|of these articles concerns itself with architecture in the classical sense. For further meanings see to architecture (term clarifying)|
table of contents
compound for term [ work on] from griech. Words αρχη [arché] (= beginning, origin, basis, first) and τεχνη [techné] = art, handicraft. It would leave itself thereforeliterally with „“or „first art “translate first handicraft.
The original use of the word architecture refers to the activity and the knowledge of the architect: old-Greek architéktos = highest craftsman (Carpenter), building artist, building master. The definition its that„Architecture “today is, therefore depends on the vocational field of the architect. The term changed itself in the course of history again and again and is only historically understandable in its whole depth.
The ambiguity of the word architecture is above all coined/shaped throughthe second word part [techné] and the architecture-theoretical interpretations over it: He can be understood as art, technology or tectonics. Everything this are aspects, architecture equally and in each regard cover and as term along-describe and them clearly to Civil engineering define. For the distinction of the definition of architecture in qualitative regard see the following section “more exact definition and theory formation”.
The transferred meanings of the word architecture can be derived from „the tectonic “interpretation. With architecture can the structurally organized relationship ofmaterial like idealistic parts or modules to be described, e.g. consisting in a wall (organization/structure) of masonry units (module) according to the principle of stretchers and loads (relationship). However the shape-coining/shaping element, that is usually along-meant by the word architectureis, neglects.
during architecture was understood over centuries in the all-furthest sense as building any kind (therefore the term architecture), in the meantime architecture over its area a creating character is already much more frequently defined (space art). Architecture existsfrom this point of view in the duality of area and covering. Architecture creates a border between outside and inside. Architecture generates by this border and/or. Wraps an area for the stay and of humans, as well as for the keeping of his things, protectedbefore the unwanted influences of the external world (clothes compare).
more exact definition and theory formation
the exact definition of architecture are in particular since beginning 20. Century disputed. Most definition attempts become accordingly only in the context of certain debates overContents, task and meaning of architecture understandably, whereby also respective contemporary building with its aesthetic, technical, economic and political implications is to be considered. Similarly as with the term of the work of art it does not seem itself with the architecture term possible, on the bareTo limit description of a word or a thing.
Each more differentiated definition proves on closer inspection than a struggle for definition sovereignty and validity power (see for this the writings of the French philosopher Michel Foucault). In this case over it how procure somethingto be is, so that it may be called „architecture “ or can -- particularly if it is to act by codings which can be specified around things of „increased “value. Due to in such a way implied normative aspect each contentwise regulation remains architecturecontroversially and is ideologically coined/shaped in the core. Each (contentwise) definition attempt - so far it a reflection contains - is already architectural theory.
An influential (and strongly ideologically more colored) discourse over it, which is actually architecture, which task of the architect has to be, is the distinction of „architecture “and „bare building “.This confrontation is architecture on the basis a special formative quality distinctive of the simply only useful one or provisional one and leads to the question whether and whereby it is characterised or the architecture becomes (see in additionalso aesthetics). The dominant view its that when draft and production a building the konstitutiv architectural achievement is and so that the building raises beyond the purely purpose-clung, in the course of the past century clearly changed itself: ToEnd 19. Century was it above all the use of certain delivered designs - the so-called style - with usually rich ornamentalen decorations, in those itself artistic rank as increase in value and beauty of a building in conscious opposition to oneSphere of pure pragmatics manifested. However so-called became with that. Functionalism 20. Century a term of architecture prevailing, which at first sight only purposeful caused buildings (also engineer constructions) as architecture understood to know wanted. The constructional, proportion-giving became andspatial image-end aspects of building avowedly as the actual formative topic by architecture. Every now and then one raised also the slightest formative interventions in the context of functionalistic planning into the rank (building) of an artistic achievement. Became at the same time progressiveness with numerous proclamations „the modernity “, „“and „the expression of our time “a symbolic increased height or sea protest of functionalistic architecture desired.
After several attempts, this view in the so-called. Postmodernism and the Dekonstruktivismus to revise, lived the functionalistic architecture understanding. In the meantime the question followedthe priority and the meaning of the construction in architecture in relation to their formal-artistic aspects to renewed topicality (see in addition: Technizismus, architecture without architects).
quotations about architecture
the following examples of definition attempts illustratethe controversy about the regulation of contents and task of architecture and show at the same time the question remain as current, when building is to be regarded at all as „architecture “and which constitutes its actual quality in demarcation of the only useful one and only artistic one:
- after Vitruv (De Architectura) is based to architecture on three principles: Stability (Firmitas), usefulness (Utilitas) and beauty (Venustas).
