Argentina

República Argentina
Argentine Republic of
Flagge Argentiniens
Wappen Argentiniens
(detail) (detail)

Wahlspruch: EN Unión y Libertad
(splinter „In agreement and liberty “)

office language Spanish
capital Buenos Aires
system of government Präsidiale Federal Republic of
president Néstor Kirchner
surface 2.766.890 km ²
number of inhabitants 38.592.150 (estimation2005)
Population density of 14 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant $4,380 (72.) Conditions: May 2005< /small>
Independence 9. July 1816
currency Argentine peso
time belt UTC -3
national anthem Himno Nacional Argentino
Kfz characteristic RA
Internet TLD .ar
preselection +54
Lage von Argentinien
Karte von Argentinien

Argentina (Spanish Tondokument ? / License) a state is in South America. It borders in the east on the Atlantic ocean, in the west on Chile, in the north on Bolivia and Paraguay, and in the northeast on Brazil and Uruguay. Of Spanish Kolonistencoming national name is derived from latin Argentum ( for silver) and marks, which treasures believed to find these there once and hoped.

Table of contents

geography

border with length
Bolivia 742 km
Brazil 1132 km
Chile 5308 km
Paraguay 1699 km
Uruguay 495 km
altogether * 25728 km
*: inclusive coastal line

see major items: Geography of Argentina

Argentina has a surface of about 2.8 million square kilometers and is thereby the second largest state of South America. The country reminds in its shape of a long pulled triangle.The expansion from the north to the south amounts to about 3,700 km, those by the west eastward in the broadest place about 1,400 km.

The entire western border area is taken by the Anden, the longest continental mountain chain of the earth. Their highest mountain,the Aconcagua with 6.959 m height, lies the close Argentine Chilean border in the province Mendoza. In the Argentine Anden also the highest volcano of the world, the Monte Pissis ( 6,882 m) lies.

The central north of Argentina becomes of Gran Chaco, hot drying savanne taken. East of it the Río Paraná follows the hill country of the province Misiones along. There Argentina Paraguay/Brazil the Wasserfälle of Iguazú is, to the largest to three-landhits a cornerthe earth count.

South of it, between the large rivers Río Paraná and Río Uruguay, lies the damp and swampy Mesopotamia. At the Río de la Plata, that common muzzle funnel of these two rivers, is the city Buenos Airesand the province of the same name Buenos Aires, the economical heart of Argentina. Here also the majority of the inhabitants of the country concentrates.

West and south of Buenos Aires extend the Pampas, a grass-covered level, where the largest part thatAgricultural products of the country one produces. In this region are large wheat fields and pasturelands for cattle, whose meat belongs still to the main export goods of Argentina.

The Aconcagua

between the Pampas and the Anden the mountain courses lie in central Argentinathe Sierras Pampeanas. These low mountain ranges reach heights of 2.800 m in the Sierras de Córdoba and up to 6.540 m in the Sierra de Famatina in La Rioja.

The Patagonien lain in the south of Argentina is from strong west hoistscoined/shaped and a very raues climate has. This area, which constitutes about a quarter of the surface of the country, is very thinly populated. The deepest point of the country and total America is the Laguna del Carbón with 105 m under thatSea level. It is between Puerto San Julián and Comandante Luís Piedra Buena in the province Santa Cruz.

A sector of the Antarctic continent is stressed by Argentina, sees for this: Argentine Antarctic territory.

important cities

Buenos Aires (on German: Good air), whose population centre covers about 12 million inhabitant, is as political capital and economical center the most important city of Argentina. It is surrounded by a set of independent suburbs, which are partially pure dormitory suburbs, partiallyin addition, even manufacturing plants have.Córdoba, with 1,4 millions Inhabitants, larger manufacturing plants the oldest university of the country, which one is simultaneous the most important, has and accommodates the second largest city of the country. Rosario in the province Santa Fe(1.2 millions Inhabitant) is the secondarymost important port of the country and an important industrie and commercial centre.Mendoza (900,000 Ew.) in addition, is particularly well-known for its wine and cultivation of fruit, serves as bridgehead for the trade with Santiago de Chile. San Miguel de Tucumán (750,000 Ew.) is the birth place of independence and by the intensive agriculture, in particular the sugar tubing cultivation, economically and culturally important, however in the last decades because of the crisis in this sector of the economy at importance lost andis today one of the cities with the largest poverty rate of the country. The universities in this city have however supraregional meaning and e.g. become. from students from Bolivia visits.

see also: List of the cities in Argentina

There are mountains and

important mountains in the Argentine Anden a multiplicity of very high mountains over 6.000 m height. By this are also the highest mountain of the American continent, the Aconcagua with nearly 7,000 m height and the twohighest volcano of the earth, the Monte Pissis and the Ojos del Salado with nearly 6,900 M. In the Südanden the heights of the mountains are smaller, not the despite are covered many because of the damp and cold climate with snow.

Also in the Sierras Pampeanaspartly very high heights are measured: The Sierra de Famatina in the province La Rioja reaches likewise over 6.000 M. The heights of this mountain complex drop however eastward, in the Sierras de Córdoba become only maximally 2.800Meter reaches.

The northern Patagoniden (Mesetas Patagoniens) nevertheless exhibits still 4,700 m height in the southeast of Mendoza. In the other areas of Argentina the mountains reach height only in exceptional cases over 1.000 m. Among them the Sierras Australes Bonaerenses resultsthe Atlantic coast and the hill and mountain country of Misiones.

hydrology

of Argentina hydrology is dominated by the supplies of the Río de la Plata. Its catchment areacovered about 5.200.000 km ². For instance a third of it lies in Argentina, the remainder in Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Supplies of the Río de la Plata are the Río Paraná and the Río Uruguay.

The secondarymost importantCatchment area has the Río Colorado in Nordpatagonien, whose most important supply, which drains Río Salado del Oeste, a majority of west Argentina, whereby however a majority of its water volume seeps because of the dry climate already on the way evaporated or in Sumpfgebieten.

LagoArgentino and glacier Perito Moreno

Argentina exhibit two larger sea-areas. The most extensive is because of the foot of the Südanden, where a long chain of meltwater lakes of the province Neuquén extends until fire country. Besides are in the western centralPampa and in the southern Chaco numerous flat country lakes, which are partly only few meters deep and often salzhaltig.

The flat country lake Laguna Mar Chiquita at 5770 km is particularly important ² in the province Córdoba as well as and lakes Lago Argentino (1415 km ²) and Lago Viedma (1088 km ²), both convenient in the nature park lot Glaciares, which was explained as the UNESCO - world inheritance. There is also the glacier Perito Moreno.

islands

Die Islas Malvinas aus dem Weltall
the Islas Malvinas from the universe

Argentina has despite itselongated coastal line only few islands. The largest island is fire country (21,051 km ²), which Argentina (province Tierra del Fuego) and Chile divide. The archipelago of the Malwinen (Falklandinseln ) is further important, which by Argentina is stressed, but under stand for British administration. The occupation of the islands by Argentina to 2. April 1982 released the Falkland War , up to 14. June 1982 lasted and with a defeat of Argentina ended. Their largest islands are the Isla Soledad (6,353 km ²) andthe Gran Malvina (4,378 km ²). Under the same status are Südgeorgien and the southern sand yielding islands.

The only further island area of importance is the south of the province Buenos Aires, where itself in the bays Bahía Blanca and Bahía Anegada two expanded Wattenmeer find. The islands are flat and with exception of the Isla Jabalí, on which the bathing resort San blow lies , uninhabited there. Largest island is Trinidad at 207 km ². Furthermore there are some smaller before the patagonischen coastRock islands.

