the archaeology (of archaiología griech. archaios = old, originally and λόγος = teachings, customer, science, thus science of the old person) belongs to the Geisteswissenschaften. In the antique one designated the term usuallysimply the history of a region - so for instance in the case of the famous “archaeology” Siziliens with Thukydides.
The modern archaeology is concerned, contrary to the sciences of history, which treat primarily the written inheritances, with the special certifications (for example tools, weapons,Dwellings and graves) of final historical epochs. In former times on the antiquity limited, today no time border exists. The treated period is enough thus from the first occurrence of humans into the modern times. Even the material inheritances of recent history (for example concentration camps and shelter lines outthe 2.Weltkrieg) are today archaeologically evaluated (however this beginning of a “time-historical” archaeology is not undisputed). The archaeology developed thereby world-wide to a group of most different theoretical and practical research.
Table of contents
European archaeology archaeological research made
in „the European style the “is designated 9.1 associations and organizations [work on] in this connection, even if this took place for example in Egypt.
beginnings of the antiquity research
thosein the Renaissance using Wiedergeburt of classical-antique gel honouring SAMness leads in 15. and 16. Century to an increased interest in the Greek and Roman Altertümern and to a wave of the collecting passion of antique art articles. But also the less travel-joyful scholars begin themselves increasinglyto interest in the existing certifications of past times.
Starting from center 16. Century steps to the place of the collecting passion the with the utmost care collection of the monuments. In this time numerous encyclopedias and catalogs are published, which in late 16. Century often alsoCopper passes and woodcuts to be illustrated. In England William Camden ( 1551-1632) publishes its Britannia, a catalog of the visible Altertümer in the year 1586. It is remarkable that he already noticed vegetation characteristics in a Kornfeld and as such interpreted. Berne pool of broadcasting corporations de Montfaucons L'Antiquité expliquée appears starting from 1719. In 10 volumes it represents art articles from the entire Mediterranean area. Montfaucons work remains for long time a standard work.
In Scandinavia soil monuments are already very early considered. 1588 one already digs a Dolmen with Roskildeout. 1662 receive a chair the antiquity customer to Uppsala (Sweden). 1685 become in Cocherel in the Dep. Normandy, with Evreux, struck (France) a neolithische grave chamber discovered and excavated. It is considered as the oldest archaeological excavation, because here the first received excavation report providesbecomes. The Kieler professor Johann Daniel major accomplishes then around 1690 extensive excavations in Jutland and lets numerous hill graves open. Its goal is it to clarify the origin of the inhabitants of the peninsula with archaeological methods.
Despite some further „highlights “the archaeology has no real value as science however still, because it prevails the opinion forwards that excluding historical sources and the Bible are suitable for the interpretation of the past. Thus it is considered still for a long time as a fact that - outthe Bible derived - mankind in October 4004 v. Chr. developed. 1655 dare to assign it to Isaac de la Peyrère „the thunder wedges in such a way specified “(stone time artifacts) humans, who lived before Adam (Prä Adamiten thesis). After an intervention of the Inquisition he recallsits theory.Michele Mercati (1541-1593) is considered as the first European scholar, the block factory witness evenly as such classified. Its work is published however only 1717.
in the middle 18. Century to center 19. Century
archaeological research methods set themselvesnow gradually through. Often individual scholars met already early innovative conclusions, which - there not yet up-to-date - to remain however far going unconsidered. One was franz.Amateur archaeologist Jacques Boucher de Perthes, who assigned correctly as first artifacts.An example for this is also the Stratigraphie, which intersperses itself only with Charles Lyell (1797-1875) and its Principles OF geology. Already for a long time before it was the simultaneousness of finds, which were in a layer (for example a stone artifact inFind connection with a become extinct animal species), for find classification uses, but not generally accepted.