- Architecture is harmony and agreement of all parts, which are reached in such a way that nothing could be taken away, caused or changed, without destroying the whole. (Leon Battista Alberti 1452 in: De RH aedificatoria)
- thereby was usually accepted,that a building begins only a work of art to become, if it does more than being sufficient to the bare need. (Hermann Muthesius 1908 over the architecture term 19. Century in: The unit of architecture)
- The tomb and the monument. Everything else, everything that serves a purpose, is to be excluded from the realm of the art. Because: The house has to please all.To differences to the work of art, which does not have to please anybody. The work of art is a Privatangelegenheit of the artist. The house is not it. The work of art is set into the world, without a need for it would be present. The house covers a need.The work of art is not responsible to anybody. The house everyone. The work of art wants to tear humans from their comfort. The house has to serve the comfort. The work of art is in a revolutionary manner, the house conservative. The work of art points new ways to mankind andthinks of the future. The house thinks of the present. (Adolf Loos 1910 in the essay “architecture”)
- architecture is the artful, correct and great play of the solidiums met under the light. Our eyes are production, the forms underwatch the light:Light and shade reveals the forms. The cubes, cone, ball, cylinders or the pyramids are the large primary forms, which the light reveals clearly; their picture appears to us purely and seizablly, clearly. Therefore they are beautiful forms,all all this. Over it itself everyone is united, the child, the savage and the Metaphysiker. Here the basic conditions of the forming art lie. (Le Corbusier 1922 in: Verse une architecture.)
- the key word “the appropriate is” is also beautiful only toHalf truely. When do we call a human [face]] beautifully? The parts of each face serve a purpose, but only if they are perfect in form, color and probably-balanced harmony, the face the honour title earns „beautifully “. The same applies to thoseArchitecture. Only perfect harmony in the technical purpose function as well as in the proportions of the forms can bring beauty out. And our task makes so versatile and complicates. (Walter Gropius 1955 in: Architecture)
- architecture does not have anything with art toodoes, is pure thought work. Architecture develops today after economic, constructional and functional regularities. We stand in the hard fight with the reality. And if then some more something similar can as what one is added with the attribute art designation, thenone in its life of an improbable luck speaks. (Egon egg man in: A large architect directory of houses publishing house)
- architecture is knowledge around the technology, susceptibility in relation to the artistic side of the affair. (Arne Jacobsen)
- architecture and town construction are neither cultural luxurystill dispensable decoration. Rather from these fundamental components environment worth living and urban identity arise for a city. (From the objective of the Wiesbadener architecture center)
- architecture is independent of, how everyday or fastidious the purpose is, which it serves, in the long run the whole thatby human hand environment and thus a cultural achievement of humans ( my hard of Gerkan changed 1982 in: The responsibility of the architect)
- with this fairy tale faith in the magic forces of architecture, heart and soul of humans, the entire societyto revolutionize, begins in 20. Century the history of overloading architecture with Erlösungsfantasien of the progress. Since that time it concerns no longer building, but the work of symbols. To therefore investigate also not more how a city actually functions,as with which kind by architecture and typology which urbanistische interference can be accomplished precisely. More importantly will to sell with as spectacular a pictures of the society as possible welfare expectations of a friendlier and more obliging/more pleasing life. (Fritz Neumeyer 1994 in: The architecture controversy in Berlin.)
- The architecture is also an art. […] Compared to contemporary music or painting architecture has a much larger potential to fetch normal people because somewhat simply very well functions, somewhat practically is beautiful and. (Peter Zumthor)
- our everyday life becomesfor a substantial part by the architecture intends, which surrounds us day after day. […] Architecture creates the necessary structural framework, within which we move. Without architecture the human society would be not conceivable. (Jürgen Tietz 1998 in: History of the architecture 20. Century.)
- “the central problem of architecture is the area, which keeps humans at body and soul healthy. “(Justus Dahinden in architecture - “more quotations about architecture
one finds Architecture (Monographie 1998) in the Wikiquote under the keyword architecture.
