Architect

architect, 1893

architects are predominantly concerned with technical, economic, functional and formative planning and establishment of buildings and buildings the above ground construction. Their core authority is the work of architecture, going beyond building.

Table of contents

overview

Architect (griech. from the words αρχη [arché] (= beginning, origin, basis, first) and τεχνη [techné] = art, handicraft. architéktos = highest craftsman (Carpenter), building artist, building master.)

the career profile of the architects is old Greek not clearly defined and also landproves differently. Itreaches from

The career profile, which the architects developed, is different and constant in different countries, in the offices of the civil technicians and at the universities in motion. The far vocational field between applied technologyand also the possible training ways correspond to pure architecture (current or historical cut ):

Universities (above all DO), professional schools and academies of arts in countries with stronger regulation, in addition, college, technical middle schools and completely free Bildungswege. Contain in each caseit an intensive practice - training, which reach from draft and field exercises to the elaboration of concrete building projects.

history

representation of an architect in the Middle Ages

the occupation of the architect is traditionally generalistic put on: the building masters of past times provided in personnel unionthe draft and the statics and supervise the expiration of building. Depending upon epoch they came from completely different classes and branches of profession, for example mostly were them in the Roman realm military engineers (see. Vitruv), in the early Middle Ages often clerics, in the late Middle Ages outthe stone-cutter handicraft come out foreman (see.Foreman books), in the Renaissance artist, sculptor or scientist.

Only in 19. Century, in the course of the economic and technical progress by the industrialization developed the occupation of the architect as own academic discipline. Itgave enormous progress in the building technology, new tasks of building (flats, fire-brigade guards, schools), which were not to be mastered no more from relating to crafts coined/shaped building masters to. Schools of architecture developed and - for academies.

Increasingly the technical disciplines architecture and civil engineering developed. The architects were occupied in particularwith the organization of the buildings of the above ground construction, all achievements for the buildings of the deep and plan civil engineering furnish the civil engineers and the wing unit for above ground structures, equally they are often in the construction supervision for above ground structures active. The complexity of the tasks tooksince then continuously further too, so that itself in 20. Century further technical disciplines established:Town construction, landscape architecture, interior decoration, building physics etc.…

Toward end of the 20-century many occupations are added, which take over many tasks of the classical architect. Building management and Facility management take overcomplete planning and remark packages offer the co-ordination to the execution of construction, large companies, so that traditional task ranges of the architects shift. In some ranges a retreat of the architects is to be observed on the aspect of sketching, like it also in Germanyin the USA for example is already far common.

The trend for specialization does not make today also before actually the profession of architect generalistic put on stop. Beside the architect, that mainly busily with above ground construction gives itself it in Germany still thoseOccupational groups of the landscape architects, interior decorators and town construction architects. Further an increasing specialization on certain tasks of building in the individual offices (administrative and building of trades, building of cultures, housebuilding etc. ) finds or on certain “performance phasesof the honorarium code for architects and engineers (e.g. Draft, Execution planning, advertisement or construction supervision) instead of. In addition still another specialization on certain niches can be determined, like z. B. the ecological building or the reorganization of old buildings observe.

fields of work

usual fields of work, those of architects inGermany takes off becomes:

function

so comprehensively contents of the discipline architecture, is also the work of the architect is so various and complex. Still most freelance like also employees architects in small, middle workto large architect's offices for building design, building design or construction supervision. Depending upon size and specialization the offices integrated partially own departments with further specialized planners such as interior decorator, laboratory technician, light planner, kitchen planner, building physicist, free space planner like also specialists for model construction, Rendering/visualization or publicly relation.By for years the changing market however ever more architect also commercially active or takes functions than consultants or advisors is.

architect's offices

apart from smaller building projects such as a families - or two-family houses is the planning process usuallystrongly arbeitsteilig organizes. This does not only concern the work within the architect's offices, but also co-operation with the external project-taken part.

Only few architects work on the complete power spectrum of the German HOAI with all performance phases. Rather the coworkers are concernedmiddle and larger offices i.d.R. in particular with subranges of the planning process, like e.g. the draft, the execution planning, the advertisement and assignment of construction contracts or the construction supervision. Also a specialization of architect's offices on the respective performance phases 1-5 (draft, permission andPlanning) or the performance phases 6-9 (economic and structural conversion) is in the meantime far common.