Bodenschätze

valuable mineral ores and rocks are in Argentina only in smaller quantities, so for instance to gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, tin, tungsten, mica and limestone. Economicallymore importantly those are round oil - and natural gas - occurrence in the northwest, Neuquén, the area around the bay Golfo San Jorge and before the coast.

climate

Klimadiagramm Buenos Aires
climatic diagram Buenos Aires
Klimadiagramm Salta
climatic diagram Salta
Klimadiagramm Mendoza
climatic diagram Mendoza
Klimadiagramm Ushuaia
climatic diagram Ushuaia
(for generalExplanations see: Climatic diagram)

Argentina united almost all climate zones in a country a moderate climate zone expanded by tropical areas in the extreme northeast over subtropical in the remaining north and up to cold climatic regions in the south and in the Anden.

The northwest of Argentina is in the range of the Anden drying with a short rain time in the summer. In it one finds the high desert Puna, the whose west ranks among the rainpoorest areas of the world, as well as the quiltful, unfruchtbaren Monte at the foot to that Anden in the provinces Mendoza, San Juan and La Rioja. A deviation from this rule the subtropical wet forests are in the provinces Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy, those in the summer extremely damp, in the winter however relative dryingare. The Gran Chaco in the central north is somewhat damper, its precipitation concentrates however likewise on the summer, the same applies to the region of the Sierras Pampeanas in central Argentina. The northeast as well as the Pampa - region are the wholeYear over damp, whereby the highest amounts of precipitation in the subtropical rain forest of the province Misiones are to be found.

In the south (Patagonien) it turned around: the west, the Anden, are constantly damp and with the temperature coolly moderate, during thatThe east, which is halfwildful patagonische layer stage country, much drying and. In this region that determines regularly all until two weeks a Pampero blowing from the southwest - wind the climate. A special case is the climate in fire country, where the temperaturesin summers and winters, it lies only little apart however altogether is very cool and the amounts of precipitation is relatively high.

Flora and fauna

according to the very different climate zones of Argentina vary also the vegetation and the animal world muchstrongly. Altogether about twelve per cent of the land surface is wooded.

Flora

Eine Amerikanische Platane
an American plane tree

in the warm-damp tropical and subtropical rain forests in the north prosper tropical plants, like rose woods (Dalbergia), to Guajakholzbäume (Guaiacum officinale), Palisander (Jacaranda mimosifolia) and Quebracho - trees (Schinopsis lorentzii), from which Gerbsäure one wins, in addition, palms.

The Gran Chaco likewise in the north has a savannenartige vegetation, which of the Algarrobo - trees (main Prosopis alba and Prosopis is dominated nigra), Quebracho also occurs. The south and the east of the Chaco with its milder climate are intensively agriculturally used, while the north is still to a large extent original.

The Pampa is coined/shaped by expanded grass landscapes with most diverse grasses. Apart from Eukalyptus (Eucalptus) , American plane trees (Platanus occidentalis) and acacias (Acacia), are here no trees; the first both kinds are not domestic. Due to the very fine stone-free soil is a agricultural land developmentwell possible, so that only little original vegetation kept.

Patagonien lies already in the shade of the Anden and is a meager and as far as possible treeless landscape. Here prevail as into the Pampa also the grasses forwards, the vegetation is but the substantially drier conditions adapted. Besides one finds most diverse krautige plants and bushes. Because of stony soil cultivation of grain is not possible, instead the grass landscapes are used as sheep pasture.

In the Vorgebirgen of the Anden and on fire country are expanded coniferous forests with spruces (Picea), Zypressen (Cypressus), Kiefern (Pinus), Zedern (Cedrus) and other utilizable woods. The close Chilean border gives it to isolated groups of illusory beeches (Nothofagus). The timber line is with approximately3,500 M. In the dry, northern high situations of the Anden many Kakteen (Cactaceae) and thorn of bushes are in the arid half deserts.

The bloom of the Ceibos (dt.: Cock comb tree or Korallenbaum) is as a “national flower so mentioned” one the national of symbols.

fauna

Guanakos - a game form of the Lama

in the tropical north is extremely various the animal world. Here one knows mainly different kinds of ape, Jaguare, Pumas, Ozelots, Waschbären, nose bear, ant bear, in addition, TAP Irish, navel pigs and reptiles such as queues and alligators find. The bird world accommodates hummingbirds, flamingos and parrots in the tropical north. In the rivers also Piranhas are to be found beside many other fish.

In the Pampa finds one armadillos, Reminding wolves, Pampasfüchse, Pampaskatzen, Pampashir, Nandus, different grab birds such as falcons as well as herons.

In the meager areas of the Anden one meets the wild Lamas, Guanakos and Vikunjas, as well as the Andenkondor.Raubtiere are the mountain cat, the Puma and the Andenschakal. At salt lakes frequently migratory birds are such as flamingos.

In Patagonien and fire country the animal life is kind-poorer. Live also here Pumas, Nandus and Guanakos; the Pudú is a small deerthe southern Anden. On fire country sneezed besides Kormorane. The patagonischen coasts accommodate Magellan penguins and colonies of South American fur seals and reminding seals.

The territorial waters of Argentina accommodate among other things Südkaper, Orcas and Commerson Delfine, beside it Seehechte, Sardinen, Makrelen and Dorados.

population

population trend 1869 to 2015 (green: Projection)

Argentina has a population of approximately 38.6 million inhabitants (estimation based on the census of 2001, source: [1]).This corresponds to a population density of 13 Einwohnern/km 2.

About 87% of the population live in cities of more than 2,000 inhabitants, about which alone 11.5 million are allotted to the dye Gran Buenos Aires. This has a population density of 2989 Einwohnern/km 2.

The city and the entire province Buenos Aires together have 16.6 million, the provinces Córdoba and Santa Fe approx. in each case. 3 million, so that in these three provinces convenient in the central part of the country together morelive as 60% of the population.

Width of parts of the remaining country is very thinly populated, particularly against it in the dry south, where only about to three Einwohner/km 2 live.

descendants of the Europeans and Mestizen

more than90% of the population descend after the official statistics from immigrated Europeans , of it about 36% from Italians, about 29% from Spaniards and about 3 4% from Germans. In the area Buenos Aires as well as in the provinces Chaco and Misiones plays also the Polish culture an important role, it acts here around descendants of Polish emigrants from the 1920er years. In Buenos Aires gives it beyond that many kroatischstämmige immigrants.

To beginning of the 1990er years went oneof a portion of the Mestizen - descendants both of Europeans and of Indians - under 10% out. After newer computations their portion is however by far higher. This discrepancy probably comes along that the Mestizen in former times under a strong discriminationto suffer had and therefore as “white ones” spent themselves.

Indiani population

only one minority of the Argentinier are descendants of altogether 30 Indian trunks, which lived before the arrival of the Spaniards on the national territory. This is on the one hand because of it,that Argentina before the colonial age was closely populated only in the northwest, on the other hand also to the fact that the remaining Indians were exterminated to a large extent later by the Spaniards and by the Argentiniern. By national Indianerinstitut INADI the number of the Indians becomes upabout 1 million, on the part of the Indian organizations like the AIRA (Asociación de Indígenas de la República Argentina) however on more than 1.5 million estimated.

In special censuses of the INDEC, which was accomplished in the year 2004, it was determined that about2.8% of all Argentine households indigene household members have. This portion varies however from province to province strongly. Like that Jujuy the portion with 10,5% is largest in the province. Lowest the portion is in the province Corrientes also1.0%, in the capital Buenos Aires he amounts to 2.3% (source:[2]).

