Arabic alphabet

of these articles treats the bases of the Arab writing, for history, spreading and ornamental art sees Arab writing.
Abbildung 1: Das arabische Alphabet. Legende: i) Nummer – ii) Zahlwert – iii) isolierte Form  – iv) nach rechts verbundene Form  – v) beidseitig verbundene Form  – vi) nach links verbundene Form  – vii) Name
Illustration 1: The Arabic alphabet. Putting one:i) Number - ii) count value - iii) isolated form - iv) to the right connectedForm - v) reciprocally connected form - vi) to the left connected form - vii) name

the Arabic alphabet (Arab: الأبجديةالعربية, aluminium-abdschadiyya aluminium-ʿarabiyya) is the alphabet of the Arabic language and consists of 28 letters. To the educationwith six exceptions all letters are from right to left connected by words according to the direction of travel of the Arab writing.

Table of contents


No. Name Wikipedia DMG discussion university code/University of IPA
1. Alif A, ā, i, u A, ā, i, u A, ā, i, u ا ا A, aː, ɒ, ɒː, i,ɨ, u
2. b b b ب ب b
3. t t t ت ت t
4. Thā th t of be correctless, English th as in “think” ث ث θ
5. Dschīm dsch ğ be correctful dsch ج ج ʤ
6. h sharp h ح ح ʜ
7. Chā CH hard, rough CH as in “oh” خ خ χ
8. Dāl D D D د د D
9. Dhāl dh D of be correctful, English th as in “this” ذ ذ ð
10. r r tongue r ر ر r
11. Zāi z z of be correctful s ز ز z
12. Sīn s s hard, be correctless s س س s
13. Schīn sch š sch ش ش ʃ
14. Sād s emphatic s ص ص
15. Dād D emphatic D ض ض
16. t emphatic t ط ط
17. z soft, emphatic s ظ ظ
18. Ain ʿ ʿ kehliger fricative ع ع ʕ
19. Ghain gh ġ palate r غ غ ɣ
20. f f f ف ف f
21. Qāf q q deep, emphatic k ق ق q
22. Kāf k k k ك ك k
23. Lām l l l ل ل l
24. Mīm m m m م م m
25. Nūn n n n ن ن n
26. h h h ه ه h
27. Wāw u, ū, w u, ū, w u,ū, w و و w, u, uː
28. i, ī, y i, ī, y ī, walisisches y, Russian ъ ى ى to i, iː, ɨ, ɨː, j


see sun letter, moon letter

special character

seeSection „Vokalisation “, in addition Sukun, Taschdid, Wasla

for foreign words some special characters are used: For P Ba is used or a Ba with 3 instead of points under it, for V (e.g. Viena = Vienna, Nivea) becomes company with 3instead of one point written above. In Egypt, where the discussion of the Gim is “g” instead of “dsch”, a Gim with 3 points is used as “dsch”.


from the vowel existence of the Arab one become only the long A, iand u by own letters shown (Alif, Waw and Ya). Vocal ones at the word beginning are always marked by Alif, which is then however carrier of the Hamza (همزة) (Hamza marks a so-called. Catch sound or being correct paragraph, about like itin German when speaking the word post office' office arises.). Exceptions are the article ال (aluminum) and the word ابن (ibn = son); their Alif receives a so-called Hamzat wasl, which is omitted after a preceding vowel.

In the Auslautalso the Alif can maqsura („short Alif “) for the long A. Vocal ones in strange names are not shown at all dependent on discussion and stress with long vowels described, whereby o Waw and e become Ya, or.

Short vowelsby auxiliary characters are shown, which are not own letters and not to the alphabet belong (see Fatha, Kasra and Damma. They serve also the so-called Nunation.

letter duplication

the duplication (reinforcement) letters becomes in the Arab one with one taschdid (تشديد also: schadda شدة) over the letter indicated (1). Footstep as vowel characters kasra of “i” in addition, stands it normally not under the letter, but over it, but under schadda.

absence oneVowel

does not carry a consonant a vowel, this by the indications (2a) and (2b) is indicated. They are called in the Inlaut sukūn (سكون, peace) and in the Auslaut dschazma (جزمة, section). The origin of dschīm dschazma is into recognize the form (2b) still rudimentarily.


ends the preceding word on a vowel, precipitates the “A” of the article aluminum . Those can do by the indication (9) (wasla وصلة over alif to be indicated.

being correct paragraph

Abbildung 2: arabische Sonderzeichen
illustration 2: the Arabic

alphabet has Arab special characters with the Hamza (همزة) additional „consonant “, which precipitates in the Inlaut a being correct paragraph designation, in the Auslaut and ensures in the Anlaut that the poetic syllable rulesare kept.Hamza is written usually with one „carrier “, which can be Alif , Waw or Ya. Thus two equal letters can meet one on the other (z. B. in the word ru'ūs رؤوس); in this case are also postings with Hamza without finding carriers رءوس or with defektivem long vowel رؤس. The form of the Hamza is derived from the Ain.


Indian numbers

in the Arab one are used mostly Indian numbers. There the Indian numbers over the ArabWorld to Europe, are called they came with us “Arabic numerals”, the differences in the form in Europe developed later and comparatively minimum.

Numbers (both Indian and Arab) are always from left to right written contrary to words.The Arabs took over this Indian way of writing with the numbers.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

eastArab numbers

eastArab numbers becomes in ArabWritings in Iran, Pakistan and India uses.


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

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