the first large excavations take place in the antique cities Pompeji and Herkulaneum. Both were to 24. August 79 n. Chr.extinguished by an outbreak of the Vesuvs. Pompeji becomes end 16. Century with the building of a water pipeline rediscovers. 1748 begins the excavations. Into Herkulaneum 1709 are dug, 1738 let Karl IV of Neapel for the first time excavate purposefully. 1768 know the theatre,the Basilika and the mansion of the papyri to be opened. Since that time with its sending letter of the herkulanischen discoveries, the first archaeological publication, Johann Joachim Winckelmann 1762 justifies the new science of the archaeology and is considered as a father (classical) of the archaeology.Angle man is also first, some Periodisierung and historical classification of the Greek art tried. Its Entwicklungsstufen (old style - high style - beautiful style - style of the imitators - purge of the art) however already are by the contained valuationfor a long time overhauls. 1802 are furnished at the university by Kiel the first chair for classical archaeology.
The Egyptian architectural monuments, all in front naturally the pyramids, are already in the antiquity destinations liked (see world miracles). In 17. Century has itself the realizationinterspersed that it concerns here king graves. The Ägyptologie takes its beginning with Napoleons' Egypt campaign 1798. In company of the army are also scientists. Of special importance is the find stone of Rosetta, which 1822 Jean François Champollion the deciphering of the hieroglyphics makes possible. Augusts Ferdinand François Mariette (1821-1881) are of special importance for the Egyptian archaeology, which excavates than thirty find places starting from 1858 as a director of the Egyptian Altertümerdienstes more. Its methods are brachial (for example explosive charges). Find circumstances and scientificEvaluations do not interest it, but it terminated the era of the pure Schatzsucher (so Giovanni Battista Belzoni (1778-1823)), which had created countless finds to Europe. Mariette had smuggled approximately 7000 objects since 1850 to Paris (Louvre). Now it sits downhowever vehement for the fact that Egypt Altertümer is not abroad kidnapped any longer. For the keeping of the finds Mariette creates the later Egyptian national museum in Cairo.Karl smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Lepsius (1810-1884) provides 1842 and 1845 a comprehensive admission between Egyptian and nubianMonuments. 1859 are published the result in the twelve volumes of the monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia, which alone 894 color charts contain.
starting from center 19. Century
in the middle 19. Century develops the archaeology increasingly to the science.If the excavators differ so far only insignificantly from the Schatzsucher and grave robber, now the excavation techniques are refined, a good documentation and an accurate classification of the finds ever more importantly.
Antoine Ives Goguet (1716-1758) has already 1738 the view represents it must three stagesgave prähistorischer technology (Steinzeit , Bronzezeit , Eisenzeit). To intersperse itself the three-periodic system could however only with the Dane Christian Jürgensen Thomsen (1788-1865), which arranges a museum (1819) for the first time according to this principle. Sir John Lubbock (1834-1913) leads 1865a further partitioning of the Steinzeit in Paläolithikum (paleolithic age) and Neolithikum (Jungsteinzeit).
Only starting from 1859 the high age of mankind is generally recognized. In the same year Darwins appears emergence of the kinds. That already 1856 discovered find of the Neandertalers,which of Johann Carl was feel-rotted and Hermann Schaaffhausen were classified in vain as ice-age, can intersperse itself as such in Germany only starting from 1902, when Rudolf Virchow dies, which had prevented each resuming discussion as pathological authority.
In Sweden develops OSCAR Montelius (1843-1921) a system of the differentiated typology for classification (Periodisierung) of pieces of find and creates the basis of a relative chronology. (See also: List of the ceramic(s) styles)
1853/54 become due to an unusually low water level with upper miles toZurich lake wooden columns, stone hatchets and ceramic(s) discovers. The settlement becomes from Dr.Ferdinand cellar examines. One believes long time, with these damp soil settlements it would have concerned buildings of stakes in the water. Such reconstructions (for example in Unteruhlingen at the Bodensee) apply today howeveras wrong.
Edouard Lartet (1801-1871) examines 1860 a find place in the Pyreneeses (Massat) and finds thereby also a antlers point with engraved bear head, the first find jungpaläolithischer art. Later he digs several French cave places of discovery (Gorge more d'Enfer, Laugerie struck, La larva lineand Le Moustier) out. The great cave painting, which 1879 in the cave by Altamira are discovered, attains special attention.
