|spoken in:||Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Yemen, Jordanian one, Comoros, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Palestinian autonomy areas, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, the Sudan, Syria, Chad, Tunesien, combined Arab emirates, and further countries|
|speakers:||approx. 300 million|
|office language in:||Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Yemen, Jordanian one, Comoros, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Palestinian autonomy areas, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, Syria, Chad, Tunesien, combined Arab emirates, west seeing era|
|ISO 639 -1:||acre|
|ISO 639 -2:||era|
Arabic language (on Arab: اللغةالعربية) belongs tosouthern branch of the semitischen languages and thus to the afro asiatic language family. One of the world languages is Arab. The language code is
era (according to ISO 639).
Table of contents
the individual Arab dialects with respect to the different countries differentiatingpartly very strongly from each other and are, if they lie far apart (z. B. Morocco - Iraq), on basilektaler level often mutually not or only with difficulty understandably, in approximately comparable with the different German dialects. Thus for example Algerian becomeFilms, which were naturally turned in the there dialect, partially high-Arab untertitelt, if they are radiated in the Gulf States.
The Arabic language in an extended sense covers a multiplicity of different language forms, those in the last one and a half millenia spokenbecame and become. Which ties all these language forms together to a language, above all the Islam and special the Koran are. The example of the Maltese one shows very clearly the large role Islam, which concerns the unit of the Arab one. ThatMaltese one is the maghrebinischen dialects of the Arabic language a language, which was developed however as far as possible to a modern, used near, independent Standardsprache.
From the oldArab, the classical high-Arab very close, a multiplicity of dialects stood developed,the again-Arab dialects; for all speakers of this language except the Maltese one are invariably written high-Arab further writing language and roof language.
Whether high-Arab as modern Standardsprache is to be regarded, is disputed (see also Halsbandsittich in many languages). Itis often still missing at a uniform vocabulary for many things of the modern world, as well as at the technical term treasure for many ranges of the modern sciences. Beyond that is high-Arab rare within individual Arab countries relatively the means for verbal communication.
Good knowledgethe high-Arab are essential for the understanding of the Korans, the bare knowledge of a dialect is often not sufficient. In many Arab countries train Koranausgaben contain therefore explanations and “translations” of classical-Arab words into the modern dialect, around the children the understanding toofacilitate.
the Arab in the Semiti
classical high-Arab differs not substantially from the old-Arab language. If one tries to determine the root of a word by comparison of all semitischen languages, one often finds that her exactly the classical-ArabForm resembles. Thus high-Arab a central position comes to the classical within the semitischen languages. For a long time many Semitisten regarded the classical Arab as the ursprünglichste semitische language at all. Only slowly turns out by the comparison with other afro asiatic languages,that much is nevertheless not so original, as one thought. Classical high-Arab probably represents layer of semitischer languages, which developed many possibilities, which are put on in the grammar of the semitischen languages to a newer, consistently. It has a very richsemitischen vocabulary retains and even still further developed. The today's dialects went through many changes, as they went through other semitische languages already very much in former times (2000-3000 years). Thus it is noticeable for example that oldHebrew and modern Arab dialects, whichSound shape and grammar concerns, many thing in common exhibit. There are speculations that the task of the nomadischen way of life and the overlay of other languages caused similar linguistic developments again and again.
variants of the Arab one become by approx. 300 millionHumans spoken. It is the office language in the following countries: Egypt, Algeria, Bahrain, Djibouti, Eritrea, Iraq, Yemen, Jordanian one, Comoros, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Mauritania, Oman, Tunesien, Arab emirates and west seeing era combined Palestinian autonomy areas , Saudi Arabia , the Sudan , Syria, Chad . In addition it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
In all most recent time the spoken high-Arab winsarea. Involved in this development considerably thereby the pan-Arab satellite transmitters are, e.g.Aluminium-Dschazira in Qatar or aluminium-Manar in Beirut. There there are alive discussions of speakers from all corners of the Arab world, which strive, the high-Arabto use close coming language. (Fushâ) the communication level is however not high Arab; rather the language in the registers of the so-called moves.aluminium-lugha aluminium-wustâ, that is in „the middle language “between high Arab and dialect.
