with the armed resistance, assumed, on which Mandela was not received however. De Klerk released Mandela due to the rising pressure as well as the remaining political prisoners in the year 1990. The two resistance parties ANC and PAC were again legalisiert.
Due to these inthe international pressure, the economic crisis, the change of the government guidance from Botha to de Klerk as well as steadfastness Mandelas with the negotiations with de Klerk, the white authority broke important factors, thus the resistance of the black ones, to their sum into thatearly 1990er - Years gradually together.
De Klerk main header substantial laws up, which were considered as columns of the apartheid. Among them the population Registration act was, the Group AREAs act and the countries act. The Homelands continued to exist however; in this connection changeditself only few.
The transitional phase from the apartheid to the democracy lasted from 1990 to 1994. During this time the remaining laws of the racial segregation were eliminated. All humans resident in South Africa could move freely and without restrictions. Many black ones used this chance and pulled into cities. The moreover one the transitional phase was coined/shaped by bloody unrests between Mangosuthu Buthelezis Inkatha - a party and the ANC. Buthelezi, leader of the Homelands KwaZulu and the Inkatha party, saw its power threatened by the new state system.Unrests lasted from 1989 to 1994 and demanded altogether about 7,000 dead ones. Together with Buthelezi also Lucas Mangope and Oupa Gqozo, the leaders of the Homelands Bophuthatswana and Ciskei faced, the new system negatively. Other Homeland responsible person cooperated alsothe plans of the ANC and tried, opportunistisch a good position in the new balance of power too ergattern.
The new condition should step 1994 into force. Afterwards every five years government elections would take place. In addition the country in nine should instead of in fourProvinces to be partitioned.
In the last moment Buthelezi swung, after an important position in the new government had been assured to him. Thus it came 1994 to the first democratic elections of South Africa. The ANC won it with 62,6 per cent outstandingly, followednational the party (NP) with 20,4 per cent and the Inkatha Freedom party with 10,5 per cent. Mandela was appointed the first president in the new system. Stood for it to the side two popular vices-president, de Klerk of the NP and Thabo Mbeki ofANC. Buthelezi became a Prime Minister of the province Kwazulu Natal, he could its power thus over the past Homeland border expand.
The new government saw itself posed before large problems. Preceeding unrests had fallen South Africa into an economic crisis. This brought a highIndebtedness with the World Bank with itself. In the further one the inequalities between the races should be eliminated. This among other things better schools and a better health care for black ones to mean, both was however connected with high costs. Most different interests supplieddifferent land disputes. Black ones, which had to give their country up during the apartheid and had been forced to pull into the Homelands reclaimed their country. Now there the residents white ones or industrial companies made their newer rights valid.
1999 rose Mbeki ofVice to the president up. It intensified the privatisation of state enterprises in the consequence. This led to place dismantling and to more expensive current and water tariffs. Ever more black workers, who have to suffer particularly from these measures, become increasingly more dissatisfiedwith the policy of the ANC. They accuse to him that the ANC was selected by the left working class that it however in the interest of the right Bourgeoisie govern.
Mandela and de Klerk received the Nobel peace prize to 1993.
In supportto the South African regime today a systematic racial discrimination, in particular by a government machinery, becomes when apartheid designates. Apartheid was explained by a UN-convention 1973 as the crime against the humanity. In Orania there are those to today a small municipality of Buren,as new germ cell of a South African Burenstaates and for the re-establishment of the apartheid once marriages see themselves open.
Trojan Horse measure acre
in June 1985 always drove the roads into Athlone a truck up and down.After a stone throw several heavily armed policemen from the loading space rose and shot three young people. Officially it was called one „anti-terror action “. Today a nearly already verblichener saying (Remember the Trojan Horse measure acre) on a wall reminds of thoseMurder.
in the Township Gugulethu wanted to go a group of furious young people to a police station. A grown-up member of the group was a coworker of the secret police. On a crossing the group was placed by 25 policemen, thoseall seven young people shot. As memory there is today a red volume. An official, national monument, which the mothers of the murdered ones had demanded, rejected the government, since the authors during a first process were acquitted.
|Wikiquote: Apartheid - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Apartheid - word origin, synonyms and translations|
- kind of leg, William & Dubow, Saul (Eds.): Segregation and apartheid in Twentieth Century South Africa.1995: Routledge,London.
- Mandela, Nelson: The long way to the liberty. Autobiography.
- Birgit Morgenrath/Gottfried Wellmer: German capital at the cape. 160 S.
- Free courage Duve: Cape without hope or the policy of the apartheid. Rowohlt, 1965
- Gobodo Madikizela, Pumla: The inheritance of the apartheid -Trauma, memory, reconciliation. Preface of Nelson Mandela. Epilog of Jörn Rüsen. Publishing house Barbara Budrich, Opladen 2006. ISBN 3-86649-025-9