The archaeological study of the Celts begins 1858, as a Colonel Schwab the first excavations in La Tène at the new citizen lake(Switzerland) accomplishes. 1846 begins the excavations in resounding place. 1872 become the Eisenzeit of Europe for the first time into an older phase (resounding place time) and a younger (La-Tène-time) partitions.
The development of the classical archaeology in the second half 19.Century one dominates by Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890). The businessman and „hobby archaeologist “Schliemann is considered as a founder of the Vorgeschichtsarchäologie Greece and the ägäischen area. he digs 1869 on Ithaka and 1871 begins he into Hissarlik to dig. There he assumes the Troja Homers and is quite kept, although he was mistaken in the building period. Its excavation methods were not very disputed, so some specialist hold from Schliemanns abilities anything. Its fame is based particularly upon the valuable finds (for example „treasure of the Priamos “).Its discovery prähistorischer (vorhomerischer) cultures and settlements releases numerous further excavations in the ägäischen area.
in 20. Century
a milestone of the archaeological research represents Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942), which since 1880 as an archaeologist inEgypt researches and excavates.1904 it publishes its methods and goals of the archaeology in which it four principles states:
- Care in handling the Monumenten, which one excavates and consideration for potenzielle future excavators
- embarrassing care during the excavation andRegistration of each found detail
- detailed and clean measurement and mapping
- complete publication of the results
1913 appears the first volume of the manual of the archaeology (publisher: Heinrich bull (1867-1945)). As exemplary excavation is considered to this time the 1922 excavation begun of the grave field ofAssini (Argolis), which is made by Swedish archaeologists. The entire excavation is sieved and a first-class excavation documentation is provided. The most famous archaeological find 20. Century succeeds Howard Carter (1873-1939) in the same year. He finds that after six-year searchGrave of the do anch Amun.
As a pioneer of the aerial photograph archaeology 1 works after that. World war the British pilot Osbert G. S. Crawford and photographs from the airplane archaeological find places in England.
Gustaf Kossinna (1858-1931) presents its settlement-archaeological methods to 1920 andis considered as a pioneer of the settlement archaeology. Its interpretations, which certify the Teuton a paramount cultural meaning, serve the national socialism as proof for the superiority of the Teutons and the arischen race.
In 20. Century seizes the archaeology increased on techniques of other sciences back. As examples are the 1949 developed 14 C-dating for the dating of organic materials and the strontium isotope analysis for researchthe moving movements ur and earlytemporal humans mentioned. The archaeology developed to the group science. The study of the 1991 in the Ötztaler alps found before-historical corpse (Similaun Mann/Ötzi) is for this exemplary.
- See also list of well-known archaeologists
Would list archaeological milestones
- 1738 excavations in Herkulaneum
- 1748 excavations in Pompeji
- 1799 discovery stone of Rosetta
- 1802 deciphering of the old-eastern cuneiform script by George Friedrich Grotefend
- 1820 a farmer finds the Venus of Milo in Melos on a field.
- 1822Deciphering of the Egyptian hieroglyphics by Jean François Champollion
- 1853 /54 leads the Niedrigwasser in the inhabitant of zurich lake to the discovery of the buildings of stakes
- 1856 discovery of the Neandertaler bones in the Neandertal with Düssseldorf.
- 1869 -73 Heinrich Schliemann digs into Troja
- 1876 Schliemann digs into Mykene
- 1879 In the cave of Altamira (Spain) cave painting is discovered.
- 1911 Hiram Bingham the Inkastadt Machu Picchu 1922
- Howard Carter discovers discovers the grave Tutanchamuns
- 1947 Thor Heyerdahl drives with the raft Kon Tiki from South America to Polynesien
- 1958 discovery of Çatal Hüyük by James Mellaart
- 1964 -68 the temple of Abu Simbel is shifted.