By the dominating Egyptian filmand television production (among other things under the total population) the spoken Kairoer dialect of the Arab one in the Arab world applies as generally understandable, as it were „in common-linguistically “. Usual films on high Arab to turn is not usually, there this language rather serious topics like thatTelevision and broadcast message, religious transmissions and services are reserved.
already in before-Islamic time existed on the Arab peninsula a rich poet language, which was only verbally passed on. On this poet language partially the Arab is based of the Korans, which however probably exhibited already more modern courses, how one can see at the consonant text. Probably only later one did not make by additional characters the Koran Arab for new Arab Muslims simpler. In earlyIslamic time many poems of this language became writtenheld. Until today the Memorieren (memorization) of texts is an important component of the Islamic culture. Thus it gives to today many very much respected humans, who can speak the entire Koran by heart (Hafiz or Hafidh).
The classical is high Arabin particular the language of the Korans, which itself from the center of the Arab peninsula, which Hedschas spread, in the course of Islamic conquests over the whole front Orient. The Kalif Abd aluminium-Malik raised 7 in the 90's . Century thisForm of the Arab for the official administrative language of the Islamic realm.
In the course of the centuries the language did not change then ever more, which is not to be recognized however partially by the writing, there the short vowels except in the Koran writtenbecame and one itself endeavored the old rules with the posting to maintain.
The classical high-Arab is spoken as native language today of nobody more. It is changed however also today still, only in the vocabulary, when written high-level language uses, in that nearlyall books and newspapers appear (except in Tunesien, Morocco and in somewhat smaller measure in Algeria, where Arab this role with the French must divide). Within the scientific-technologic range becomes in the other Arab countries from lackat a specific technical term treasure often English uses.
With official causes this normally only written language is also verbally used, just as partly in television and broadcast. This language is high-Arab called often also modern. It differs from the classicalHigh-Arab particularly in the vocabulary and depending upon education degrees of the speaker partly also in grammar and often in the discussion.
See also: History of the Arab literature
the high-Arab Lautsystem is a little balanced. It gives onlythree sounds formed with the lips (M م, B ب, F ف), P and the German W are missing. The sound و, which one shows with W in the transcription, is a half vowel, some EnglishW [w] corresponds.
On the other hand there are a great many at the teeth formed sounds: L ل, N ن, D د, T ت, be correctless and be correctful (as in English expressed) „TH “(TH ث, DH ذ), be correctless and be correctful S (س and ز) and SCH ش. In addition those come the Arab own emphatic sound, D. h. be correctful and be correctless S (ص and ظ) as well as T ط and D ض,„dully/mustily “to be expressed. Apart from the tongue r ر there is strictly an Zäpfchen r distinctive of it غ, normally GH described.
At palate sounds there is DSCH ج, K ك, CH خ and the half vowel J ي, the Gis missing. The moreover one there is a K, which are described with Q ق, spoken deeply in the throat, as well as the Hamza expressed with the larynx and a be correctful laryngeal press sound ع, which one calls “Ain”, it however only in, as well as a be correctless correspondence gives very few other languages ح, which is described like our H also with H. Our H ه gives it also still. The consonants are expressed very exactly, affect however strongly the vowels, thoseoccur therefore in many variants, although there is actually only A, I, U both long and briefly. Altogether so the kehlige, raue sound impression of the Arab one develops.
The dialects have this imbalance partially balanced: in many dialects it givesa G, a TH and a DH are usually missing, German W and P often give it in foreign words. Usually there is also long E and O.
major item: Arab writing
is written the Arab from right to left alsothe Arabic alphabet, which knows only consonants and long vowels. There is however as learning and a read assistance an later added system with characteristics (اشكال) for the short vowels to A, I and U, and in the classical grammar the importantEnd n, consonant doublings and consonants without following vowel. The Koran is always written and printed with all additional characters. The vokalisierte and with additional characters provided would be fundamental a precise phonetic transcription, this however nearly only for the Koran is writing-Arab at the same time used.With all other texts one must find the short vowels themselves, what is only possible, if one knows the basic vowels of each word by heart and completely can analyze the grammatical structure, so that one can insert the correct endings. From thisReason is nearly inevitable memorization of long texts and constant control of a present teacher, since as well as nobody in the everyday life high-Arab speaks and one cannot learn it also, the Koran excluded, by vintages independently.