It remains determining that the task and responsibility of the architect also are to develop attitudes and a value system (to take over or) and it as yardstick to be useful, around the qualities aimed at by itto carry out. - The fact that the evaluations of the respective works of the architects fail usually controversially is inevitably, since it does not only concern a competition of talent and authority but also around the validity of the individual value systems, the architectural qualityto ensure are. However also the form wealth remains in architecture given by the variance of the architectural interpretations.
the history of architecture is as old as mankind history and with this as cultural element closely verwoben. An overviewthe individual development steps finds one under the references architectural history and/or architectural style.
modern humans is continuously surrounded by buildings and architecture. It can to be affected tendency and psyche negatively positively as. Also on the physical healthit can have influence. Architecture has thus for each humans a very concrete meaning and determines the everyday life much more strongly than music, literature or painting. The quality of the living environment should be the society therefore an important request.
At the worst architecture achieves a high acceptance with the population, who sees a symbol of its values and life attitude in a building. Examples are the Eiffelturm in Paris (as symbol for the city) or the Twintowers in New York,as symbol of capitalism and the western culture were destroyed.
Only one part of all buildings and buildings is planned of architects. In economically few the predominant part in self-building method or by craftsmen without much planning is established to developed areas.In the industrial nations the standardized production of buildings prevails forwards. Architects play in the entire building industry often only a Nebenrolle and particularly when complex planning or representative buildings are consulted. From this also the wide-spread opinion, architecture results would referonly on special buildings and is to be differentiated from “everyday” building to. The negative consequences of this demarcation between architecture and building are visible in all modern cities.
In Germany the initiative architecture and building culture tries, consciousness for the highTo strengthen meaning of architecture. In Germany good architecture is so far not legally recognized as a state goal or cultural property, while for example France already since 1977 and Finland have a corresponding legislation since 1998.
architecture manifestsitself always in an individual building. Its shape in particular affected by climatic, technical, topological and economic edge parameters. In addition, besides legal, religious and political conditions have substantial influence on architecture. Above all representative architecture is therefore thatvisible expression of a society form. (Ex.s:Lock Versailles as a sign of the absolutism). Architecture is thus a substantial part of the cultural identity of a society.
certain topics employ the architects again and again, independently of style andEpoch. These topics are with each draft, which is always a Unikat to consider again.
- Area: The definition, dimensioning, arrangement, adding and formal organization of areas is the most important task of architecture. see in addition: Area (architecture)
- form:The shape of the building, thus its sketch, its form and Cuba door, all this are aspects, which cannot be derived alone from the function. A draft does not let itself “generate” on the basis all edge parameters. In addition the component that always comesaesthetic and formal organization. How are the fronts to look? Which colors and materials are used. All this lies in the scope for discretion of the Gestalter (and thus both the architect in addition, owners).See also: Form_Follows_Function
- function: Good functioning oneBuilding is a highest goal of a draft. That concerns both the sequences of functions, technical functioning of the building cover, also aesthethische and non-technical functions, which a building has to fulfill. Since architecture is the only practical art, those apart from the aesthetic value also, always stands it has a value in use in the area of conflict of art and function.
- Legibility: The French national library for example has the form by four opened unfold books and signaled thus their function outward.
- Purchases for environment: The idealizedExample of architecture is the draft of a building, which stands with the environment in multilayered way in connection. The relationship is manufactured for example by shaping, color design and choice of materials.
- Idealistic meaning: Each building makes by itsShape a statement to its function or regulation.
architecture in practice
fields of activity
- Above ground construction: Housebuilding, building of trades, special's buildings such as theatres, hospitals and schools
- landscape architecture
- Interior decoration
- Town construction
- building of fairs
of points of contact
The topic architecture becomes in Germany only rarely in the broadPublic discusses. While other arts are quite like for example music , Design and mode for many humans a topic for discussion, the debate is often left to the specialists over contemporary architecture.
The responsibility for the built environment does not lie however alonewithin the responsibility of the architects. Their influence is often overrated. It is essentially the respective owner, who gives the direction. He selects the architect, who has naturally his own ideas and points of view (otherwise he would be incompetent to act),out and makes the defaults.
music and architecture belong since long time to the human cultural property. In the Greek and Roman antique one they were linked many more closely with one another than this today thatCase is. The proportion teachings in architecture (above all the Renaissance) refer to the harmony teachings in the music.
