Apollo project

Apollo-Programm: Logo
Apollo program: Logo
Start der Apollo-8-Mission
start of the Apollo-8-Mission
Missionslogo der ersten Mondlandungsmission der NASA Apollo 11. Der Weißkopfseeadler ist abgebildet, da die Mondlandefähre den Namen Eagle (dt. Adler) trug.
Missionslogo of the first moon-landing mission of NASA Apollo 11. The white head sea-eagle is shown, there the lunar excursion module the name Eagle (dt. Eagle) carried.
Aufnahme der Erde über dem Mondhorizont während der ersten bemannten Mondlandung der NASA mit Apollo 11.
Admission of the earth over the moon horizon during first manned moon-landing thatNASA with Apollo 11.
Astronaut Aldrin before the lunar excursion module (Apollo 11)
boot casting taken up by Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin on the moon (Apollo 11), with a Biogon - objective of Carl Zeiss

in the context of the US-American Apollo project of NASA should Humans on the moon to be landed and intact the earth be returned. The manned moon-landing was aimed at both by the USA and the USSR, reached however only by the USA. It succeeded to 20. July 1969. ThoseMoon-landing formed the high point of the race in the universe.

Table of contents

the name

in July 1960, before the Mercury program had to exhibit first successes, took place in Washington a conference, on that NASA and different industrial companies a long-term planfor the Weltraumfahrt compiled. A manned moon orbiting was planned - from a landing was not at this time yet the speech.Abe Silverstein, the director/conductor of the space travel development at NASA, suggested the name Apollo for this project. Apollowas a God of the Greek mythology, to which as accurate elbow contactors was considered.

planning

the actual NASA plan planned seven missions up to first manned moon-landing. This were the missions A to G.

  • Mission A: Unmanned test that Saturn V and the Apollo spaceship in an earth orbit (twice accomplished with Apollo 4 and Apollo 6).
  • Mission B: Unmanned test of the landing ferry (LM) (accomplished with Apollo 5).
  • Mission C: Manned test of the Apollo cap in the earth orbit (accomplishedwith Apollo 7).
  • Mission D: Test of the combination of command module and landing ferry in a near earth orbit (originally planned as Apollo 8, when Apollo 9 nummeriert again, because a moon flight (mission C') as Apollo 8 one pushed in).
  • Mission E: Test of the combination of command module and landing ferry in a earthfar orbit (mission was painted, crew took over the mission C').
  • Mission F: Test of the combination of command module and landing ferry in a moon orbit (accomplished with Apollo 10).
  • Mission G: First landing on the moon (accomplished with Apollo 11).

The first moon circling accomplished with Apollo 8, Christmas 1968, was actually intended of NASA and with the designation mission C' between the missions C and Dpushed in.

Additionally the missions H, I and J were planned:

  • Mission H: Landing on the moon with extended scientific experiments (accomplished with Apollo 12. Apollo 13 not successfully).
  • Mission I: Landing on the moon with extended scientificExperiments (accomplished with Apollo 14, a further mission painted).
  • Mission J: Landing on the moon with extended scientific experiments and the Mondrover (accomplished with Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17).

racethe systems

by the start of the Sputnik in the year 1957, the first unmanned hard moon-landing 1959 by Lunik-2 and the first manned space flight of Juri Gagarin 1961 the Soviet Union had ascended at the beginning of the space travel age for prominent space travel nation. ThoseAmericans looked for an area of space travel, in which they could strike the Soviet Union. The manned moon-landing was regarded for it as suitably.

To 25. May 1961, only one and a half months after the start of Juri Gagarin, held president John F. Kennedy before the American congress its famous speech, in which it gave the goal to let still in the same decade humans return to the moon and again. With the following words the starting signal for the Apollo project fell:

Ibelieve that this nation should commit itself tons achieving the goal, before this decade is out, OF landing A one on the moon and returning him safely ton the earth. NO single space project in this by iodine wants moreimpressive ton one child, or more important for the long rank exploration OF space; and none wants so difficult or expensive ton accomplish.
(I believe that this country should dedicate itself to the goal, still before end of this decade humansto let land on the moon and to bring it again surely to the earth back. No more only space project will impress mankind in this time interval, or will be more important for the study of more distant space; and none becomes so difficultor expensively to reach its.)

Video cutout of the speech Kennedys

although originally still further starts were planned, became the Apollo project after the sixth successful moon-landing terminated by Apollo 17.

For the manned moon flight to today largest rocket one developed.It received the name Saturn V. The German-American rocket farmer had relevant portion of its development who ago from brown, whose team developed the first stage with the enormous F-1 engines. All starts of this rocket were despite its large achievementand complexity successfully, which is quite noteworthy, since most remaining rocket systems have to register also false starts.