The Arab writingis a Kurrentschrift, which sanded itself in the course of history. When ever more letter in the shape collapsed, one developed a system to differentiate these by points over and under the old consonants. There the letters in oneWord to be connected, gives it up to four differently forms of a letter: however standing, to the right connected, to the left connected and reciprocally connected. Without the points for example the letters N, T, TH, B, Y fall in the reciprocally connected formand P together. One took over the points for the P from the Persian one, in order to show foreign words, which a P contains. In an earlier form of the Arab writing, the Kufi (كوفى), in which there were still no points,became nearly no longer readable many texts, since like said only the consonants were written and some of it also not more to be differentiated were. One calls the again-developed writing with the points Nas CH (نسخ).
In many Islamic countries there are efforts to approach with the discussion of the modern high-level language a standard which is to come that close, which is considered as discussion standard to the classical high-Arab. Basis thereby is mostly the discussion standard of the Rezitation (acre.tilāwa تلاوة) the Korans, which is to a large extent codified and is shown in modern Korandrucken also by Diakritika. This discussion form enjoys a high prestige, however usually only in the religious context is used.
The earlier discussion of the high-Arabis not in detail well-known with security. A typical case, where to today no complete clarity over the discussion standards of the classical high-Arab it exists is the Nunation in such a way specified, thus the question whether the Kasusendungen with most indefiniteNomina on n out-loud or not (kitābun vs. kitāb). For both variants arguments can be found, and in old handwriting the vowel character of the ending written, cannot one not with certainty say, like these forms were expressed therebecame.
the Arab knows indeterminierte (indefinite) and determined (determined) Nomina. A Nomen is determined by the placed in front article aluminium, which is constant after number and case, which lose however its A, if he on onefollows other vowel, and its L to following nouns, which begin with sun letters, assimilates. By a following word in the genitive (see also status constructus) or by directly to the word attached a personnel suffix is determined likewise a word. Nameas standard equipment and carry no article, excluded most country names are determined.
Indeterminierte and determined Nomina differ additionally by different endings. Attributes are placed behind for the associated Nomen.
In the Arab one there are two sexes, male and womanlike, mostfemale words end on ah, which becomes with attached endings RK. Female persons (nut/mother, sister etc.) name of countries and cities, and the names of doubly existing parts of the body (foot, hand) are female also without female ending. Besides that knowsArab one still another Kollektivum.
There are three numbers: Singular, Zweizahl (dual) and majority, and three cases: Nominativ, genitive and accusative, which are designated almost exclusively by short vowel endings. Diptoten are names or indefinierte nouns, which instead of the usualthree declination endings only their two exhibit, i.e. between genitive and accusative formally do not differentiate.
The real complexity of the Arabic language is appropriate for variety of their verb forms and from it derived verbal nouns, adjectives, adverbs and participles in that. Each Arab verb has twoBasic forms in the perfect and imperfect, example:kataba - yaktubu: „it wrote - it writes “. In addition the verbal noun comes kitabatun as the third important form („the letter “). Since most verb forms can be derived schematically, are much easier they to learn,as an Arab pupil to assume likes. There is only two production times, whereby the perfect a completed, the imperfect an unfinished action expresses. Nevertheless an Arab multiplicity of periods trained. Many verbs exist in numerous, by reorganization of the rootderived trunks, which have certain in each case meaning meanings, like for example intensification or reflexive meaning. Each trunk possesses certain characteristics, e.g. a prefix, an extension, a change or an omission of a vowel or also a doubling of the middle radical (i.e. Root consonant). The kind andOrder of these consonants change however within a word family never.