Architects, musicians and philosophers looked for and also connections between the two arts not only again and again in the centuriescreated, but itself also mutually new impulses given. The philosopher Friedrich William Joseph of Schelling said in the year 1859: Architecture is rigid music. In similar way is to be read with Arthur Schopenhauer: Architecture is frozen music.
Beside thatThere are interrelations and dependence on the mental level also pragmatic points of contact of the two arts. Musicians depended at each time on the areas, which were to them at the disposal. The characteristics of a performance area are importantly for the klangliche “shape” thatMusic.
Examples of the strong interrelation:
- Music becomes architecture: At the front of the Palazzo Rucellai in Florenz Leon Battista Alberti of interval conditions linked to a artful proportion structure. Steven Holl transferred „a Stretto “from Béla Bartók into architecture.
- Architecturebecomes music:Guilleaume Dufay (1400-1474) composed its Motette Nuper rosarum flores for the inauguration of the Florentiner of cathedral completed by Brunelleschi.
- Music in conformity with architecture: The Greek composer and architect Iannis Xenakis sketched 1958 for the world exhibition inBrussels the Philips pavilion. The pavilion was the architectural conversion of its orchestra work Metastaseis.
- Architecture as ochestras for music: The architect Renzo Piano and the composer Luigi Nono presented together with clay/tone engineer Peter Haller the project „to IL Prometeo “. In addition becamein a venezianischen Renaissance - church a wooden ochestra inserted, the auditories and music instrument at the same time was.
Web on the left of:
- Architecture and music - harmony and proportion - extensive representation of the purchases.
- Paper - on music and architecture with examples of different methods of payment.
The psychology argues with architecture under different aspects:
- The group of artists of the situationists was concerned in the 60's-years with this Forschungsgebiet (see “Psychogeographie “).
- At the Westfäli William university in Münster the chair has itselfof Professor. Dr. R. Bromme some time the topic expert layman communication in architecture dedicated. The studies show that architects and laymen have a completely different perception of architecture. Is based on the different knowledge conditions and the different aspect resulting from it(see: here).
- Worth mentioning are also the seminars of Dr. Riklef Rambow to the BTU Cottbus.
- Dr. Rotraut Walden of the University of Koblenz is concerned in its research work with the development from patterns and collection instruments to the evaluation ofOffice, dwellings, schools, universities and hospitals.
- A central forum for architecture psychology forms the side http://www.architekturpsychologie.org.
with the architecture sociology goes it around the symbolic interaction between socially acting humans by means of the constitution and organization of Areas, e.g. of cities, landscapes (parks), houses, bridges, thinking marks or special construction units (towers, doors among other things) up to the interior decoration; thus also around the occupation of the architect, around building politics, building industry and living go.There are thereby different aspects, which are explained in the article architecture sociology.
comprehensive legal regulations and an official monitoring are subject to legislation in nearly all countries. On the basis of safety aspects influence becomes here multiple on on architecturetaken. See in addition the article building law and the category: Building law.
- architectural history, architectural style, architectural theory, building culture
- Architect, list of well-known architects, architecture study
Wiktionary: Architecture -Word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Architecture - quotations
- Fonatti, Franco: Elementary design principles in architecture, edition Tusch, Vienna, ISBN 3-85063-126-5
- Giedion, Siegfried: Area, time, architecture, kind bad publishing house, Zurich among other things, ISBN 3-7608-8106-8
- cut back, Hans/being thing,Günther:Picture dictionary of architecture. With English, French, Italian and Spanish specialized glossary, Kröner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-520-19404-X
- Lampugnani, Vittorio Magnago: Architecture and town construction 20. Century, publishing house Gerd Hatje, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-7757-0144-3
Web on the left of
- Arcguide - the Internet leader for architecture
- building net - up to date architecture editorship, buildings, competitions, data bases…
- archINFORM - international architecture data base with information to buildings and architects
- nextroom - architecture in the net extensive data base of current architecture off1900
- archinoah.de - architecture portal and forum for architecture calendar with current architecture vents and data base with papers among other things to buildings and architect
- Architekturfuehrer.com - present platform, on the different offices exemplary project
- ee_powerhouse.db - not commercial data base to the energy-efficient and lastingBuild
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