Apollo spaceship

North American Apollo CSM
Apollo CSM-112 in der Mondumlaufbahn
Apollo CSM-112 in the moon orbit
description
use: Ground connection and moon orbit
crew: 3: Commander, CSM pilot, LM pilot
dimensions
height: 11.03 m
diameters: 3.90 m
volumes: 6.17 m 3
masses
cm: 5,809 kg
SM: 24,523 kg
of entire: 30,332 kg
of engines
cm Steuerdüsen (N 2 O 4 /UDMH) 12 x 412 N
SM Steuerdüsen (N 2 O 4 /UDMH) 16 x 441 N
main drive
(N 2 O 4 /UDMH)
1 x 97.86 kN
field data
mission duration: 14 days (200 orbits around the earth)
apogee: 386.242 km
perigee: 160 km
delta v: 2804 m/s
Apollo CSM diagram
CSM mit Rettungsturm (NASA)
CSM with escape tower (NASA)
North American Apollo CSM


The Apollo spaceship was developed in the context of the Apollo project by North American aviation. It consists of two components: the command module (cm) and the service module (SM). The combination (CSM) was separated only briefly before the reentry into the terrestrial atmosphere. Only the cm with the three astronauts is equipped for a splash-down in the sea.

Table of contents

command module (cm)

the cm has a mass of 5.900 kg with a height of 3,23 m and a diameter of 3,91 M.

stabilization parachutes

as well as the three large main parachutes are accommodated front part in the front part. The latters open after the reentry at a value of 2,5 km. Two screens are sufficient for a safe splash-down. With Apollo 15 one of the three screens failed, without it would have come to damage or injuries. Further two Steuerdüsen of the situation control system for the reentry as well as the coupling system and the hatch for the lunar excursion module are attached in the upper range. Antennas and signal lights are around the salvage on lake to facilitate here as well as the inflatable balloons of the putting up system locking if the cap after the splash-down with the point swim downward.

center section

Schnittbild des Apollo-CM
sectional view of the Apollo cm

is here the pressure resistant cab for the astronauts. In it are accommodated the main instrument panel as a check and controlling of the spaceship, the life support systems and some material cabinets. There is five small windows and laterally the hatch for in and door. The life support systems control the cab atmosphere and hold the temperature with 22 degrees. During the flight it insists of pure oxygen with a third of the pressure on earth. Only in the starting phase, after the sorrowful realizations from the disaster with Apollo 1, 40% are added nitrogen. On board are besides maps of the moon as also from the earth, star maps for navigation and orbit maps for everyone of the individual mission phases.

The space conditions in the cm are expressed restrained with 2 m ³ per astronaut.

tail

in the tail of the cm 10 further Steuerdüsen of the situation control system for the reentry, their fuel as well as helium are accommodated - and water tanks.

instruments of the cm

the main part of the instruments is on the main control board, opposite the three couches of the astronauts. The life support systems are appropriate on the left side of the module. The disposal systems on the right side. The astronauts know the spaceship by means of at two of the three couches attached handcontrol-learn (Flysticks) to steer and stabilize. The main control console is divided into three ranges. They are in such a way designed that they can be served by the astronauts also with gloves.

Instrumententafel des CM
Instrument panel of the cm
  • flight control is on the left side, the place of the commander. In addition instruments for stabilization, control, thrust and landing belong. Further the emergency systems just like one of the operating sectors (DSKY - display & key board) for the control and navigation computer (AGC - Apollo GUI thanks computer), a further identically constructed operating sector is at the Navigationstelekop attached.
  • In the center the pilot of the command module sits. In its range are the warning systems as well as the controllers for life support and the tanks. To basing the seat are the optical navigational instruments, which are used several times in the flight, in order to adjust before corrections of course the gyroscope compass ( IMU - I nertial M easurement U rivet). Among them also a firmly inserted sextant for positioning as well as a telescope are. The design of this sextant deviates however from the usual devices. Without this sextant Apollo 16 would be guessed/advised into serious difficulties, since on this mission the electronic navigation system had failed. On this job is also other operating sector for the computer.
  • On the right side the pilot of the lunar excursion module sits. In its segment the control systems for communication , electrical connection , data memory and gas cells are attached.