- 1974 discovery of the Terrakottaarmee around the grave of the Chinese emperor Qin Shihuangdi with Xi'an 1985
- in Sweden succeed the Klonierung of hereditary substance to an old-Egyptian mummy approximately
- 1991 find of an before-historical corpse (Similaun man) with nearly completely received body in a glacier of the Ötztaler alps
archaeology outside of of Europe
archaeology in America
the archaeology belong in America to the anthropology (people customer) andcompletely different adjustment than the European research has for this reason. This follows particularly from the circumstance that at the time of the settlement of the new world first ethnographische investigations on still existing natives took place. The rather meager präkolumbischen findsis a further reason for the emphasis of American archaeology lying in the study of cultural processes.
When pioneer of the American archaeology applies for Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), which starting from 1784 some grave hills examines, in order to determine their age. Jefferson sets thereby one for the first timeMethod, which can be regarded as forerunners of the dendrochronology: it counts the Jahresringe of the trees standing on the grave hills.
archaeology in India and China
1863 is created in India the Archaeological Survey OF India. 1921/] discoverone one of the oldest advanced cultures of mankind, the Indus culture. Are excavated among other things the cities Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.
Archaeology in China begins with the Swedish geologist J. Gunnar Andersson one (1874-1960), which 1921 with Yang Shao Tsun in Honan oneneolithische living cave discovers and thus proves that China was inhabited in before-historical time. 1928 are excavated Anyang, the capital of the Shang dynasty 2. Millenium v. Chr.
fields of activity
archaeology is a comprehensive term of many archaeological disciplines, which determined for exampleTime periods or regions designate. The individual disciplines do not only differ thereby in the the subject of the research, but also in the used methods. Besides there are some archaeological special fields, which main topics or special archaeological techniques treat. Partial is the archaeology againonly one partial aspect of an independent science for example old America sneezing TIC.
after epochs and regions
a first rough grading does not leave itself into the Prähistori archaeology, in that it or hardly written sources hands over and those times,the sources of writing are present make. In latter case the archaeology changes itself to the subsidiary science of history and history of art generally or another, independent science (for example the Ägyptologie) in the special one.
- PrähistoriArchaeology is concerned with one period, which begins with the first human inheritances in the paleolithic age and ends flowing with early history (people migration time, Roman Kaiser era, the early Middle Ages).
- See also portal: Pre and early history
- this special field are in the interfacebetween the Ur and early history and the classical archaeology settled. With the methods of the Ur and early history the Roman provinces are a goal of the research.
- the emphasis of the classical archaeology lies in the inheritances of the antique world. More exactly thatGreek, Etrusker and Romans in historical time (for instance between that 2. Millenium v. Chr. and that 5. Century n. Chr.). Among the classical archaeology ranks also the Etruskologie and the Ägäi prehistory, which itself with kykladischen, minoischen and mykenischen Finds concerns.
- See also portal: Antique
- Middle Ages archaeology or Middle Ages and modern time archaeology
- the Middle Ages archaeology begin flowing with the end of early history (about 9. Century) and ends with the transition to the modern time archaeology (approx. 16. Century). It cooperates in particular within the range of the city archaeologyprähistorischen research methods.
- the industrial archaeology are concerned as part of the modern time archaeology with the study of early frühindustrieller plants as for instance iron works or Porzellanmanufakturen.
The following disciplines represent geographical emphasis:
- the Ägyptologie is also concernedantique Egypt (about 3. Millenium v. Chr. to 4. Century n. Chr.). The Koptologie, which examines the culture of the early Christians in Egypt, is a subrange of the Ägyptologie.
- this field of activity goes to aligned out of that predominantly philologically Altorientalistik out and dedicates itself to the old cultures of the Near East, essentially the area of Turkey, the Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan. (Babylon, Assyrien, Sumer, Akkad, Elam, Hethiter and Urartu), in addition, with the succession states. The examined period is enough from the 11. Millenium before Chr. up to 7. Century n. Chr.
- The frontasiatic archaeology is located in close connection to the Biblical archaeology, which investigates the settlement and culture history of Palestine andthe Ägyptologie, since in some epochs Egypt controlled the area today's Israel and Lebanon, at other times eastern realms Egypt incorporated.