There with each building project the work of different engineering specialists such as stress analysts and house technicians, with larger projects increasingly also further experts such as traffic planners, front and landscape designers or Facility manager, to be integrated must, is at the same time projecting and ability of getting through demanded with the architects a high measure of co-ordination ability and communication as well as. On the changing and altogether shrinking market increasingly qualities are in under the high competition pressurethe project presentation opposite private and public owners necessarily.

Depending upon main point of work of the individual architect different qualifications are demanded. If the draft architect needs above all outstanding abilities of conceptional and darstellerischer kind, just as formative as also technical-constructional and legal knowledge is with the remark planner(Building law, environmental protection etc.) in demand. In the construction supervision above all organizational abilities and detailed knowledge of the expiration of building and the execution of construction are necessary by building masters and craftsmen.

This specialization is not to be understood however in such a way that at a building projectarchitect involved isolated from each other works. The different project phases are interlocked strongly with one another and from each other dependent. A basic understanding for the entire planning process is essential therefore also for the specialist, just as co-operation with the civil engineer and with larger projects alsothat geo data, further specialists and the responsible offices.

The digital revolution of the last decades did not support-make naturally only quite before planning occupations like the architect. Still traditional means become such as sketches or model construction in the planning processused. Final planning and representation from projects become however almost exclusively by CAD - provides programs at the computer. Like that the control of at least one CAD program is today essential for architects. In addition, often experiences with different programs becomeboth in two and three-dimensional representation expects, which goes with development and time series sometimes even into the fourth dimension.

Far common CAD programs are AutoCAD, ArchiCAD, Nemetschek all plan, VectorWorks and in visualization - the range Cinema 4D and 3D Studio max. one Besides there are innumerable specialized programs, like for example SketchUp for presentation diagrams. For more information see article computer Aided Design and the Liste_mechanischer_CAD-Lösungen

due to meanwhile the strongly varying situation concerning orders and consequently to uneven the work arising within thatmost architect's offices are indispensable depending upon organization flexible work times. Before important dates, like e.g. Deliveries of competitions, building requests or owner presentations, are therefore often overtime as well as work on weekend essential. With many large-scale projects beyond that the responsible person architect must orone of it authorized person constantly attainable its.

work within other ranges

increasingly architects are busy also outside of their classical operating field. This can be the steering of the project on side owners or an activity in the building andReal estate economy. Also activities as technical experts, consultants or advisors are usual. There are further interdisciplinary interfaces with the ranges to product Design, Industrialdesign, art, film & theatre, Multimedia, advertisement and communication Design.

Germany

architectural association

in Germany may only architect call themselves, who is registered into the architect list of an architectural association. But one needs professional experience of at least two years apart from the final architecture study; Details regulate the architect laws of the Lands of the Federal Republic. The title architect entitled for the submission of a building request andis thus nearly inevitably necessary for the work as an independent architect. The chambers understand themselves as protection of interests of all architects. In addition, that is called turned around that the interests of the large number not-independent, in architect's offices transacting, not into thoseChamber registered are - in particular the graduates - only very much under the chambers to be represented.

economic situation and job market

in Germany are architects about ever to a third independently, in the free economy employed or inthe public administration actively. The profession is since center of the 90's however in a heavy crisis, in which the economic situation of the architects in Germany worsens increasingly.

The causes for this situation are among other things:

  • Existing, high architect density
  • Popularity of the course of studies, no adjustment of the student numbers
  • way breaking of task ranges (s.o.)
  • use lacking of new business fields
  • standard of the built volumes already reached in Germany
  • decrease in population
  • economic total situation
  • stagnation of several years of the construction costses and thus the fees


as very capital-intensive, on investments thatfree economy and the public hand dependent industry the building industry in particularly strong measure by the present economic crisis and the precarious financial situation of the public cashes in is drawn. In addition the decrease in population which can be observed in Germany leads to a leavingDemand in housebuilding. Consequently the majority of the German architect's offices with substantial lack of order has to fight. For numerous offices this situation accepted existence-threatening courses.

The career profile of the architect is increasingly subjected to changes for years. Many once classical operating fields ofin the meantime by project developers, building companies or other competitors are offered to the conceptional development of large-scale projects over the execution planning up to the construction supervision. Consequently the operating field of such architect's offices, which are not able, has itself on this development in appropriate way tooreact, in the last years more and more restricted.

