License to practise medicine order

license to practise medicine orders (of lat. approbatio = approval,) regulate permission in Germany the permission to the academic occupations of welfare physician, dentist, veterinary surgeon, psychological Psychotherapeut, child and Jugendlichenpsychotherapeut and pharmacists. The license to practise medicine orders are federally uniform specified. They describe the training for the respective occupation, i.e. Minimum period, expiration and obligation contents of the study and further necessary training sections. In addition they specify the conditions for the national examinations and other conditions for the distribution of the license to practise medicine .

Table of contents


the license to practise medicine order for physicians (ÄApprO) is issued by the Federal Ministry for health and social safety device on the basis of the federal physician order. The revised version of 27. June 2002 solved the first license to practise medicine order for physicians from 28. October 1970 off. After their is a goal of the medical training: that scientifically and practically in the medicine trained physician, who is qualified for constant advanced training for the solely responsible and independent medical practise of the profession, for the further training and. The training is to obtain fundamental knowledge, abilities and talents in all subjects, which are necessary for a comprehensive health care of the population. The training as the physician is patient-referred accomplished on scientific basis and practice and. (out § 1)

a study of the medicine of six years at a university or a university on an equal footing, whereby the last year includes coherent practical training of 48 weeks (“practical year”), is prescribed training in first assistance, a nursing for the sick service of three months, a Famulatur of four months and the medical examination, which are to be put down in two sections. The average period of study amounts to including the test time for the second section of the medical examination six years and three months.

The first section of the medical examination after a study of two years steps to the place of the past medical preliminary test (Physikum). It covers the fan physics and physiology, chemistry and biochemistry/molecular biology, biology and anatomy, medical psychology and medical sociology.

The second section after a further study of four years replaces the three-part state examination. After existence of the second section the graduates can request their license to practise medicine. Since that 1. October 2004 is abolished the obligation time required before the full license to practise medicine as a physician in the practical course.


forerunner of the first license to practise medicine order for physicians was the Bestallungsordnung for physicians (BO) of 15. September 1953. It prescribed training of eleven terms at the university and a two-year time as Medizinalassistent .

To 17. July 1939 had prescribed the realm government at that time a study of ten terms, a six month's nursing for the sick service, a sechswöchigen factory or land service and a six month's activity as Famulus.

dental medicine

the license to practise medicine order for dentists of of 26. January 1955 (BGBl. I, S. 37 and BGBl. III 2123-2) with 4 change regulations to 1992 and entering afterwards (731. Supply. The German Federal Law March 1995) regulates the dental training, the test regulations and the further conditions for the distribution of the license to practise medicine than dentist and/or. Zahnärztin. Afterwards dental with covers a study of the dentistry of ten terms at a scientific university, from a before-clinical and a clinical part of five terms each builds itself up and the following national examinations:

  • the scientific preliminary test,
  • the dental preliminary test and
  • the dental examination.

The average period of study in the sense of the university framework law amounts to including the test time for the dental examination ten terms and six months.

psychological Psychotherapeut

the license to practise medicine for psychological Psychotherapeuten is regulated from the 1999 into force stepped Psychotherapeutengesetz. It presupposes an final study of the psychology, training in “scientifically recognized” psychotherapeutischen procedures as well as a fixed professional experience.

veterinary medicine

at present valid version of the veterinary license to practise medicine order (TAppO) comes from 10. November 1999.

The average period of study amounts to five one half year and covers thereby 11 term.

The study is divided into sections. The first 4 “before-clinical” terms contain 2 examinations. After 2 terms in the Vorphysikum the technical physics, chemistry, Zoologie, Botanik and general radiology are examined. After 4 terms the Physikum which can be put down contains the fan anatomy, Histologie and Embryologie, biochemistry, physiology as well as animal breeding and genetics. With existed Physikum the student becomes the candidate of the veterinary medicine (cand. med. vet.).

After altogether at least 5 completed terms the first section of the veterinary examination can be put down (1. State examination). Here the proof is over sufficient knowledge within the range of the Virologie, bacteriology and Mykologie, Parasitologie, to furnish animal nutrition and animal husbandry as well as animal hygiene. The permission to this examination is bound to a vierwöchiges practical course in a veterinary practice or an animal hospital.

At the earliest after conclusion 9. Term can do that 2. State examination to be completed. It contains examinations in general pathology and special pathological anatomy and Histologie, internal medicine, surgery including clinical radiology, physiology and pathology of the reproduction, poultry diseases and Parmakologie and toxicology. Certification requirement is the dreiwöchige training for hygiene control in an authority responsible for it.

With the third state examination the study ends. Before distribution of the examination must during 10. Term further extensive practical course completed in a kurativen practice or hospital its. Besides an at least dreiwöchiges slaughterhouse practical course is to be done. The test fan are: Animal protection, animal you fight, food science, milk customer, meat and poultry meat hygiene, medicine and beta exercise central right and veterinary occupation and professional ethics.

After conclusion of the third state examination the test specimen receives the license to practise medicine and is justified to work as a veterinary surgeon. The study can a graduation and further post office-gradual training (specialized veterinary surgeon, European specialized veterinary surgeon) follow.


the newest version of the license to practise medicine order for pharmacist (AAppO) stepped at the 1. October 2001 into force. She is to be found multiple in the Internet as Download.

The license to practise medicine order for pharmacists plans university studies of the pharmacy of at least four years. The average period of study amounts to eight specialized terms, frequently however still another one learning term is inserted.

After four terms the “first section in such a way specified of the pharmaceutical examination” takes place. It consists of four examinations in the subjects general ones, inorganic and organic chemistry, bases of pharmaceutical biology, physics and physical chemistry, as well as pharmaceutical analytics. The test questions are placed federally uniform of Institut for medical and pharmaceutical test questions (IMPP) in Mainz and follow the multiple choice procedure, are thus written.

After the respected specialized term a test cycle follows from five verbal examinations. The fan are pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology, pharmaceutical biology, pharmaceutical technology and since newest clinical pharmacy.

The second section of the pharmaceutical examination terminates the university studies and justified for making a thesis (diploma) and the beginning of a graduation study.

In order to receive the license to practise medicine as pharmacists, however still another practical year must be completed, which can be divided into two halves. At least a half year must be done in a public pharmacy. The remaining time, at least however three months, can be completed in an institution certified for pharmaceutical training. This can in an enterprise of the pharmaceutical industry, in a hospital or a German Federal Armed Forces pharmacy, at scientific Institut, z. B. a university, or in a public pharmacy happen however again. During this time one must for eight weeks on of country pharmacist chambers the organized accompanying instruction meetings, with which one receives theoretical training in the subjects pharmaceutical practice and special right areas for pharmacists, participates.

After this practical year the third section of the pharmaceutical examination takes place. This consists pharmaceutical practice and pharmaceutical right of a verbal examination in the two fields of activity. If this examination was successfully taken, can be corresponded to the request for distribution of the license to practise medicine, to which together with all necessary documents before the examination can be placed. In this case one keeps the license to practise medicine awarded with effect of the daily following on the examination as pharmacists and may from now on this job title lead. The license to practise medicine document is dispatched separately from the certificates of examination by cash on delivery (the distribution of the license to practise medicine costs money) some days according to the examination.

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