, under

the high speed of the command module, friction forces arise to heat shield of the cap during the reentry into the terrestrial atmosphere . The friction brakes the module. Thus however also extremely high temperatures of up to 3.000 degrees arise. Therefore a heat shield is necessary, which keeps this heat away from the sensitive systems. As heat shield an epoxy resin is used with the Apollo cap. This at high temperatures white-hot, charred then, until it melts away in the end. The heat is derived and cooled by melting for that sign.

service module (SM)

Explosionsdarstellung des Servicemoduls
explosion representation of the service module
Steuerdüsen (RCS) am Servicemodul
Steuerdüsen (RCS) on the service module

the SM is cylindric, 7.50 m for a long time and 4 m a through-measuring construction. It contains the electrical, life support and communication systems. It is partitioned in central as well as further 6 external sections. In it are tanks for the drive, the depth control, the generation of current and the life support systems; the Steuertriebwerke and the master engine. At the exterior are four building groups with four Steuerdüsen each, clearance lights, three antennas and four parabolic antennas for communication and the radar - transponders.

structure

Verbindung des CM mit dem SM bei Apollo 6
connection of the cm with the SM with Apollo 6

the structure of the service module consists of an internal cylinder surrounded with a diameter of approximately a meter, by an outside cylinder by 4 m diameters. Partitions divide the area between internal and outside cylinder in six sectors. The cylinders are locked in front and in the back through bulkhead.

The internal cylinder contains two spherical tanks with helium under high pressure.

The six sectors are occupied as follows:

  • Sector 1 is at first unused a 50°-Segment and. After the misfortune of Apollo 13 in the top a third oxygen tank was built here. During the flights of Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 here additionally still scientific instruments were for the study of the lunar surface from the moon orbit, like cameras, altimeters and radiation detectors.
  • Sector 2 70° and is used enclosure for the oxidizer storage tank.
  • Sector 3 is a 60°-Segment and contains the oxidizer storage tank.
  • Sector 4 is 50°-Segment. In the top the three gas cells are accommodated, among them the two tanks with supercritical oxygen for the gas cells and the life support systems. Completely down are two tanks with supercritical hydrogen for the gas cells.
  • Sector 5, a 70° segment contains the fuel storage tank.
  • Sector 6 is a further 60°-Segment for the fuel storage tank.

engine

Schema des Antriebs
pattern of the drive

the engine of the SM, the AJ10-137 developed of the aero jet general corporation, produces a thrust of 97,5 kN and is appropriate for maximally 50 Zündvorgänge. As fuel Aerozin 50 is used, a mixture from 50% hydrazine and 50% asymmetrical Dimethylhydrazin, as oxidizer is used nitrogen tetroxide , storable hypergole fuels. The engine does not have a pump. Rather the fuel and the oxidizer are pressed by helium as propulsion gas from its tanks into the combustion chamber. The entire engine and the engine nozzle have a length of 3,90 m and to weigh together 293 kg. However the nozzle is 2.80 m long and has a diameter of 2,10 M.

tanks

two fuel tanks with one capacity of in each case 7 t, and two oxidizer tanks with a capacity of in each case 11.3 t supply the engine. The two spherical helium tanks are in the center section of the module. Two further tanks with a volume of in each case 144 l supply the oxygen for the gas cells and the life support. Besides there are two Wasserstofftanks with a volume of in each case 13 l for the gas cells. The misfortune with Apollo 13 was to be due to a defective heater element in one of the oxygen tanks, which were used already in former times in a cap, removed before the start of the earlier cap however again and used despite the defect with Apollo 13.

are responsible to current supply

of the CSM three gas cells for the generation of current and supply of the spaceship. They produce warmth and drinking water beside the river still. Further silver - zinc oxide - supplies batteries 1.5 KW river and ensures the supply during the reentry and the landing. Two further silver zinc oxide batteries in the cm produce 28 Watts and release the explosions in the Sprengbolzen for the separation of the third rocket stage, for the separation from cm and SM as well as those of the Fluchtturms . They are responsible also for the release of the parachutes. Altogether the CSM needs only an electrical output of 2000 W.

There with the Skylabs - missions the spaceship for longer time to be inactive had, the appropriate copies CSM-116 to CSM-119 not with gas cells, but with batteries were equipped.

