|of these articles describes the Apostel in the Christian sense; other meanings under Apostel (term clarifying).|
A Apostel (male, v. griech.: απόστολος apóstolos and/or. aramäisch: saliah = envoy, sending messenger) is in the understanding of the Christian tradition someone, of Jesus Christ as a “envoy” assigned is direct. By Aposteln one reports in the Bible, in particular in the gospels and in the Apostelgeschichte.
Table of contents
Apostel strictly speaking
in the gospels
in the gospels of the Bible by a selection from June gladly the Jesu Christi one reports, which are also called briefly „the twelve Apostel “ or „the twelve “. This number has due to the Jewish tradition of the twelve Trunks of Israel a special meaning. The Lukasevangelium and Markusevangelium report agreeing the fact that Jesus chose the twelve young and as Apostel began (process card 6.13 and Mk 3.14).
The Lukasevangelium essentially follows this enumerating (6.13 FF). The Thaddäus it calls however “Judas, brother (younger) of the Jakobus”, and Simon (Kanaanäus) is called Zelot, thus “zealots”.
In the Johannesevangelium no formal list exists to thatApostel. There twice a Nathanael steps on (Johannes 1.45 FF; 21,2), which does not appear in the other gospels. It is called not Apostel, in Johannes 21.2 is it after the Auferstehung Jesu however in its society. It is probably identically to Bartholomäus, which is specified in the same episode in the Apostelgeschichte (Apg 1.13) at Nathanaels place.
Here a tabular comparison of the three passages in the text:
|#||matte house gospel||Markusevangelium||Lukasevangelium||notes|
|1||Simon Petrus||Simon Petrus||Simon Petrus|
|2||Andreas,„its brother “||Andreas's||Andreas, „its brother “||brother of the Simon Petrus|
|3||Jakobus, the son of the Zebedäus||Jakobus, the son of the Zebedäus||Jakobus||„Jakobus the older one “|
|4||Johannes, „its brother “||Johannes, „its brother “||Johannes||such as Jakobus the older one a son of theZebedäus. Identity with the EH gelists Johannes not demonstrably.|
|6||Bartholomäus||Bartholomäus||Bartholomäus||„Bartholomäus “(surname) probably identically to „Nathanael “ (Rufname) from the Johannesevangelium|
|7||Thomas's||Thomas's||Thomas||„Didymos Judas Thomas “|
|8||matte house, (former) the tax tenant||matte house||matte house||Identity with the EH gelists matte house not demonstrably|
|9||Jakobus, the son of the Alphäus||Jakobus, the son of the Alphäus||Jakobus, the son of the Alphäus||„Jakobus the younger one “|
|10||Thaddäus||Thaddäus||Judas, „its brother “||like Jakobus the younger one a son of the Alphäus,„Judas “Rufname, „Thaddäus “surname|
|11||Simon Kanaanäus||Simon Kanaanäus||Simon Zelotes||„Kanaanäer “origin name, „Zelotes “ surname („zealots “, member of a movement of independence)|
|12||Judas Ischariot||Judas Ischariot||Judas Ischariot||„Ischariot “surname „man from Kariot “(more probably) or „Sikarier “ („measurer fighters “, member of a movement of independence, less probably)|
in the Apostelgeschichte
Judas Ischariot after the betrayal of Jesus killed itself there, briefly after the Ascension Day Jesu, Matthias as one of the twelve one after-selected (Apostelgeschichte 1.15 FF). The report on its by-election particularly is interesting, because it calls the conditions, which a member of the apostolischen Zwölfergruppe has to exhibit:
- That must be one of the men, those with us (the other Zwölfen) was in all the time, in that the Mr. Jesus with usin and went out, with the baptism of the Johannes on up to the day, on which it was accepted . With us it is to become the witness of its Auferstehung. (Apg 1.21-22)
the Biografie of the Apostels Paulus did not correspond to these conditions.It had its meeting with Jesus Christ only after Whitsuntide. Which concerned the “historical” Jesus, Paulus was dependent on information of the other Apostel and young as well as on special revealing. Into Romans 11.13 Paulus calls itself Apostel of the heathsand describes thereby his special assignement, which it had already received according to its statements with its Bekehrung.
The new will works only few young and/or. Apostel as individuals out (z. B. Simon Petrus, Johannes, Judas Ischariot). They remain general toon their names or individual events colorless. However numerous legends are delivered over the life way of these Apostel. So the Thomas's gospel is to India brought and Jakobus the older one its grave in Santiago de Compostela (translated: Holy Jakob of the star field) found.
in the new will
does not go here it around the chosen twelve, but the term “Apostel” is used in the literal sense - envoys.