Araukanische Häuptlingsfamilie Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts
Araukani chieftain family end 19. Century

the largest groups are the Kollas in Jujuy and Salta, the Mapuche (Araukaner) in Neuquén and Río Negro as well as the Wichi and Toba in the Chaco and in Formosa. Only one minority of the Indians lives in their traditional settlement areas, many into the large cities moved, where they often live under ärmlichen conditions as badly paid workers. Thus givesit in Rosario and Resistencia quarters, which are inhabited only by Toba - Indians, the same applies to Kollas in San Salvador de Jujuy and San Miguel de Tucumán. For the 80's movements, the traditional erstarken within these trunksCulture to keep purposeful and spread, approximately over radio stations and at schools.

foreigners, Zuwanderung and emigration

about ten per cent of the population are foreigners. Immigration gives it today particularly from the neighboring countries to Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguayas well as from the South American state Peru and in former times at times of the Pinochetdiktatur also from Chile, however due to the Redemokratisierung and meanwhile higher standards of living of the neighboring country in the last 4 years, turned around that, finds it rather an emigrationfrom Argentiniern to Chile instead of. Altogether about 68% the immigrant come from American states. About two per cent of all immigrants come from Asia (main Koreans).

For years one finds the 1990er ever more immigrant from Europe, those mainlybecause of unaffected nature here pull. In contrast to the other immigrants they usually already exhibit a secured existence or are pensioners, try by the removal their quality of life to thus increase. They represent about 28% the foreigner.

Since the Argentina crisis between 1998 and 2002 are increase emigration waves arisen. Argentinier left the country toward Europe and North America, and in smaller masses also to Brazil and Chile. This emigration wave died down however to a large extent, due to that relatively quick recoverythe Argentine economy.

religion

ehemalige Kirche im Centro Cultural des Bonarenser Stadtteils Recoleta
former church in the center Cultural of the Bonarenser of quarter Recoleta

more than 90% of the population are Roman-catholic faith. In the northwest of Argentina the Christian rites mixed themselves with the religion of the natives(Pachamama - cult). Besides exist numerous further Christian denominations, which combine however usually under 1% of the population on itself. Further important minorities educate Jews, Protestanten and Muslims (particularly in the northwest).

language

exclusive office language is inArgentina Spanish. Besides exists a set of more or less important minority languages, which are spoken of the indianischen population. In addition, the most important under it are the Quechua and the Guaraní, in some areas still Mapudungun are spoken.

ThoseArgentine discussion of the Spanish, which the Argentinier dear Castellano (Kastilisch) calls, differs clearly from in Spain and also from in other Latin American countries the usual. The letter ll becomes like the German sch (thus also “Castescháno”) or howthe French j expressed, likewise between vowels the letter y. The letter z is expressed always like a be correctless s, the same applies to the C before e and i . The moreover prevails in Argentina voseo forwards,D. h. instead of the Personalpronomens for the 2. Person singular is used vos. The verbs are differently conjugated thereby (in the present always finalstresses and with deviating Imperativformen). Further the 2 becomes. Person Plural vosotros also in informal languageby 3. Person Plural of ustedes replaces, which is in the European Spanish only the politeness form. Beyond that there is a number of lexical deviations.

While a majority of the descendants of Italian immigrants in Argentina gave the language up of their ancestors, becomes ofthe descendants of the German-speaking and English-speaking immigrants partly still the language of their ancestors maintained. Thus there is borough in the region Buenos Aires, where one hears still very much German. In the province Córdoba gives it a relatively large colony ofSurvivor the count Spee, who established themselves in mansion general Belgrano, where today still partial German is spoken.

See also: Río de la Plata Spanish

population trend

in the colonial age lay the emphasis of the Argentine population for a long time in the northwest,and in particular in the mine region around Salta and Jujuy. Largest city was the Córdoba which was because of the crossover of several commercial routes. This changed with the mechanism of the viceroy realm Río de la Plata 1776. The trade left now the total population of theso-called Litoral in the east of the country (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Entre Rios) precipitously rises, and after achieving independence economic and political power had finally concentrated in this region. The area south a line for instance between thattoday's La Plata and Mendoza was against it up to the desert campaign general of the Roca into the 1870er years still by the Indians inhabited, it gave however some Spanish and walisische enclaves.

The immigration wave 1880-1930 particularly strengthened the dominance of the Litoral andof city and province Buenos Aires additionally, since the majority of the immigrants in this area established themselves. The northwest became more and more a backward and economically weak region, in which relatively little immigration took place, and Patagonien was only at the beginning of its development. The region Buenos Aires grew in such a way between 1850 and 1914 from 150.000 to 1.6 million inhabitants.

After that around 1930 the industrialization brought a Binnenwandererstrom, its goal likewise to victories of the immigrant stream Buenos Aires and- with distance - Córdoba and Rosario were. This river continued into the 1970er years and led to the fact that the region expanded approximately by the capital the far over actual city of Buenos Aires.

1980 exceeded thatRegion Buenos Aires in national censuses for the first time the 10-million-mark and concentrated thereby nearly 40% of the population (at that time 24 million). Afterwards the growth of the cities of the Litorals flattened however clearly. Between 1991 and 2001 the city lost BuenosAires 7% of their inhabitants, who rose population of the population centre of the city altogether only easily, also Rosario and stagnated to Santa Fe. The growth magnet against it remote regions became like that economically boom-end Patagonien, in particular the southernmost provinces province Tierra delFuego and Santa Cruz (44% and/or. 23% increase between 1991 and 2001), in addition, the cities of the northwest such as Jujuy, Salta, La Rioja and Tucumán as well as the population centre Córdoba.

In Buenos Aires and most large cities exists for approximately 1980the phenomenon of the exodus from the cities: Many, usually good-earning inhabitants resettle from the city centres in the surrounding countryside. Since about 1990 still strengthened this phenomenon by the massive mechanism of private boroughs and Country club. The cause lies in thatas rising felt criminality, although official numbers suggest a fall of the criminality rate (with exception of the crisis yearly 2002) since 1995. Also routistic and landschaftlich interesting places experience a boom, which also with the rising mobility of the population as well as since this timein the meantime clearly better availability of infrastructural services such as telephone, radio, television and Internet in far remote areas is connected. Thus of Carlo Paz became prosperierende, fast growing cities from formerly small holidays places such as Pinamar and mansion.

Social situation

the social situation of the country is characterized in several regard by a strong inequality. Thus there is on the one hand a very large prosperity downward gradient between upper and subclass. Thus the Argentine Top manager salaries belong to the highest world, while thosepoorest 40% with only ten per cent of the entire national income contently to give oneself must.

In addition, the differences between the regions of Argentina are large. Thus for instance the poverty rate lies in the capital Buenos Aires with less than 25% onlysomewhat more than half as highly as in the state average (40%), while it lies in the province Formosa with approximately 65%. An average family did not need at the beginning of of 2005 about 773 AR$ over under the poverty line to fall. Into mostHouseholds is necessary it for it that several family members contribute to the income. This shows also the official statistics: Thus the average Pro-Kopf-Einkommen is scarcely below 900 AR$ and thus only scarcely over the poverty rate, while the average household income with over 1.500AR$ lies (see below).

Generally one can say that the northern provinces, particularly the province Tucumán and the northeast (Chaco, are most strongly affected by poverty and malnutrition Formosa, Santiago del Estero). This situation is intensified by thatrelatively population growth snaps in this region. As relatively rich against it the central provinces (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Córdoba , San Luis and Mendoza ) are considered, in addition, the extreme south (Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego).

There is beside the areas close to the border (for example Jujuy and Formosa) however above all the rich central provinces, which have to fight most strongly with the urban poverty and thus with the Slumbildung. The Zuwanderung from the poorer neighboring countries Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay as well as the internal migration from remote areas of the interior are despite a weakening into the 1990er years still a large problem in the large cities, the number of the Slumbewohner lets which increase despite social housing programs further. Sofor example the portion of the Slumbewohner of the total population lies at over 15% in Rosario. Besides increase came for the Slums also from the new arms in such a way specified, particularly in the economically critical years 1989/1990, 1995 as well as between 1998 and 2002.