- Old America sneezing TIC or archaeology of the new world
after special fields
- archaeological building research or historical building research
- Christian archaeology
- experimental archaeology
- industrial archaeology
- coastal archaeology
- aerial photograph archaeology
- Montanarchäologie (mining industry and metallurgical engineering)
- music archaeology
- settlement archaeology
- underwater archaeology
- cognitive archaeology
the excavation is the most well-known research method, however only insmall subrange of the archaeological work. The documentation, evaluation, preservation and archiving of the finds represent the by far largest part of the archaeological activity.
the Prospektion covers non destructive methods, with their assistance an investigationpotenzieller or well-known places of discovery one makes possible. Subranges are the area committing (Survey), the aerial photograph archaeology and geophysical methods (Geoelektrik, electromagnetic induction, geomagnetic mapping, ground based radar).
is brought: Excavation
a modern excavation is finding-oriented, i.e. the individual finds are referred in their spatial and temporal imbedding to findings.
Most places of discovery are discovered today by construction measures. Over emergency excavations those triesTo evaluate archaeology these findings before their destruction. In addition, individual questions can lead purposefully to the search of a place of discovery.
Before with the ditch one begins, an archaeological preliminary investigation is necessary: Search ditches, magnetic sounding, base resistance measurement, aerial photograph archaeology etc. are used here.Each method serves for it a picture the potenziellen excavation place to make itself, in order to be able to plan the actual excavation better.
Since each excavation leads to the destruction of the findings, an accurate documentation the place of discovery, at least on the paper, is also latermake restorable until in the detail. The most important medium of the excavation is therefore, beside the spoon, “paper and pencil”.
straight line by the very popular example of the glacier mummy Ötzi is to be recognized that the excavation only a fractionrepresents to the archaeological work. The 1991 find discovered until today scientifically is examined.
major item age determination
An emphasis of the find analysis is the dating of the findings (e.g.Grave) on the basis the finds (e.g. Grave with gift). During the age determination between absolute chronology and relative chronology one differentiates.
The relative chronology sets a find thereby in purchase to another. Is it younger, older or simultaneous? J.J. Winckelmanns „comparativeSees “is one of the first methods to the relative chronology.
with the absolute chronology a find is dated by means of scientific methods.
- 14 C-dating (for organic materials)
- thermal luminescence dating also: Tl dating (for ceramic(s))
- dendrochronology (for wood)
- potassium argon method (for rock)
under the term Archäometrie are summarized all scientific research methods of archaeological finds and find places. Have from the occupation this scientific fan with archaeological material and archaeological questionsown special fields develops.
- these specialists analyze animal bone to reconstruct polling and plant finds around the environmental condition at a certain time. Soil samples belong like stomach contents, waste pits and latrines to the investigation objects. The Paläoklimatologen investigates on the basis of Climatic archives (for example ice drill cores) the prähistorische climate.
- the Paläopathologie accomplishes medical investigations at human bones and fabrics. It concerns itself with the state of health of humans in earlier epochs. The Paläopathologie does not only make a regulation possible of age and sex,but also of living conditions, nourishing habits and diseases. The moreover one conclusions on the medical supply and the social co-operation of our ancestors are possible.
- Archäoastronomie, or astroarchaeology, also Paläoastronomie
- for the analysis of prähistorischer cult places the Archäoastronomie is needed. With their assistancefor example the points of sunning turning of a certain time are determined. Thereby it will specify possible the astronomical meaning of find places.
- the Archäoinformatik represents the interface between computer science and archaeology. A goal is it the classification of finds, by means of modern data processing toosupport.
for identification and detail investigation of artifacts serve among other things the microscopy, infrared - and ultrasonic photographs, Roentgen, chemical analyses, spectrographic analysis and Laserscans.
to neighbour disciplines
- see also category: Archaeological find
archaeology in Germany
in Germany belongs the archaeology to the tasks of the Lands of the Federal Republic (= national archaeology), usuallyas range of the office for monument as soil care of monuments organizes. Larger cities have often their own city archaeology.
dressingfor the public
museums with an emphasis on the representation of archaeological finds are called archaeological collection.
