Apollo 16

Apollo project
mission emblem
Apollo-16-Logo
mission data
mission: Apollo 16
commander:
Pilot of the command cap:
Pilot of the moon ferry:
John W. Young
Thomas K. Mattingly
Charles Moss Duke
start to: 16. April 1972
landing to: 27. April 1972
duration: 11 days, 1 hour
landing strip: Pacific
0.70°S 156.22°W
moon circling: 64
Salvage vessel: USS Ticonderoga
crew photo

Apollo 16 - v.l.n.r. Thomas's K. Mattingly, John W. Young, Charles M. Duke

previous mission:

Apollo 15

the following mission:

Apollo 17

Apollo 16 was the next to last mission within the American Apollo program. It became, including the primary goal, thatfifth manned landing on the moon, successfully finally.

Table of contents

crew

at the 3. March 1971, briefly after the flight of Apollo 14 NASA communicated the crew for the mission Apollo 16 . As a commander the space veteran John Young was selected, which had to show already two Gemini flights and a moon flight with Apollo 10. Pilot of the command cap should become Ken Mattingly, which was nominated already for Apollo 13,however one withdrew at short notice. As a pilot of the lunar excursion module Charles Duke was nominated.

Some months before the Apolloprogramm had been shortened again. The last moon flight should take place now with Apollo 17. For this reason NASA for the reinforcement did not nominate any longer young astronauts, the threeFlights to captain shank to later ascend should, but divided already experienced spacemen. For Apollo 16 those consisted reinforcement of the commander Fred Haise, the pilot of the command cap Stuart Roosa and moon ferry pilot Edgar Mitchell. All three had already a Apolloflug behind itself. Would beCharles Duke would have failed Edgar Mitchell thus the possibility, the first astronaut to become had, who landed two times on the moon.

The support crew (support crew) consisted of Henry Hartsfield, Anthony England and Donald Peterson. England was a science astronaut from the sixth group of selections, Hartsfield andPeterson belonged to the seven astronauts, who had come in August 1969 of US air Force to NASA, after the air Force had terminated the plans for its own manned space program (MOL).

preparation

the individual stages of the Saturn V rocket AS-511zwiwschen July and September 1970 in Cape Kennedy were delivered. The Apollo spaceship CSM-113 received the name Casper after a Comic figure. The lunar excursion module LM-11 received the name Orion, after the constellation.

To 13. December 1971 could be rolled the rocket to the launch pad 39-A,had however of 27. January 1972 up to 9. February again when assembly assembling, so that leakages could be repaired.

As a connecting speaker (Capcom) during the flight the substitutes served Haise, Roosa and Mitchell, the support crew Hartsfield, England and Peterson, the Apollo-15-Astronaut James Irwin, as well as Robert Overmyer and Gordon filler clay/tone, both former US-air-Force-astronauts.

Flugverlauf

start and outward flight

the start took place to 16. April 1972, 17:54 clock UT starting from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Three days after the start that fell Navigation system out. The positioning had to take place therefore without technical equipment, only with the help of a classical sextant. , Briefly after the lunar excursion module “Orion” had separated from the command module “Casper”, the ignition of the master engine continued to fail . Soil control stated after Simulationen then that the resulting Course deviation was controllable, so that the mission could being continued like planned.

on the moon

the landing strip of the Orion taken up of Charles M. Duke

a goal was the Descartes Hochplateau, which they reached also over five hours delay. The landing could not for the first timein the television to be transferred, since the transmitter of the lunar excursion module had failed. Only as the plant of the moon car , could the happening was installed again be pursued. The scientific program of the crew on the moon covered in the nuclear operated ALSEP (Apollo lunar Surface of experiment Package):

Also astronomical photographs were accomplished for the first time by means of a UV camera (Spektrograf). The film became upthe earth evaluated.

Three larger EVAs should be accomplished, with which the moon car carried valuable services out. Straight one before the background of the difficulties with the MET of the Apollo 14 was this a success.

  • The first EH was coined/shaped by the installation of the scientific experiments in thatcloser environment of the landing place. It besides still another short exit to the Kratern flag and Ray was accomplished. 7h 11min lasted and still led the EH across a distance of 4,2 km.
  • Led the second EH to the Kratern Cinco, Stubby and Wreck. With thisTrip was brought a drill to the employment, which supplied core samples from three meters. The route had an extent of 11 km and lasted 7h 23min.
  • 5h 40min lasted the third EH and had the North Ray Krater to the goal. Here the crew put 11.4 km back.

return flight

after Young and Duke into the command cap Casper had transferred, should the moon ferry as usual controlled on the moon fall. After uncoupling the ferry began to tumble however. Planned igniting of the engines was not accomplished, so that Orion stillabout one year in the moon orbit remained.

Before leaving the orbit still another small satellite from the SIM Bay of the Apollo spaceship was suspended. It concerned the same model, which had already brought Apollo 15 into a moon orbit. The satellite examinedthe features of the Erdmagnetosphäre as well as the solar wind in moon proximity and its influence on the magnetic field, until it smashed on the moon.

The return flight went without problems. Ken Mattingly led EH, a “ space walk in such a way specified “during the return flight still anotherout. Altogether it was 1h 24min outside of the cap.

With the reentry the astronauts had to bear a pressure of 7,19 g, the highest value, which was measured for a Apollo mission. To 27. April 1972 around 19:45 clock landed on water Apollo 16 in the Pacific and became of Aircraft carrier USS Ticonderoga saved. The crew brought with this mission 95.8 kg to moon rock also on earth. A sample of this rock can be visited in the Nördlinger Rieskrater museum.

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