Some data for social situation: (Source: [3])

  • gross national product per head: 11,427 AR$ (at current prices, 2004); 13,600 US$ (Kaufkraftparität, estimation of 2005)
  • average Pro-Kopf-Einkommen: 878 AR$ (3. Quarter 2005)
  • Average income perHousehold: 1,537 AR$ (3. Quarter 2005)
  • Inflation rate: 12.3% (dec. 2005)
  • Rise of the consumer prices since December 2001: 61.3% (March 2005)
  • unemployment: 10.1% (4. Quarter 2005)
  • Unemployment including people on social security: 12.7%
  • underemployment: 11.9% (4. Quarter2005)
  • Poverty rate: 38.5% of the persons and 28.4% of the households (1. Half-year 2005)
  • Misery rate: 13.6% of the persons and 9.5% of the households (1. Half-year 2005)
  • Illiterate rate: 2.6% (2001)
  • HEAVE - Prävalenz: 0.7%
  • child number of deaths: 15,2 per 1000Living person births (2005)
  • number of the children per woman: 2,2 (estimation 2005)
  • population growth by Zuwanderung /Jahr: 0.04% (2005)
  • population growth altogether /Jahr: 0.98% (estimation 2005)

note: With the poverty and misery rate the incomes, on which the rate depends, vary everafter region, therefore only an approximate average value is indicated. With the inflation rate the value is calculated only in the region Buenos Aires.

to history

see Unterartikel history of Argentina

one assumes that the “discovery” of today's Argentina by thatHumans about 15000 v.Chr. from North America taken place.

In the Pampa - area today's Argentina of the resident of trunks (Querandíes (Het), Tehuelches (Aonikenk and Gununaküna) were established up to the arrival of the Spaniards and did not possess also no considerably developed technology. ThoseTrunks in the northwest of the country however (z. B. the Quilmes) practiced approximately starting from the time of the early Middle Ages in Europe land and Viehwirtschaft and particularly in the area of architecture had far progressed.

In 13. and 14. Century expanded the Inka - realm strongly to the south and covered around 1450 far parts of the northwest of Argentina into the north of the today's province Mendoza.

Argentina and the today's neighboring countries around 1600 as part of the viceroy realm Perú

the Europeans reachedthe region for the first time with the journey Amerigo Vespuccis 1502. Today's Argentina became in 16. Century of the Spaniards from two directions colonizes: From Peru they took the northwest parts of the country in possession, during on the other hand from the Atlanticfrom Spanish addresses at the current system of the Río de la Plata were created, among them Buenos Aires, where the Spaniards could be established in the year 1580 in the long term, after a first attempt for the establishment of a Spanish settlement there in the year 1536because of the resistance of the indigenen inhabitants of the Pampa had failed. Those far south lain areas today's Argentina were stressed theoretically also by Spain, remained however in the colonial age actual outside of the Spanish rule sphere.

Administrative was today's Argentina firstPart the viceroy realm Peru, which South America with exception of the Portuguese sphere of influence covered. In the year 1776 the viceroy realm of the Río became de la Plata with capital Buenos Aires abgespalten of this, which beside Argentina still today's Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay covered.

Under the impression of the French revolution to 25. May 1810 in Buenos Aires avowed independence had only local effect (May revolution). Independence finally attained the country after a war of liberation against the Spaniards to 9. July 1816 in San Miguel de Tucumán. Like before Paraguay in the year 1811, split themselves off then also 1825 Bolivia and 1828 Uruguay the united provinces at that time of the Río de la Plata.

Between 1816 and 1880the development of Argentina von Diktaturen (for instance under Juan Manuel de Rosas) and civil wars was coined/shaped. Into this time also the Tripel alliance war fell 1864 to 1870, in which Argentina repelled an expansion attempt by force of Paraguay together with Brazil and Uruguay.Argentina gained the area of the today's Federal States Misiones, Formosa and Chaco by this war .

Julio A. Roca
Julio A. Roca
Perón on the title page of the magazine El Obrero Ferroviario (1945)

the years from 1880 to 1912 were by the numerous immigrationparticularly characterized by Italians and Spaniards, who settled in the cities and in “colonies so mentioned” on the country. Political this time is to be called illusory democracy, because the government Julio Argentino Roca and the following governments were oligarchisch aligned, with large influence of the great land owners. By a thought out electoral fraud system the political rights one withheld from the bulk of the population; also the immigrants did not have right to vote.

Starting from 1893 the border problems with Chile are intensified, after Bolivia a partthe Puna de Atacama to Argentina had surrendered. This was occupied since the saltpeter war of Chile. Between Chile and Argentina it comes to an arms race. Only the British king Edward VII. can 1902 the border controversy smooth. Patagonien and fire country becomeagain divided, of it 54000 km fall ² at Chile and 40000 km ² at Argentina.

Between 1912 and 1946 democratic governments and military dictatorships alternated. Above all the 1930er years becomes today as década infamous, when notorious decade designates, inthe democracy only on the paper and electoral fraud at the agenda existed to that was. In the run to the first half of the 1940er years succeeded it to the young officer Juan Domingo Perón to maneuver itself sophistiated to power. It occupiedfirst under military the Ministry of Labour and became fast because of his concessions handing far to the trade unions a people hero in the working class. In the year 1946 he was selected to the president.

In the Second World War Argentina was officially neutral.It sympathized first with the Axis powers, supported against end of war however the allied ones. During the war Argentina was Zielland of refugees from Europe; after the war Unterschlupf found in Argentina just like Nazis numerous in other states of Latin America. UnderPerón, which sympathized with fascist ideas, pursued Argentina the goal of developing in its country a special service for the anticommunist fight and could the Nazi high-level personnel for it well need. Among the most prominent Nazi war criminals in Argentina Adolf were calibration man, to 23. May 1960 was kidnapped to that by the Mossad and in Israel to death condemned , Josef Mengele, physician of the concentration camp Auschwitz, as well as walter Rauff, in the Second World War was jointly responsible for the employment of mobile Gaskammern, with those thosePrisoners from concentration camps were murdered. Over key companies so mentioned were shifted also high net assets of the Nazis to Argentina.

Starting from the first reign of Juan Domingo Perón (1946 - 1955) the country coined/shaped before by the agriculture one industrialized; Argentina registered economic heights and depths in the change in the future. Between 1955 and 1983 there was one epoch of the instability, in which alternating civilian and military governments had the country in the hand.

The second term of office Peróns of October 1973 up to its death at the 1. July 1974 brought only a slight calming into political and economical conditions of Argentina. After his death its third wife became, Isabel Perón (mentioned “Isabelita”), which it the vice-president had made, on operationthe peronistischen party as a president assigned. This, a former night club dancer, was overtaxed with this office completely and served behind their standing political ruling powers only as puppet. The time following on it was coined/shaped by unrests, wild strike (“huelga”) andof the trade unions arranged stop of the public life (“paro general” = general strike), which covered from one minute on the other one the capital.Oppositionals as well as critics, who appeared uncomfortable to the ruling powers, partly always disappeared. Criminal groupings made themselves thatChaos to commit for their own interests kidnappings and other crimes. The kidnapping of the production manager Heinrich Metz in October 1975 (it, caring for for Mercedes Benz the location Argentina, came back later for a ransom at a value of several millions US Dollarfreely), an escape wave among the immigrants active for German companies in Argentina released .

In the year 1976 it to the revolution of the government and it came installed themselves under the guidance of Jorge Rafael Videla a military dictatorship under the name of the“Process of the national reorganization “, led of a junta from three members. From then on still more humans, the exact number are did not admit and do not become estimated on up to 30.000 victims disappeared. Under “desaparecidos” (disappeared one) were also numerous student, whose mothers united, in order before the government building - who “Casa Rosada” - regardless of their self endangerment to demonstrate and thus history entered. A goal of the Madres de Plaza de Mayo (“mothers of the Plaza de Mayo”), was and it is to receive knowledge of the whereabouts of their children. Meanwhile there is also an organization Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo (“grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo”, [4]), whose purpose it is, in the shank born and illegalyto lead back for the adoption of freely given children of the disappearing into their family. In later legal proceedings against responsible person of military, which could be implemented only with trouble, it became admits that the military ruling powers had gotten rid of of numerous humans in cruel way: The victimswere beta-practiced and thrown over the Atlantic from the airplane.