A peculiarity of the Arab grammar facilitates the verbal rendition of the high-Arab much: At the end of a sentence is usually omitted in the high-Arab vowel dung. One calls this form traditionally „Pausalform “. Nowhowever the three cases are expressed and also partially the modes straight by these endings, which are omitted at one Sprechpause. Therefore many speakers, if they speak modern high-Arab, use very frequently these „Pausalform “and save so a partthe grammar complicated sometimes. Since in addition, straight these vowel endings in all dialects are omitted, this facilitates the modern high-Arab much. The complicated system of the verb forms is still as far as possible received in many dialects, so that the dialect speakers thereby have fewer difficulties.Although as below described the meaning of a word usually on the consonants hangs, there is the straight short vowels, which constitute a large part of the complicated grammar.
Arab dictionaries are frequently so put on that the individual words after their roots,thus quasi their „word families “, are arranged. Therefore it is important with learning the Arab one to be able to identify the Wurzelkonsonaten of a word. The predominant part of the words has three root consonants, some also four. By separating certain pre, intermediate and final syllablesone receives the root of a word. Straight beginners should use such dictionaries arranged according to roots, since the use leads „mechanical-alphabetically “arranged encyclopedias with small grammar knowledge often to the fact that a form is not recognized and is not wrongly translated.
Most Arab words consist of three root consonants (radicals). From this different words are then formed, for example can form one among other things from the three radicals K-T-B following words and forms:
- KaTaBa: it wrote
- yaKTuBu: it writes
- KuTuB: Books
- KāTiB: Writer (singular)
- KuTTāB: Writer (majority)
- KaTaBa: Writer (alternative majority form)
- maKTaB: Desk in the office
- maKTaBa: Library, bookshop
- maKTūb: Letter
the forms indicated here are Pausalformen. In the classical high-Arab step stillusually the not written endings - A, - i, - u, - on, - in, - un, - TA, - ti, - do, - tan, - tin, - open or also no ending. The T in the endings comes off in such a way that one uminterpretiert the today mute end h to the T, byone it the points of T adds. The N in these endings is marked also not by the consonant letter N, but by the little common additional characters.
The vocabulary is extremely rich, but often does not standardize clearly and with meaningsfrom the past overloads. Thus there is for example no word, which corresponds to the European word relatively exactly „nation “. The word used for it (أمة, Umma) originally and in the religious context to today meant „community thatGläubigen (Muslims) “; or e.g. „Nationality “(جنسية, dschinsiyya) actually „sex affiliation “in the sense of „kinship affiliation “- „sex lives “e.g. is called (الحياةالجنسية, aluminium-hayāt aluminium-dschinsiyya) whereby „ the life aluminium-hayāt “is called. The word for „nationalism “(قومية, qaumiyya) originally refers to the rivalry of „(Nomaden) trunks “and comes of qaum, which means originally and to today often still „trunk “in the sense of „Nomadenstamm “. Thus very old and very modern concepts often overlay in a word,without one over the other obsiegen became. „Umma “e.g. again more its old religious meaning recovers. There are numerous old leaning words from Aramäi and Greek one and many newer from the English and French, howeveroften like foreign bodies in the Arab one work. On the other hand each language has a number of leaning words from other languages. So are approx. 10% of the Spanish words of Arab origin (see: Arab influence in the Spanish language).
the tenmost frequent words the Arab
three most frequent words of the Arab one in the Arab one connected with the next word are written (separated in the transcription with hyphen); there is aluminium ال („“/„“/„“), wa و („and “) as well as bi ب („in “, „by means of “).
- في fī (in)
- من min (of, out)
- على ʿalā (up, over, on, with)
- أن Anna (that)
- إن inna (certainly, indeed, also reinforcement particle)
- إلى ilā (too, after, to, up to)
- كان kāna (its [verb])
- هذا, هذه hādhā, hādhihi (that, this [r,- s])
- أن on (that)
- الذي alladhī (Relativpronomen)
the first line shows the original way of writing, second is a literal transcription, the third line indicates the sound shape in the modern high-Arab, whereby in parentheses short vowelsare omitted, because one often uses Pausalformen, the last line is a quite literal translation. The end n in ahlan and sahlan is a rigid classical ending, with which the N is never written. See also: Salam, traditional one African greeting forms
S-B-ALIF-h alif L CH y r!
sabāh (A) l-chair (i)!
Tomorrow the quality!