When preparation ran on the moon-landing parallel to the Apollo project the Gemini project, with which experiences should be gained to rendezvous maneuvers in the universe.

To 27. January 1967 suffered the Apollo project a heavy setback. With soil tests the three astronauts Virgil Grissom, Edward H burned. White and Roger B. Chaffee in their cap. The rocket was not refuelled during these tests. The cap was howevernot with usual air, but filled with oxygen with atmospheric positive pressure. Thus a fire within less than one minute from a small electrical spark, which killed the astronauts, became. Extensive changes at the moon cap were the result. The test becamelater lent the designation Apollo 1.

Nevertheless could do with the successful moon-landing of Apollo 11 to 20. July 1969 the goal Kennedys to be reached in time.

At the same time to the Apollo project the Soviet Union worked on an extensive program, that likewise with the landinghumans on the moon to end should. In the context of the Zond - became program modified Soyuz - spaceships unmanned to the moon started and after a moon circulation again to the earth brought. This served the test of the spaceship, that for a manned moon flight meantwas. The Zond-5 cap circled the moon in September 1968, got however with the return off the course and had to be saved from the Indian ocean. In October 1970 the test routine with Zond-8 was terminated, from all missions was onlyZond-7 a full success.

Parallel the Soviet Union worked also on a moon landing mission, which should be started similarly the Apollo with a super+heavy rocket. But the N1 became - rocket develops, however with all four test starts, those from 1969 to 1972took place, failed. Thereupon and in view of the fact that the Americans had already successfully landed on the moon, it gave the Soviet Union up the manned moon program and denied also one to have ever had. Only at the beginning of the 1990ern are information about thisProgram and the N1-Rakete to the public come. For further details see the major item Soviet moon program.

the moon-landing (EN)

first two humans landed in the context of the mission Apollo 11 to 20. July 1969 around 21:17 clock(MEZ) on the moon: Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin. Six hours later, to 21. July around 03:56: , Neil Armstrong entered 20 o'clock MEZ as first humans the moon. It spoke famous the sentence become:

Quotation:That's one small steps for [A] one, one giant leap for one child. listen toTondokument ( ? / License)
(German: “This is a small step for humans, but a large jump for mankind. ”)

“The A” forwards “one” became inlater texts added, in order to receive the sense. In radio traffic it did not have to be heard. Armstrong was asked later thereafter whether he had not said it actually, but he could not remember any longer. Therefore it remains unsettled,whether it was lost through disturbances in radio traffic, or whether Armstrong said this actually in such a way.

The third astronaut, Michael Collins, circled the earth satellite up to the return of the landing unit Eagle in the Apollo parent ship.


In the context of the Apollo programaltogether six moon-landings were accomplished. Thus all together Americans to today 12 humans, whom enter moon, have.Harrison H. Schmitt - moon ferry pilot of Apollo 17 - placed as so far last humans to 12. December 1972 its foot on the moon soil. Eugene Cernan - commander of Apollo 17 - is so far last humans, who were on the moon, by entering as last into the moon ferry.

the “successful” odyssey of Apollo 13

as routine flight started and ofthe public hardly perception, Apollo 13 at the 11 started with the mission. April 1970 the astronauts James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert and Fred W. Haise. Only as on the way to the moon an oxygen tank exploded and therebythe life of the three passengers of the Apollo spaceship was strongly endangered, became the entire world public on the mission attentively. The astronauts could save themselves only by the fact that they purpose-alienated lunar modules as “life raft”. Thus was not to a moon-landing naturallyto think more. Since the spaceship had already left the earth orbit direction moon at the time of the accident and for an immediate direct reversal the fuel by far would not have been sufficient, the only way led back to the earth around the moonaround, whereby the spaceship was accelerated by Swing by - a maneuver with the help of Moon's gravitation again direction earth. After blowing the Servicemodules off before the reentry into the terrestrial atmosphere only the entire extent of the average became short evidently; one assumes that,that the oxygen tank of the gas cells had exploded. Despite the failed moon-landing Apollo 13 is rated nevertheless as success, because had succeeded for the first time to return astronauts from a catastrophic space state of distress living to the earth. After for the astronauts and the soil crews very mucharduous five days succeeded (after a moon orbiting without landing) to 17. April 1970 the landing in the Pacific.