In December 1978 it came to martial threats between Argentina and Chile. The islands Lennox, spades clay/tone and Nueva in the Beagle channel became the point at issue. In particular there in the area largerOil reserves were assumed. The controversy became only by switching of the holy chair with a Grenzvertrag to 16. Decembers 1988 peacefully settled and the islands were awarded Chile.

Raúl Alfonsín
Raúl Alfonsín
Néstor Kirchner
Néstor Kirchner

in April 1982 stepped Argentina under the new junta boss Leopoldo Galtieri with Great Britain into the war. Pre-aged Falklandinseln (called in Argentina “Islas Malvinas”) went, which to Argentine legal concept to the own national territory belongs, however from Great Britain to be administered around Argentina. The invasion of Argentine soldiers became ofarmed forces of the united kingdom successfully with air raids, a naval warfare and a landing operation revises. Argentina capitulated to 14. June 1982.

1983 returned the country to the democracy . The first president of this epoch was Raúl Alfonsín (UCR),however the 1989 due to a heavy economic crisis prematurely withdrew. The Peronisti party came with Carlo Menem power. The neoliberale economic policy Menems and 1:1 - connection Argentine peso to the US Dollar was extremely successful during its first term of officeand the country could stabilize. During its second term of office however ever more the negative sides of this economic policy became apparent.

Between 1998 and 2002 therefore the country fell again into a heavy economic crisis, in that the resource around 20%decreased/went back.1999 were replaced the government Menem by a center left coalition with the presidency candidate Fernando de la Rúa. De la Rúa could improve however the muddled economic situation, which its predecessor left, not fast and lastingly. Zögerliche acting of the president,Quarrels within the coalition and a strong except-parliamentary opposition by the trade unions, which stand traditionally for the Peronisten close, weakened De la Rúa increasingly. This culminated to at the end of of 2001 after strong unrests and plunderings in the resignation from president Fernando de la Rúa.

In the consequence there were several peronistische interCIM presidents. In May 2003 after a very chaotically running presidency election Néstor Kirchner was selected to the new head of state. It belongs rather to the left wing of the peronistischen party. Despite its low election result is Kirchnerhowever at present in the population much likes, because it turns on due reforms, which could improve the situation of the country in all (also in social) areas. At present is the economy on recovery course: 2003 booked Argentina a growth of the gross domestic product inHeight of + 8.7% opposite 10,9% in the year 2002 (source:[5]). Critics accuse however Kirchner to proceed not against the omnipräsenten groups of unemployed person Strassenblockierern (Piqueteros “) those often illegaly tolls raise and the domestic trade lame.

[[Bei]]the elections to the Argentine senate and to the Argentine chamber of deputies in October 2005 the trailers Néstor Kirchners with approximately 40% of the voices came out as winners. With the choice around senator posts of the important province Buenos Aires his Mrs. Cristina Fernández wonde Kirchner against the wife of former president Eduardo Duhalde Hilda González de Duhalde, who likewise belongs to the Peronisti party. The president was thus strengthened and can itself in both chambers on a broad majority also within its ownA party support. It will have to govern therefore in the future presumably less frequently by decree.

See also: List of the presidents of Argentina, Argentina crisis

politics

after the condition of 1994 is Argentina a föderalistische, republican Präsidialdemocracy.

The president palace, the Casa Rosada on the Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires
congress building in Buenos the Aires

the president is the head of the state and has a very strong position (among other things the possibility by decree toogovern). It becomes every four years (in former times: every six years) in two ballots directly selected, whereby the victorious candidate must reach 45 or more per cent, in order to win in the first round, and/or ten per cent points lead over the Zweitplatzierten havemust. The same person can at the most during two sequential periods president be, can however at expiration of four years again for the office stand as a candidate.

The legislation (over term: Congreso (congress) of chamber of deputies and senate ) becomes consisting in all provinces tooother times after Mehrheitswahlrecht selected. The number of delegates of the chamber of deputies amounts to a delegate per 33,000 inhabitant. The delegates are selected for four years, however in each case half of the delegates every two years. The number of senatorsthree amount to for each province and three for the autonomous city Buenos Aires. It is selected after the Mehrheitswahlrecht; the party with most voices, a seat the party with the most voices receives two senator seats. The senators become for onePeriod of six years selected, every two years is selected a third of the senators.

A most important party is the PJ come out from the peronistischen movement (Partido Justicialista) (on German usually: a peronistische party mentioned), behind it follow with today far distance UCR (Unión Cívica Radical) and FrePaSo (Frente País Solidario) (left wing party) as well as the newer parties AIR (social-democratic) and Recrear (liberal conservative). The most well-known left wing parties are Izquierda Unida and the Partido Socialista. The European right left pattern leaves itself inArgentina do not use, since many parties, particularly, change the dominating peronistische party frequently their adjustment.

Since end of the 90's the main debates between the wings of the PJ take place, which is ideologically very different. The wings become usually alsothe name of its prominent personality designates. The momentarily dominant Kirchnerismus is social-democratically oriented, while the Menemismus dominating into the 1990er years was adjusted neoliberal. A further important wing is in the province the Buenos Aires governing, so far with the Kirchnerismusallied Duhaldismus. However the head of this movement, publicly Carlo Menem in protection, took Eduardo Duhalde which extracts itself from a court citation and is with the police searched therefore, which led to an open controversy between it and Néstor Kirchner. The two formerlyallied wings are therefore to time disliked.

Since the economic crisis the debate arose around a political reform, since the today's system is very obscure particularly for the voters and both person cult and corruption favours.

Thus for example those becomeElections to the senate and the house of representatives usually together with mayor elections delivered, which leads due to the Listas in such a way specified Sabanas to distortions. That is because of the fact that in Argentina no crosses on voting cards are made, but each party for their ownVoting card (Lista Sabana) has and one its voice by the correct selection of the voting card delivers. One can divide however with many simultaneous elections the voices (a voice for the president, one for the senator, a voice for thatDelegate of the representative chamber, etc.). In this case one, if one liked to select candidates of different parties, must cut the voting cards apart and throw only the appropriate sections into the urn. However few that then evenly in amassment of elections, make thison the same day to distortions leads.Listas Sabanas (German about: Bed cloth (large) - lists) are called the voting cards, because they are often very large.

Respective majority conditions in the legislation besides are made hardly public, what is also because of the fact that the composition itself everyoneYear changes.

important ones political personalities

at present (2006) hold the following persons an important political office:

  • Néstor Kirchner - president
  • Daniel Osvaldo Scioli - vice-president and at the same time president of the senate
  • Alberto Fernández - Jefatura de Gabinete deMinistros
  • Aníbal Fernández - Ministers of the Interior
  • Jorge Taiana - minister of foreign affairs
  • Felisa Miceli - restaurant economics

memberships in international organizations and groupings

Argentina is in different international organizations and groupings member. Among the most important the memberships into that rank United Nations and its under and special organizations, in the International Monetary Fund and in the World Bank. As well as on regional level the memberships in the Rio group are, the receipt of the democracy in Latin America dedicate themselves in the Mercosur, a customs unionin South America, most important.