- In Hebräer 3.1 Jesus Christ becomeseven as the Apostel and high priest of our confession designates.
- Into Romans 16.7 Andronikus and Iunia (or Iunias) are mentioned as men, who are respectable under the Aposteln.
- In Apostelgeschichte 14.14 Barnabas is called Apostel, before loudApostelgeschichte was chosen 13.1-4 together with Paulus to the work, as which she had appointed the gentleman.
- Paulus calls Jakobus, “the Mr. Bruder”, Apostel (Galater 1.19). Meant Jakobus the older one is supposed.
- Silvanus and Timotheus call themselves togetherwith Paulus Christi Apostel (1 Thessalonicher 2.7 in connection with 1 Thessalonicher 1.1)
- in Epheser 4.11 the office of the Apostels as well as the offices of the prophets, EH gelists, Hirten and teachers as one of the fundamental services of the church one marks.
- The three women, whom at the Ostermorgen on the way to the grave first the customer of the Auferstehung received, are called - however outside of the Biblical reports - sometimes the Apostel of the Apostel, because they passed the Auferstehungsbotschaft on the Aposteln as first.
in the catholic and orthodox church
in the catholic one and the orthodox church the bishops apply as successors of the Apostel, differ however from these by the fact that they have a firm seat. The title of a Apostels havethe bishops however never carried.
in Protestant churches
some Protestant churches, in particular such the Pfingstbewegung, know the service of the Apostels (together with the services of the teacher, Hirten, prophet and EH gelists ) in their municipalities in accordance with. Epheser 4,11. They see thisOffice as function without special privileges. Within the range of the house churches and the so-called. New Apostolics (not to confound with the “apostolischen churches”) wins the Apostel a substantial meaning within informal networks, not however within a hierarchy. Is also here Epheser4.11 basis.
in apostolischen churches
a so-called “Apostelamt of the modern times” was furnished in the catholic Apostoli municipalities around 1832. They appointed themselves thereby to a direct instruction of God. Also the numerous successor organizations of these municipalities know usually the Apostelamt.The Neuapostoli church (NAK) as the most well-known splitting off and/or. Successor organization knows the office of the Stammapostels and the Apostel, which are passed on within the church. The Stammapostel is the religious head of the Apostel of the NAK, it appoints it being subordinate Bezirksapostel andApostel. The Netherlands “Apostolisch Genootschap” and the communities, like the German Apostoli community, united in the combination of Apostoli municipalities, knows likewise the Apostelamt, however with a changed meaning and authority.
in mormonischen churches
in the churchJesu Christi of the holy ones of the last days exists likewise the office of the Apostels. There are only 15 living Apostel, which form the first presidency and the Kollegium of the twelve Apostel. Also different mormonische churches like the community Christi and Apostel have the church Christi with the Elias message.
Wiktionary: Apostel - word origin, synonyms and translations
- Neuapostoli church, Stammapostel, Johann Gottfried Bischoff
- catholic apostolische municipalities
- Apostoli community
- Apostelamt Jesu Christi
- portal: Bible
- Jürgen Roloff: Apostel, Apostolat, Apostolizität I. New will, in: Theological material encyclopedia, Bd. 3. de Gruyter, Berlin 1993, S. 430ff. (with further Lit.), ISBN 3-11-013898-0
- Jörg Frey: Apostelbegriff, Apostelamt and Apostolizität. Neutestamentliche perspectives to the question about the “Apostolizität”the church, in: The church office in apostolischer follow-up. I. Dialogue of the churches, 12. Hrsg. v. T. Cutter, G. Wenz. Freiburg - Goettingen 2004, S. 91-188 (differentiated, comprehensive representation), ISBN 3-451-28320-4, ISBN 3-525-56933-5
- Jürgen Roloff: Apostolat - Verkündigung- Church. Origin, contents and function of the church Apostelamtes after Paulus, Lukas and the Pastoralbriefen, Gütersloh 1965
- Rudolf Schnackenburg: Apostel before and beside Paulus, in: Writings to the new will. Exegese in progress and change, hrsg. v. R.Schnackenburg, Kösel: Munich 1971, S. 338-358
- Ferdinand cock: The Apostolat in the Urchristentum, in: Kerygma and dogma 20, 1974, S. 54-77
- John MacArthur: Twelve completely normal humans, CLV: Bielefeld 2004 (with chapters to each individual Apostel Jesu (on-line, pdf, 1.3 MT)), ISBN 3-8939-7959-X
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