؟صباحالنور, ياأخي. كيفحالك
S-B-ALIF-h alif L N w r, Y-alif alif CH y! K-Y-F H-alif-L-k
sabāh (A) n-nūr (i), yā achī! kaif (A) hāluk (A)?
Tomorrow the light,o my brother! How is your condition?
Good morning, my brother, how are you?
B-CH-y-r alif L H m D L-L-H
bi-chair (in), aluminium-hamdu lillh (i)!
With quality, praise is God!
Well, thank God!
؟الحمدلله. وأنت, كيفحالك
alif L H m D L-L-H! W-alif-N-t, K-Y-F H-alif-L-k?
aluminium-hamdu lillāh (i)! wa-anta, kaif (A) hāluk (A)?
Praise is God! And you, how is your condition?
God sei's thanked! And how geht's you?
alif L H m DL-L-H, DSCH Y D!
aluminium-hamdu lillāh (i), dschayyid (un)!
Praise is God, well!
Thank God, well!
alif H l alif W-S-H-l-alif UC!
ahlan wa-sahlan bik (A)!
about: Is welcome!
alif H l alif B-K-M.
about:I feel welcome (with you).
This example shows typical greetings to high Arab, how it would take place too much between younger, familiar men of the same age.
The one greets the other one, this greets back, whereupon first the other onein-loaded to occur and the other one for it thanks you.
This example would have to be transferred more in each case or less from the sound shape into the dialect. Which concerns grammar and vocabulary, the difference to the dialects is here rather small, there itin this example nearly only old being certain idioms concerns.
transmissions to the Arab come usually from the English and French, often from the Spanish as well as at present the Soviet Union from the Russian one. Transmissions are rarefrom other European languages as also from the Japanese, Chinese one, Farsi, Turkish and Hebrew. Thus for example works of Jürgen Habermas are present only in a bad transmission from the French, published in Syria. Some works of Nietz,likewise from the French, in Morocco were shifted. In Syria “the anti-Christian” appeared Nietz in a translation from the Italian, of. (“Over the culture transfer onto stony routes”, new one inhabitant of zurich newspaper. 3/2006). The book market probably more or less becomes ofnational subsidizations coined/shaped. (The book fair Cairo, second largest the world for the Arab/North African area, is so far national).
- Arab dialects
- Arab writing
- Arabic alphabet
- Arab literature
- Arab name
- list of German words from the Arab one
- Tawfik borrow: Modern high-Arab. Konversationskurs. 5. Edition. Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3921598230 (Konversationsbezogenes training work, the z. T. however Egyptian instead of high-Arab vocabulary uses.)
- Ernst Harder, Annemarie mould: Arab language teachings. Heidelberg 1997, ISBN 3872760017 (Knappe introduction to the Arabic languageand grammar.)
- Günther Krahl, Wolfgang Reuschel, corner hard Schulz: Text book of the modern Arab. 5. Edition. Berlin/Munich 2002, ISBN 3324006139 (an extensive and academically coined/shaped standard work, text book at many German-language universities.)
- John Mace: Arabic Grammar. A revision Guide. Edinburgh 1998, ISBN 0748610790(Clear, grammar related to the Arab of the present.)
- Götz Schregle: GermanArab dictionary. Wiesbaden 1977, ISBN 344701623X (German Arab is considered. as the standard dictionary)
- Hans's resistance: Arab dictionary for the writing language of the present. Arab-German. 5. Edition. Wiesbaden 1985, ISBN 3447019980 (thatStandard dictionary of the Arab modern language, arranged according to roots.)
Web on the left of
|Wikipedia on Arab|
|Wikibooks: Arab - learning and teaching materials|
|Wikiquote: Arab proverbs - quotations|
- Informative side over Arab of the University of Erfurt
- introduction to the Arab writing
- Arab writingand language
- German <-> Arab <-> English on-line dictionary
- GermanArab on-line dictionary
- Arab standard dictionaries المعاجمالعربية - on-line on a side
- High-Arab course of lectures and language learn
- Arabic writing with 15-teiliger. (MP3)
- Useful documents for Arab learning (down load, pdf)