See also: Membership of Argentina in international organizations

military and defense

the monument for the pleasures of the Falklandkrieges to the Plaza San Martín in Buenos Aires
Der argentinische Zerstörer Almirante Brown (D 10) im Oktober 2005
the Argentine destroyer Almirante Brown (D 10)in October 2005

the Argentine military played an important or dominating role again and again in the history of the country. Particularly in the time between 1955 (Putsch against Juan Perón) and 1973 (return and 2. Presidency Peróns) and inthe time between 1974 (death Peróns) and 1983 (defeat in the Falkland War and Redemokratisierung) was directly or indirectly coined/shaped of the military. (See also: History of Argentina)

under the presidencies Raúl Alfonsíns (1983 - 1989) and Carlo Menems (1989 - 1999) those of military were crucially weakened and abolished 1994 the military service. 1999 amounted to the expenditures for the defense only 62% of the expenditures of 1983; in the same period the public expenditures are general on 152%the expenditures of 1983 risen (2004, source:[6]).

The Argentine armed forces have today a personnel strength (soldier and administration) of altogether about 102,300 persons (army: 50,900 persons (41,400 soldiers), navy: 26,600 persons (17,200 soldiers), Air Force: 23,600 persons (13,200 soldiers), Ministry of Defenseand general staff: 1,200 persons). The portion of the expenditures for the defense of the Federal Budget amounts to about 7%. (Sources:[7] (2004), [8] (1998))

training system

in Argentina prevails to compulsory schooling of nine years. It gives beside the national schools alsoa high number of private schools. The educational system is divided in two stages:Primaria (primary school, six school years) and Secundaria (resuming school).

According to the census of the yearly 2001 are about 2.6% of the population illiterate (source: [9]) lies, in Germanythis value officially with approximately 0.6%.

From all Argentiniern, which are old over 20 years, 88% visited the school. About 14% did not lock , about the Primaria 29% have an final Primaria, approximately 14% did not lock the Secundaria, not universitären about 16% have an final Secundaria, about five per cent a higher conclusion and about five per cent a university conclusion. That is called about 73% of the population the Primaria at least locked, about30% at least the Secundaria and only about ten per cent have a resuming conclusion. (Source: [10])

educational system

1995 was reformed the educational system in many provinces: the first nine years of the school time become since then as EGB (EducaciónGeneral Básica) designates, the resuming school divided in several directions instead as Polimodal. Momentarily both graduations co-exist still. There is a multiplicity of different graduations (scientifically, sociological, technically and economically oriented), some is occupation-enabling technician titles. To the attendance of the universitiesentitle all in the context of the Polimodal attained conclusions, even if the course of studies does not agree with the adjustment of the Polimodals.

This system is inserted with small deviations in nearly all Argentine provinces, the designations varies however (in such a way is called for example in that Province Córdoba of the EGB CBU (Ciclo Básico Unitario). 2005 / 2006 this reform in some provinces became, e.g. in Buenos Aires, partly revises and again approximate to the old system.

In the PISA study cut Argentina compared to other Latin AmericanStates by far best off, this it cannot however about the fact deceive that there is a strong downward gradient in the quality of the education between large cities and rural regions on the one hand and between Privatschulen and many national schools on the other hand. By continuous internalQuality tests since end of the 1990er years tries the policy to get this problem into the grasp. With this tests a range from 30% to 80% of the possible score came out, whereby the worst results of schools in rural areas, thosebest against it were obtained in the Privatschulen of the large cities as well as in the Colegios in such a way specified Universitarios (of Universities of dependent state schools).

a multiplicity of national and private

universities has Universities of the legal faculty of the UBA Argentina. The oldestUniversity is the university of Córdoba, which was created 1613. The largest university is against it the university of Buenos Aires (UBA), which was created 1821 and about 200,000 students has.

library nature

the library nature in Argentina is much shape. Thus 19 developed toward end. Century first privately financed Bibliotecas popular (public libraries). They are promoted today of the Comisión Nacional Protectora de Bibliotecas popular (CONABIP , [11]). This organizes also training further meetings for the library personnel. Since 1977 giveit the Confederación Argentina de Bibliotecas popular. Their members are mostly no librarians, but politicians. Besides 19 Federaciones Provinciales exist.

Since 1927 developed bibliotecas públicas the municipales (public municipal libraries), which exist today almost exclusively in Buenos Aires. Since 1944 are subordinate these the Secretaría de Cultura de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. At present exist in Buenos Aires 23 municipal libraries and 3 book penalty, whose largest user group pupils are.

The Argentine national library

Bibliotecas universitarias (university libraries):In Argentina there are private and national universities. The 1963 created junta de Bibliotecas Universitarias Argentinas (JUBIUA) represents the interests of the national university libraries in relation to the government and compiles common targets. The private university libraries do not have an institutionalized co-operation.

Bibliotecas of escolares (school libraries): Only few schools have own libraries, which by book and gifts in kind as well as honorary activity of parents of the pupils are financed. At present a concept is compiled for the setting up a national school library system.

The Biblioteca Nacional (National library, [12]) was created 1810 under the name Biblioteca pública de Buenos Aires. Since 1884 it is the national library. 1933 received it the obligation copy right. Their book inventory becomes estimated on 800000 to 2.5 million volumes.

The Biblioteca del Congresode la Nación (parliament library, [13]) developed 1859. 1933 received the library the obligation copy right. The library is depot library of international organizations and possesses roughly 1.5 million inventory units.

administrative arrangement

Die Provinz und die Stadt Buenos Aires aus dem Weltall
the province and the cityTo Buenos Aires from the universe
Blick über Buenos Aires
view over Buenos Aires

provinces

see Unterartikel list of the provinces of Argentina

the provinces (Spanish provincias, singular: provincia) are the member states of the Argentine Federal State. They have in each case a their ownProvince condition, a province government under line of a directly selected governor (gobernador) and a parliament. The provinces are again administratively in Departamentos subdivided. Exception is here the province Buenos Aires, which is subdivided in portion DOS.

Argentina has 23 provinces.The capital Buenos Aires forms a federal district (Distrito Federal).

regions

since end of the 1990er years united the provinces of Argentina with exception of the province Buenos Aires to regions, with the goal, the restaurant, infrastructureto co-ordinate and development policy among themselves and to form counterweights to the dominating position of the region Buenos Aires. These regions are however so far no official member states, but pure communities of interests, them have thus no official political organs.

There are the following regions in Argentina:

infrastructure

transportation network

rail traffic

Logo ehem. Argentine railway company
course Buenos Aires - Tucumán in the station of S. M. de Tucumán

the railway system in Argentina has to 29. August 1857 with the first travel of a courseits beginning taken and one developed relatively briskly. For this mainly English engineers and companies were assigned. The railway system consisted the 1948 of several independent private companies was put under state control. At 1992 under the government of Carlo Menem one began, the railway companiesto denationalize again. The Argentine railway system has a length of approximately 28,300 kilometers in three different track widths. Two railroad lines connect Argentina with Chile, further distances have connection with Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. However becomeever more distances shut down, purged and not again in conditions are set, and/or. only for the goods transport uses. The transportation of passengers by railway plays generally only in the region Buenos Aires for the commuters role. There are course remote connections stilland/or. again from Buenos Aires after Córdoba, San Miguel de Tucumán, Santa Fe and after Posadas. The courses need for the same distance however substantially longer than remote touring buses. Beyond that there are some interesting, routistic courses, e.g.Nubes read the Tren A in the province Salta, La Trochita - the only steam-claimant narrow-gauge railway of Argentina, which operate between Esquel and Nahuel Pan, as well as the Tren del Fin del Mundo in the province Tierra del Fuego.

traffic

the role of the railway for the transportation of passengers became as far as possible from modern, air-conditioned touring buses taken over. Practically each point of the country with the touring bus can be achieved and so is the bus stations today beside the airports the most importantInfrastructure facilities.

Most important bus station of Argentina is surely Retiro in Buenos Aires. From there there are bus connections to the whole country. The furthest distance is thereby Río Gallegos (36-40 hours travel time) of where out one further to Ushuaia to probably drive can.Further important bus stations and spiders are in Córdoba (about 10 hours travel time of Buenos Aires) and Mendoza (about 14-15 hours travel time of Buenos Aires).