The history of Apollo 13 became 1995 among other things successfully with Tom Hanks films.

typical Apollo Missionsverlauf

  • start in Cape Canaveral
  • separation of the 1. Stage in approx. 56 km height (speed approx. 10,000 km/h - Mach 8)
  • Ignition of the 2. Stage in the high stratosphere and shortly thereafter separation of the escape tower
  • separation of the 2. Stage in approx. 185 kmHeight (speed approx. 24,000 km/h)
  • Ignition of the 3. Stage, swinging into a close earth orbit (speed approx. 28,000 km/h), switching the 3 off. New ignition
  • of the 3 gradates. Stage, (TLI - Trans lunar Injection) expansion of the orbit up to the moon (inContrast to a frequent acceptance no excess of the escape velocity and earth escape (Apollo 8 reached 10.822 km/s - approx. 39,000 km/h [1]) - also on the moon one rules still in one grounds itself orbit).
  • Release of theStage adapter, separation of the parent ship from the 3. Stage, coupling and pulling out lunar modules (lunar excursion module) from its park bay, flight to the moon
  • ignition of the engine of the service Modules (LOI - lunar orbit Insertion), swinging into the moon orbit
  • transferredby 2 astronauts in lunar modules, for 1 astronaut back uncoupling lunar of the Modules,
  • ignition of the landing rubbing work, descent remains for the lunar surface and landing accomplishing various EVAs (
  • extra Vehicular Activity , thus moon investigations) by the astronauts kind of moving of as a pilot
  • in the parent shipthe lunar surface, ascent into the moon orbit. The Landestufe serves as launch pad and stays like also different articles (flag, camera, car), while rock samples are carried forward to the earth.
  • Couple to the parent ship, the astronauts, release of the LM-ascent stage ignition
  • of the engine transferredthe service Modules, (TEI - Trans Earth Injection) leaving the moon orbit and return to the earth
  • EH to saving the films from the service module
  • release of the service Modules, aligning the Apollo cap for the reentry
  • releasing the main parachutes, Splash-down in the landing area
  • salvage by an aircraft carrier

Apollo missions

Mission start remark
Apollo 201 26. February 1966 first start of the Saturn IB, suborbitaler test flight of the Apollo Kommandomoduls
unmanned
Apollo 203 5. July 1966 first orbital start that Saturn IB, test flight without Apollo cap
unmanned
Apollo 202 25. August 1966 suborbitaler test flight of the Apollo Kommandomoduls
unmanned
Apollo 1 (27. January 1967) no start misfortune during a soil test, death of the crew
Virgil Grissom, Edward H. White, Roger B. Chaffee
Apollo 4 9. November 1967 first start of the Saturn V, test flight of the Apollo Kommandomoduls
unmanned
Apollo 5 22. January 1968 test flight of the lunar excursion module
unmanned
Apollo 6 4. April 1968 second start of the Saturn V, test flight
unmanned
Apollo 7 11. October 1968 first manned start of the Saturn 1B. Test in the earth orbit
walter M. Schirra, Donn Eisele, walter Cunningham
Apollo 8 21. December 1968 first manned start of the Saturn V, moon orbiting
franc Borman, James A. Lovell, William differently
Apollo 9 3. March 1969 tests of the landing module in the earth orbit
James McDivitt, David R. Scott, Russell L. Schweickart
Apollo 10 18. May 1969 test of the landing module in the moon orbit, approachesthe lunar surface up to 14 km
Tom Stafford, John W. Young, Eugene Andrew Cernan
Apollo 11 16. July 1969 first moon-landing
Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins
landing strip: Mare Tranquillitatis
Apollo 12 14. November 1969 landingwith the 1967 landed probe Surveyor 3
Charles Conrad, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Gordon, Alan L. Bean
landing strip: Oceanus Procellarum
Apollo 13 11. April 1970 explosion at board, no moon-landing
James A. Lovell, John L. Swigert, Fred Haise
Apollo 14 31. January 1971 Shepard plays gulf on the moon
Alan Shepard, Stuart A. Roosa, Edgar D. Mitchell
landing strip: Fra Mauro
Apollo 15 26. July 1971 first mission with that lunar Roving Vehicle (moon car)
David R. Scott, James Irwin, Alfred M.
Landing strip: Hadley gutter
Apollo 16 16. April 1972 first investigation of a Hochebene, employment UV camera, moon car
John W. Young, Thomas's K. Mattingly, Charles M. Duke
landing strip: Descartes
Apollo 17 7. December 1972 Last moon-landing, moon car
Eugene Andrew Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, Harrison H. Schmitt
landing strip: Taurus Littrow

short after the successful moon-landing of Apollo 11 published NASA the further planning, which planned 1972 nine further Apolloflüge to end. But alreadyin January 1970, still before the delay by the breakdown of Apollo 13, Apollo 20 from cost reasons was painted. In September 1970 Apollo 15 and Apollo 19, the remaining flights Apollo 16, Apollo 17 followed and Apollo 18 were again nummeriert with Apollo 15 , Apollo 16 and Apollo 17.