CSM-002 A-004 20

probably scraps
the individual Apollo spaceships block I
serial number used for starting date
the whereabouts CSM-001 test equipment. January 1966 command cap issued in the Cradle OF aviation, Long Iceland, New York
CSM-004 static tests, heat tests scraps
CSM-006 scraps
CSM-007 different tests, among other things CSM-009 AS-201 and drop test 26 scraps acoustic vibrations and drop test command cap issued in the museum
OF Flight, Seattle, Washington
CSM-008 for heat and vacuum tests. February 1966 command cap issued in the Strategic air & space museum, Ashland, Nebraska
CSM-010 command cap issued in the U.S. Space & Rocket center, Huntsville, Alabama
CSM-011 AS-202 25. August 1966 command cap issued in national the air & space museum, Washington (D.C.)
CSM-012 Apollo 1; Command cap by fires destroys command cap kept in the Langley Research center, Hampton, Virginia
CSM-014 command cap dismantled in the context of the Apollo-1-Untersuchung. Service of modules (SM-014) flew 6 4 with Apollo. April 1968
CSM-017 Apollo 4 9. November 1967 command cap issued in the Stennis space center, Bay pc. Louis, Mississippi
CSM-020 CM-020 was used together with SM-014 for Apollo 6, after SM-020 was destroyed by an explosion 4. April 1968 command cap issued in remote bank the Science center, Atlanta
block II
serial number uses the whereabouts CSM-098 for
heat and vacuum test spaceship for starting date issued in the Academy OF Science museum, Moscow (possibly. there in addition, only one model stands)
for CSM-099 load test possibly. scrapped, perhaps in addition, museum, Washington (D.C.) divides CSM-100 load test possibly into national
the air & space. kept in national the air & space museum, Washington (D.C.)
CSM-101 Apollo 7 11. October 1968 command cap issued in national the museum OF Science & Technology, Ottawa, Canada
CSM-102 test equipment in the Kennedy space center possibly. kept in national the air and space museum, Washington (D.C.)
CSM-103 Apollo 8 21. December 1968 command cap issued in the museum OF Science and Industry in Chicago
CSM-104

Gumdrop

Apollo 9 3. March 1969 command cap issued in San Diego Aerospace museum
CSM-105 vibration test and demonstration for Apollo Soyuz project command cap issued in national the air and space museum, Washington (D.C.) as Apollo Soyuz project
CSM-106

Charlie Brown

Apollo 10 25. August 1966 command cap issued in the Science museum, London
CSM-107

Columbia

Apollo 11 16. July 1969 command cap issued in national the air & space museum, Washington (D.C.)
CSM-108

Yankee tie-clip by

Apollo 12 14. November 1969 command cap issued in the Virginia air & space center, Hampton, Virginia
CSM-109

Odyessy

Apollo 13 11. April 1970 command cap issued in the Kansas Cosmosphere and space center
CSM-110

Kitty Hawk

Apollo 14 31. January 1971 command cap issued in the United States astronaut resound to OF Fame, Titusville, Florida
CSM-111 Apollo Soyuz project 15. July 1975 command cap issued RK Kennedy space center Visitor's Complex
CSM-112

Endeavour

Apollo 15 26. July 1971 command cap issued RK national museum OF the United States air Force, WRIGHT Patterson air Force cousin, Dayton, Ohio
CSM-113

Casper

Apollo 16 16. April 1972 command cap issued in the U.S. Space & Rocket center, Huntsville, Alabama
CSM-114

America

Apollo 17 7. December 1972 command cap issued in the Lyndon B. Johnson space center, Houston, Texas
CSM-115 -- Not finished. Issued as part of the Saturn V in the Lyndon B. Johnson space center, Houston
CSM-115a -- not finished
CSM-116 Skylab 2 25. May 1973 command cap issued in national the museum OF Naval aviation, Pensacola, Florida
CSM-117 Skylab 3 28. July 1973 command cap issued in the Glenn Research center, Cleveland, Ohio
CSM-118 Skylab 4 16. November 1973 command cap issued in national the air & space museum, Washington (D.C.)
CSM-119 ready held as rescue spaceship for Skylabs and as reserve for the Apollo Soyuz project issued in the Kennedy space center
 

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