The road system has an overall length of approximately 215,000 km. The quality of the roads varies relativelystrongly. From mehrspurigen motorways over good and less good national routes one can find up to the crushed stone or earth runway everything. About 81% of all roads are asphalted and the large economic centers are connected with very good roads nevertheless, those usually by duty feesby private companies to be built and in conditions held.

air traffic

Boeing 747-200 of Aerolíneas Argentinas

the formerly national airline Aerolíneas Argentinas was denationalized 1990 and covers only few international distances. In the inland traffic Aerolíneas has onerelatively high portion, however still some further inland airlines, recently arose since 2005 a larger competitor from Chile with LAN Argentina gives.

Due to the large distances nearly each larger city has in Argentina an airport. Buenos Aires possesseseven two passenger airports: Over the airport Ezeiza (EZE) are completed almost exclusively international flights. It is approached by all large European and North American airlines. Beyond that there is a city airport (Aeroparque Jorge Newbery, AEP), almost exclusively forInland flights one uses.

navigation

approximate 3,100 km of the water routes are navigable. Particularly importantly here the Río is de la Plata with its upper runs Río Paraná and Río Uruguay.

energy

Argentina produces a majorityits energy assistance of renewable energies. Water power has a portion of 41% of the generation of current; further 7% are supplied of nuclear power stations and 52% of thermal power stations. Besides Argentina possesses large occurrences at natural gas. This form of energy becomes cooking, heatingin addition, increases as fuel used for passenger car. More and more plays the import of natural gas, e.g. from Bolivia, a larger role; this due to the mismanagement of the residents of energy companies, the shortage of the natural gas reserves and the fast rising energy consumption.

Work on []

Telecommunications and post office

the national telecommunications company ENTEL 1990 was denationalized and at two foreign companies (Telefónica (Spain) and Telecom (France, today in the hand of Telecom Italia) sold, which divided themselves the country. Since then the number hasthe telephone connections for each inhabitant rapidly increased, because after the privatisation amounted to the facility fee for a telephone connection with 100 US$ a tenth of the earlier fee and also the waiting period on a connection substantially had been only reduced. Today it givesabout 21 fixed connections ever 100 of inhabitants or approx. 7,5 million connections. Beyond that it gives about 3 million mobile telephone connections.

Internet is common in Argentina very much, becomes however due to the high costs so mentioned by very many private individuals only in Telecentros or Locutorios and in Internetcafés used. Wealthier humans and companies use today frequently Internet via DSL or cable.

Also the postal service was denationalized. The conditions of the concession however not kept and in such a way tries one the straight postal serviceagain to assign. Beside the largest company Correo Argentino, which followed from the national postal service, gives it still several smaller postal services, like e.g. OCA and Andreani.

economics

Argentina is a guided national economy, inthe last years increasingly one dereguliert and one denationalized . Under president Néstor Kirchner however was turned around this tendency.

history of the economic policy

the Argentine economy is traditionally coined/shaped by the agriculture. Into the 1950er years became almost exclusivelyAgrarian goods exports. Only after it use an industrialization of considerable extent. The economic development was reglementiert however by the different governments after different, partial contradictory defaults. , Particularly under the influence of the Peronismus , a broad nationally controlled sector developedin industry, trade and service.Corruption was and is this sector pulling through evil. Argentina reached the prosperity level of the 50's nevertheless never again.

Peso Ley with a nominal value of a million Peso

the 1976 under the policy thatMilitary dictatorship introduced substantial national indebtedness caused heavy damage to the domestic economy. The foreign debt rose from under 8 billion US Dollar in the year 1967 to 160 billion US Dollar in the year 2001. The peso Ley had to be devalued several times. The Falkland War possibly also comes upthe economic problems under the military dictatorship back.

After the return to the democracy 1983 the hyperinflation proved as one of the largest economic problems of the country. The 1989 selected president of Carlo Menem led thereupon 1:1 - connection Argentine peso to that US Dollar. This led nearly suddenly to an end of the inflation and to a clear economic upswing. In the long run it had however as a consequence that Argentine products on the world market became cheaper more expensively and imported good inland. Numerous ArgentineProduction enterprises had to close. It came to a fast increasing imbalance between (official) the rate of exchange of the currency and its internal Werthaltigkeit. Flight of capital used and the anyway highly which was to blame for country had always new credits abroad to take up, around old commitments payto be able and foreign exchange for urgent imported goods to make available be able. Even state States of no more became occasional with money, but with debenture bonds paid and businessmen were legally obligated to accept such papers at payment instead of. At first this still became by private Kapitalzuflüsseforeign investor overlays, who bought itself into Argentine enterprises, particularly in the course from Carlo Menem introduced privatisation of state enterprises. But the indebtedness had finally increased so far and the restaurant achievement had so far removed that at the end of of 2001 after heavy unrests the president Fernando de la Rúa withdrew.

Rate of exchange Argentine peso to the US Dollar between December 2001 and February 2006

the following government communicated the attitude of the payments at repayment and interest, thus the national bankruptcy. Because of missing support stepped the partythe übergangsweise begun president Adolfo Rodríguez Saá already after five days again back, it followed the Peronist Eduardo Duhalde, which devalued the Argentine peso in January 2002 first on 1.40 arg$/US dollar, around him then a little later completely freely toogive.

The IWF supplied in the middle of after a long negotiation 2002, with political support of the most important industrial nations, Argentina in the context of different interCIM agreements with fresh money. Thus the Argentine economy could, above all because now central discharges did not take place by repayments of credit any longerregister and because of now clearly cheaper peso (3.5 to 4 Argentine peso for each US Dollar), already in the year 2003 a considerable growth. However the repayment of a rate of 3,1 billion became in March 2004 US Dollar (about 2.5 billion Euro) forone within the framework o.a. InterCIM agreements granted IWF credits due. Before the last possible date the payment was instructed only directly. Had preceded a Verhandlungspoker of several weeks. The Argentine government wanted to reach with the fact that a report of the IWF over the efforts of the countryregarding the recovery of economic soundness, as positively as possible precipitates. Those was considered as a condition for a further granting of credit by the IWF. This apparent created the government, so that now good chances exist that the billions paid back now already soonflow back in the context of a new loan agreement at Argentina. Over the treatment of the demands of private creditors of Argentina so far however still no agreement was obtained. This loads further the trade relations of the country.

It was for a long time in the IWF disputed whether Argentina thoseConditions for the further assignment of credit fulfills. The edition to negotiate in “good faith” with the private creditors was not fulfilled in opinion of these by the Argentine government. Instead Argentina in the negotiations demanded between 2002 and2004 a capital cut, which runs out on 75% bar depreciation. Complaints against Argentina and the IWF before the Federal Constitutional Court with the goal of the complete repayment of the borrowed money, which are partly not yet final, ran. A German creditor organization is the community of interestsArgentina registered association..

At the beginning of of 2005 accepted the government negotiations with the owners of Argentine government stocks for the acceptance of a conversion of debts plan. This plan contains the temporal aspect ratio of the commitments as well as a reduction of the interest apart from a substantial capital cut. Became exclusively alsoprivate creditors and/or. their protections of interests negotiates. Here so far a clear readiness was to accept conversion offer recognizable with domestic creditors. With foreign creditors the suggestions encounter however first hard resistance.

The conversion of debts successfully ran despite all initial skepticism; toSomewhat more than 76% of the private creditors the conversion of debts plan accepted end. A brief dispute with a Hedge fund around 7 billion dollar retarded the expenditure of the new bonds however by two months to at the end of of May 2005.