- See also category: Archaeological collection
archaeological migration is called the connection of aboveground visible soil monuments by a moving didactic exhibition.
An archaeological park serves in forma reservation of the long-term preservation of a place of discovery, as the area is protected against a covering.
Reconstructions or the reconstruction are scientifically very disputed, since a reconstruction and reflects only the up-to-date knowledge conditions is always speculative. Besides often colored by thatdominant spirit of the time. However also interfaces result to the experimental archaeology, as the feasibility and the practice purchase of a theory can be examined.
- P. Course (Hrsg.): Archaeology. Cambridge Illustrated History. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 1996. ISBN 0521454980
- M. Benz, CH. Maise: Archaeology., Theiss, Stuttgart 2006. ISBN 3806219664
- J. Mountain man: Orientation archaeology - which can do it, which wants it. Rowohlt, Reinbek with Hamburg 2000. ISBN 3-499-55612-X (classical archaeology)
- B. Cunliffe: Illustrated pre and early history of Europe.Campus, Frankfurt/Main 2000.ISBN 3-88059-979-3 tables of contents.
- H. J. Eggers: Introduction to the prehistory. Piper, Munich 1986 (4. Neuaufl. scrîpvaz, Berlin 2004). ISBN 3-931278-08-5 (only the traditional methods, new beginnings are missing to reproduction of the work of 1959, therefore)
- M. K. H. Eggert: Prähistori archaeology. Concepts and methods. Francke, Tübingen 2005. ISBN 3-8252-2092-3
- M. K. H. Eggert: Archaeology. Fundamentals of a historical culture science. Francke, Tübingen 2006. ISBN 3-8252-2728-6
- G. P. Fehring: Introduction to the archaeology of the Middle Ages. Theiss, Stuttgart 2000. ISBN 3-8062-1480-8
- And. v.Freeden, S. v. Cord leg (Hrsg.):Traces of thousands of years. Archaeology and history in Germany. Theiss, Stuttgart 2003. ISBN 3-8062-1337-2 (together with the next volume the “industrial fair of the German Landesarchäologien”)
- W. , D. Planck (Hrsg.): Humans times area archaeology in Germany.Theiss,Stuttgart 2002.ISBN 3-8062-1596-0
- T. Höl: Classical archaeology. Basic knowledge. Theiss, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-8062-1653-3
- M. Kuckenburg: Settlements of the prehistory in Germany, 300,000 to 15 v. Chr. DuMont, Cologne 1994. ISBN 3-7701-2922-9
- Renfrew, C. , Course, P.: Archaeology - Theories,Methods and Practice. 5. Edition, London 2005 (the best introduction, only evenly unfortunately on English).
- Rychener, J.: What is archaeology? Approximation to a dream. Augster of museum booklets. Roman museum, Augst 2001, 27. ISBN 3-7151-1027-9
- B. Trigger: A History OF Archaeological Thought. Cambridge University press, Cambridge 1990.ISBN 0521338182
- adventure archaeology
- archaeology in Germany
- antique world
- forum Archaeologiae - magazine for classical archaeology
Web on the left of
|Wikiquote: Archaeology - quotations|
|Wiktionary: Archaeology - word origin, synonymsand translations|
- Internet portal to the archaeology the German-language entrance to the archaeology in the Internet, most extensive with large distance, constantly one updates.
- Useful for excavation technology and archaeology
- Web log over archaeology
of associations and organizations
- roof federation of archaeological studying agencies
- German archaeological Institut
- listall national offices for archaeology in Germany
- German society for Ur and early history with a list of archaeological associations in Germany
- AG computer applications & quantitative methods in the archaeology
- archaeology (ACRE) Africa (AF)
- EXARC European EXchange on Archaeological Research and Communication unionEuropean institutions to the experimental archaeology.
- EXAR association for the promotion of the experimental archaeology