Table of contents
water pipelines in the old advanced cultures and with the Greeks
the oldest aquaducts in the historical excessive quantity become Ramses to the large one, Semiramisand the king Salomo attributed. There were aquaducts at this time not only in the Near East, but also in the far east in China.
The remnants of the aquaducts of Palmyra and Samos (687 v. Chr. by Eupalinos of Megara) are delighted examples ofunderground channels, which the water removes from more or less for lying sources into the cities led.
Also the Greeks controlled the building of aquaducts. In Athens the water was deduced by the Hymettos and Pentelikon. One found further aquaducts in Greece with Theben, Megara, Samos, Pharsalos and other places.
water pipelines in the Roman realm
most well-known are the aquaducts of the Romans, there them were implemented underground rarely, but usually on curved elbow positions led and to the most important buildings of the antique ones to belong. The lines of the Romansconsisted of wood, lead or leather, usually were however stone channels. The lines leading into the individual houses were, like excavations in Pompeji resulted in, usually from lead. Some aquaducts had several floors and in everyone flowed water of another source.
the beginning of the aquaduct is the source house, the end of the run designates the reservoir, of where from the water into the baths, gardens etc. one leads. Special officials were for the regulation of the water dispatching responsibly, throughstrict laws the protection of the plants ensured. Contrary to the larger overhead power lines with free mirror downward gradient one used pressure pipes in the city frequently and interposed in the case of need „water towers “. The pressure pipes consisted of lead or Tonrohren. The lead pipes became industrially out in the width standardized, pouredBleiplatten manufactured. By the Zusammenbiegen and soldering the pipes received a pear-shaped cross section. In addition, for the tubing production still different building materials were used such as wood, stone and even „finished concrete “.
The imposantesten aquaducts were established in Rome. They led the spring water from the mountains 15- 30 hours long over valleys, ravines and abysses or by heights here. The first water pipeline, „aqua the Appia “, builds 312 v. Chr. by Appius Claudius Caecus, began at the via Praenestina, nearly four way hours long underground one led, stepped with the Porta Capenainto the city and filled in the Campus Martius its water.
Later developed under Manius Curius Dentatus 290 v. Chr.further aquaducts. Among the later emperors still about 20 others were added. Their overall length was more than 400 km, of it 64 km of elbow aquaducts and 2,5km tunnel. Which quantity of water these entire aquaducts may have donated once to Rome, it can be estimated from the fact that the three supply each house existing still now as well as the innumerable public wells of the today's city sufficiently.
- the Fontana di Trevi (Virgo Aqua), of M. Agrippa 22 v. Chr. put on, by Pope Pius IV. again manufactured;
- the Aqua Felice or di Termini (Claudia Aqua), of Caligula begun, of Claudius 50 n. Chr. finished, of Pope Sixtus V. again manufactured, and
- the Algentina, which forms the wonderful Wasserfälle in the mansion Aldobrandini.1882 were uncovered the water pipeline of the Bitilenus with Alatri.
The channels of the Roman water pipelines were throughout bricked after Sextus Iulius Frontinus, which left the most exact description of these, both under and overthe earth, and on underbodies or semicircular canals into Hausteinen or bricks implemented and upward everywhere either with Gewölben or stone bars covers here. The cross section of the channels depended on the quantity of the water which can be led, and the height always exceeded the highest water level. Thoseinternal walls and soles of the channels received a waterproof, from lime and smashed brick bits mixed Bewurf, in place of a sand finery which was not missing also in the lugs driven by firm rock mountains.
From aquaducts in the Roman provinces still rubble is present, so the Roman stones in number brook with Mainz, the Roman channel in such a way specified from the Eifel to Cologne, the so-called heath wall in Wiesbaden, to Metz, to Nîmes in France (Pont you Gard), to Segovia, Tarragona and Mérida in Spain.
To emphasize is still from the Ostgotenkönig the Theoderich around 500 between two steep slopes aquaduct builds Umbrien with Spoleto in the Italian province. The aquaduct with 89 m height was established from two floors with 10 lower openings of ever 21, 4 m span and 30 to upper elbow, which carried a gutter,where the water over the torrent Mareggia after Spoleto is led.
aquaducts in after-Roman timeLisbon and Caserta with Neapel, unite as well asin England and Scotland, the aquaduct of Arcueil (1613 - 24 for the Fontäne in the Luxembourgpalast in Paris builds and 3500 m long) and the aquaduct Maintenon in Versailles. The latter, under Ludwig XIV. after the drafts and under the line Vaubansbegun, supply 70 m high arcade row of 242 elbow the water your should be enough for even three-way, above 4,990 m the basins and hydraulic architectures of the gardens of Luxembourg on , however only the lowest elbow row with a cost of 22 Mill. became Livres really completes.
Nowadays aquaducts are replaced by pressure pipelines.
- water supply in antique Rome. Oldenbourg, Munich 1982. ISBN 3-486-26111-8
- the water supply of antique cities. Zabern, Mainz 1987. ISBN 3-8053-0933-3
- Renate mad box leg: Antique Wasserkultur. Munich 1990. To ISBN 3-4063-4602-2
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