The consequence is among other things unemployment above average high compared with other academic occupations. The federal architectural association tightened at the end of of 2003 with above ground construction architect an official unemployment ratio of 9,5%. There inthis statistics unemployed person graduate of university and the numerous not self-employed persons liable to social security and unemployed are not considered, is however from a high dark number to be proceeded. The actual ratio might lie therefore substantially more highly. For of the unfavorable development on the job market particularly stronglycity concerned Berlin indicates the local chamber the unemployment ratio also over 20%. Straight graduates have it particularly heavily: In order to create at all the occupation entrance, in the meantime Universitätsabgänger offer themselves partly even than unpaid trainees. Many Frischdiplomierte try therefore, inTo collect foreign country first experiences or seize in relatives an industry foot.

The job market for architects is completely dereguliert and liberalisiert in the free economy. Differently than for instance with the medical profession, who are organized in the Marburger federation, givesit no representatives for the employees of the architects. Practice usual to 1998 is to employ architects as illusoryindependent without payment from social security benefits to in the meantime no more the rule. The bad economic situation of the industry for now 10 years has nevertheless to onedramatic degradation of the conditions of work led. Durable employer-employee relationships are not by any means the rule. Rather many offices changed over to hire and fire depending upon situation concerning orders architect at short notice “”. Many architects are forced therefore itself in short distances again and again new jobsto search. Therefore relatively small earnings/services face an often very high working load - numbers of hours worked per week from 50 to 60 hours are not rarity - compared to occupations of similarly high qualification.

The Internet magazine mirror on-line one has one in May 2005Content report for architects publishes with the result that the content situation of the architects continues to be at pressure. Substantial regional differences exist; the situation in Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg (average 36,400 euro per annum. to 46,722 euro per annum) is substantially better than inthe eastern Lands of the Federal Republic (average 32,500 euro per annum). Young architects with up to two years professional experience come on 26.623 euro; 30,600 euro are it during a professional experience of two to five years. With ten and more years professional experience is the salarywith approximately 41,700 euro per annum. The salary level moves thereby at the lower end the scale of the earning facilities of university graduates.

This confirms also one in May 2005 published study of the magazine star, in which the vocational perspective of 26 likedAcademic subjects one examined. The course of studies architecture obtained here the worst result and still reserved behind philosophy the last seat. Nevertheless architecture is a popular academic subject. For years therefore the number of the young architects pushing into the working life is substantially higheras separating agecauses. The anyway negative trend is intensified thereby still. The federal architectural association diagnosed in December 2005 that a large part on the job market flowing of the young architects presumably to center of the next decade only small chances inthe classical operating fields for architects and already recommends therefore a vocational reorientation will have during the study.

Switzerland

in Switzerland is calm the architecture scene into three federations. The federation Swiss architect (BSA), Swiss engineer andArchitects association (SIA) and the Swiss technical federation (Swiss engineering STV) as a largest professional association of all engineers and architects. Particularly in Switzerland is also the occupation of the above ground construction draughtsman, who transfers a supporting function in an architect's office.

To Spain/South America

in Spain and that predominantly spanischsprachigen South America exists since the Middle Ages the occupation of the “Ingeniero de Caminos, Canales y Puertos”. This is comparable and meant very freely translated with the German underground construction engineer study to 'engineer for ways, channels andHäfen'. The word “Caminos” is not 1:1 in German translatable and contains everything from the fastened footpath to the motorway. The engineer study takes 7 years, this title has in Spain a high reputation. Who 3 of the 7 years of the study completes, may architect has call itself.

resuming information

Wikipedia

literature

  • Werner Durth, “German architects”, Munich: dtv, 1992 ISBN 3-7828-1141-0
  • Hanno Wolfensberger: “Architect dawn. 10 Abgesänge on a profession " ISBN 3-593-34922-1
  • Paegelow, Claus: International architect encyclopedia. E-Book also over 850 entries to Vita, work and technical literature of international architectsfrom the antique one to the present, self publishing house, Bremen, 2004 ISBN 3-00-012851-4 (1 CD-ROM)

Web on the left of

Wikiquote: Architect - quotations
Wiktionary: Architect - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)