The Apollokapseln and Saturnraketen still existing after the conclusion of the moon flights became for the Skylab - project 1973/74 and the Apollo Soyuz project 1975 uses.

Mission start Remark
Skylab 1 14. May 1973 start of the Skylab station, damage Solarzellenausleger
unmanned
Skylab 2 25. May 1973 Erstbesatzung Skylab, Reparatur solar cells and heat shield
Charles Conrad, Paul J. Weitz, Dr. Joseph P. Kerwin
Skylab 3 28. July 1973 second crew Skylab,Repair heat shield
Alan L. Bean, Dr. Owen K. Garriott, Jack R. Lousma
Skylab 4 16. November 1973 third crew Skylab
Gerald P. Carr, Dr. Edward G. Gibson, William R. Pogue
Apollo Soyuz project 15. July 1975 coupling with Soyuz 19 (Alexei Leonow,Waleri Kubassow)
crew: Thomas Stafford, Vance fire, Deke Slayton

conspiracy theories

major items: Moon-landing lie

as with nearly all events of so large consequence, also the moon-landings became the object of numerous conspiracy theories. Of the trailers of the most daring theory,the moon-landing is only a Hoax, is doubted that it came at all to a moon-landing in the years 1969 to 1972. Becomes multiple in this case of a moon-landing lie or a moon-landing conspiracy of NASA and/or. the US Government spoken.

The conspiracy theories build mainly on a set of inconsistencies with the picture recordings of the different moon-landings, for example “fall” the shade with some photographs not parallel (like that as it with the source of light sun would be usual), but run in different directions whichon a Studiobeleuchtung to point could. Another “picture proof” are 2 photographs of the moon with an absolutely identical background, according to statement of NASA the two photographs however at different places on the moon and with different moon-landings were taken up.

That2003 developed pseudo documentation film Kubrick, Nixon and the man in the moon plays with this conspiracy theory, by arousing the impression by skillful assembly from historical film sequences and fictitious interviews, the first moon-landing is only a cinematic production of Stanley Kubrick been.

This topic was taken up also cinematic and by the example of one the public vorgegaukelten Mars landing through-drilled. The 1978 developed film enterprise Capricorn shows the action only pretended in the Filmstudio and intensifies the material by the fact that the before not inauguratedAstronauts with this fraud do not along-play. Possibly the film still strengthened the legend formation by its public effect at that time.

literature

the texts are English-language. German-language literature is characterized accordingly.

Apollo mission report

  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 11 withDVD, Apogee Books, 2002, ISBN 1896522858
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 17: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2002, ISBN 1896522599 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 16: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2002, ISBN 1896522580 (book &CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 15: The NASA mission of report, volume One, Apogee Books, 2001, ISBN 1896522572 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 14: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2001, ISBN 1896522564 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo13: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2000, ISBN 1896522556 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 12: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 1999, ISBN 1896522548 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 11: The NASA mission of report,Apogee Books, 1999, ISBN 1896522491 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 10: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2000, ISBN 1896522688 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 9: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 1999, ISBN 1896522513 (book& CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 8: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2000, ISBN 1896522661 (book & CD)
  • Robert Godwin, Apollo 7: The NASA mission of report, Apogee Books, 2000, ISBN 1896522645 (book & CD)

general

  • Andrew Chaikin, A one on the Moon, Penguin Books 1995, ISBN 0140272011
  • David M. Harland, Exploring the Moon, Springer, 1999, ISBN of 1852330996
  • genes wreath/ring, failure is emergency at option, Berkley Books 2001, ISBN 0425179877
  • Chris Kraft, Flight:My would run in mission control, Penguin Putnam, 2002, ISBN 0452283043
  • various ones, The Secret OF Apollo: System management in American and European space Programs, John Hopkins University press, 2002, ISBN 080186898X
  • various one, Taking Science ton the Moon: Lunar experimentand the Apollo Program, John Hopkins University press, 2001, ISBN 0801865999
  • Jesco of Puttkamer, Apollo 11, we see the earth, Herbig, 2001, ISBN 3776670568 (German)
  • Jim Lovell, Apollo 13, Langenscheidt Longman, 2001, ISBN 3526451842 (German)
  • Moon of countries, HowIncoming goods Developed the Apollo lunar modules, Smithsonian Books, 2001, ISBN 156098998X
  • Eugene Cernan, The load one on the Moon, Griffin, 2000, ISBN 0312263511
  • James E. Webb, Powering Apollo, John Hopkins University press, 2000, ISBN 0801862051
work on []

To DVDs

  • From The Earth ton of The Moon, 1998
  • Apollo 13, 1995
  • For universe one child - Criterion Collection, 1989

see also

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)