See also: Argentina crisis

gross domestic product

the gross domestic product (GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT) amounted to in the year 2003 376.2 billion Arg$, this corresponded to about 103 billion euro. Of it about 43% were allotted to the production of goods and about 51% to the contribution of services. The largest portionat the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT had thereby the producing industry with 22%, the agriculture with 10%, the large and retail trade with 11% as well as the letting of buildings and properties with likewise 11%. (Source:[14])

gross domestic product 1995-2004
year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
gross domestic product (KKK) billion Dollar 364.85 392.31 431.19 452.75 443.75 449.84 440.33 398.84 442.04 484.23
gross domestic product to market prices billion Dollar 258.03 272.15 292.86 298.95 283.52 284.20 268.70 101.45 127.30 151.94
gross domestic product to market prices billionbadly. Peso 258.03 272.15 292.86 298.95 283.52 284.20 268.70 312.58 375.91 447.31
pro head gross domestic product to market prices dollar 7421.42 7729.38 8213.20 8278.98 7753.39 7674.59 7170.02 2675.25 3316.90 3912.14
pro head gross domestic product at constant prices badly. Peso 6994.59 7288.56 7781.04 7979.20 7612.44 7457.72 7044.61 6202,89 6671,18 7184.41

source: World Economic Outlook DATA cousin, IMF, April 2005: [15]

between 1992 and 2000 the portion

of the public expenditures for the health service was to public expenditures for health, education

national indebtedness

during the 1990er years was considered to Argentina as a positive example of financial stability and successful market reforms. This changed with the Argentina crisis and the interCIM president Adolfo Rodríguez Saá explained the default (national bankruptcy). In the year 2004 the national indebtedness of Argentina amounted to 157.7 billion US Dollar (source: CIA Factbook 2005: [16]).

Since 1985 Argentina belongs continuously to the Top-5-Kreditnehmern of the International Monetary Fund (source: [17], S.5)

inflation rate

Argentina was in that 1980er years admits as a country with a very high inflation rate. This strengthened itself starting from beginning of the Redemokratisierung 1983 increasingly to a hyperinflation, whose high point 1989 was reached. In the same year became under the government of Carlo Menemand his minister of economics Domingo Cavallo 1:1 - connection Argentine peso to the US Dollar decided. This measure could press the inflation rate in the consequence relatively rapidly on “normal” values. In the period between 1994 and 1998 there was no considerable inflation rate. Off 1999 turned the economic crisis beginning the inflation rate even in the deflation eras range. With the Argentina crisis, which reached around the turn of the year 2001/ 2002 its high point and with the explanation default and a devaluation in relation to the dollar was connected,if the inflation rate rose first strongly, sank however in the meantime bearable values. Hauptproblem is however that pro head constantly sank the gross domestic product at constant prices between 1998 to 2002 and 2004 only again the level of 1992 reached. Further one Problems are among other things high unemployment and the purchasing power sunk strongly.

Inflation rate 1980-2005
year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
inflation rate (in %) 100.8 104.5 164.8 343.8 626.7 672.2 90.1 131.3 343 3079.5
year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
inflation rate (in %) 2314 171.7 24.9 10.6 4.2 ,3.4 ,0.2 ,0.5 ,0.9 -1.2
year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
inflation rate (in %) -0.9 -1.1 25.9 13.4 4.4 ,7.7

source: WorldEconomic Outlook DATA cousin, IMF, April 2005: [18] (data only starting from 1980 available)

foreign trade

the foreign trade was strongly coined/shaped of the Argentina crisis in the past years. The imported goods decreased/went back since 1999 . In the comparison between years 2001/2002they had an unbelievable decrease of 56% and could only 2003 again recover. The exports remained almost unaffected by the Argentina crisis.

The exports are dominated of agricultural products. 31% of all exports are processed, agricultural products, 25% are raw materials (howfor this also agricultural products count), 25% are industrielle of products and 18% are mineral oils and other sources of energy.

Most important trade partners are in the first place the Latin American countries, particularly the Mercosur -, then the European union and followed states of the USA.

foreign trade in the period 1999-2005 in millions US Dollar
year of exports of imported goods growth rate commercial balance sheet
of exports of % imported goods %
1999 23,309 25.508 -2.200
2000 26,341 25,280 13.0% -0.9% 1,061
2001 26,543 20,320 0.8% -19.6% 6,223
2002 25,651 8,990 -3.4% -55.8% 16.661
2003 29,939 13,851 16.7% 54.1% 16,088
2004 34,550 22,445 15.4% 62.1% 12,105
2005 40,013 28,692 15.8% 27.8% 11,321

(source: [19])

culture

a jokeful utterance of Jorge Luis Borges calls the Argentinier “Italian, the Spanish speaksand gladly Englishmen would be. “By it the mixture of the people comes from immigrants of different European countries to the expression, which becomes clearly apparent in the culture.

See also: List of important Argentinier, Argentine kitchen

music

Tango in den Straßen von Buenos Aires
Tango into thatRoads of Buenos Aires

Argentine music is by the Tango (and the related music forms Milonga and Vals) admits become. Most well-known interpreters are Carlo Gardel, Astor Piazzolla and Osvaldo Pugliese. Tango cannot however on the musical dimensionare limited, on the contrary Tango is a totalcultural phenomenon with the additional aspects text seal and tänzerischer interpretation. When such justifies the Tango a cultural identity those very much to the self understanding of the Argentinier, contributes more exactly taken the “Porteños” from Buenos Aires.

For the music scene of Argentina Folkore interpreters verwurzelte are still important in the traditional music. Among the also internationally considered musicians rank as Atahualpa the Yupanqui world-wide admits become Héctor Roberto Chavero and from the province the Tucumán coming Mercedes Sosa (born 1935), which returned 1982 after four years exile to Madrid and Paris to Argentina.

Recently in Argentina some traditional music styles were revived ago of the Popmusik. To call is here the merry-easy dance of the Cuarteto, the urbane music of the city Córdoba, as well as some styles of the national folklore taken over by the Spaniards, who attained a completely new shape by mixture with other styles. Also music styles from other parts of South America, everything in front thoseColombian Cumbia, was developed further by Argentine interpreters. Thus developed as current contribution of Argentina to the Popmusik in Buenos Aires the Cumbia Villera (Slum Cumbia).

See also: Argentine folklore, Argentine skirt and Popmusik

literature

Gauchos, admission zw. 1890and 1923 publish

in 19. Century separates with the independence of the country the Argentine literature from the Spanish - without this inheritance to deny. By bringing up for discussion the life of the Gauchos in the Pampa wins the literature a clearnational component. Examples of it are often Fausto (1866) of Estanislao del Campo, that in poem form the history of a Gauchos telling and El called Argentine national pos gaucho Martín Fierro (1872) of José Hernández as well as thatalready 1845 developed Facundo of Domingo Faustino Sarmiento. In similar tradition line are located also the 1926 published narration Don Segundo Sombra of Ricardo Güiraldes (German already 1934: The book of the Gaucho Sombra).

Well-known modern authors are Eduardo Mallea, Ernesto Sabato, Humberto Costantini, Julio Cortázar, Manuel Puig and particularly Jorge Luis Borges.

The most well-known Cartoon Argentina might be Mafalda of the draughtsman Quino, who is among other things winner of the max and Moritz price.

theatre

the TeatroColón in Buenos Aires

in many cities gives it a lively theatre scene. One could regard per week easily over 100 different plays of professional and groups of laymen. Particularly is Rosario for its groups of theatres admits. Up-to-date the group of acrobat IC theatres of De celebrates la GuardaSuccesses in the whole world. The most well-known theatre building of Argentina is the opera house Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires.

film

Argentina was one of the pioneer countries in the area of the silent movie. 1896 were already turned the first film, thatthe Argentine flag to the topic had.1933 began the ascent of the Argentine film industry with the arising of the Tonfilms. With it the best time of the Argentine cinema began, the films of this country in the whole world was shown. Particularly became those admits Tangofilme from Buenos Aires, among other things with the superstar of Carlo Gardel.

Gardel statue at the Abasto, Buenos Aires

starting from the center of the 1940er years intervened however the state by means of censorship and interference in the cinema scene. Became particularly dramaticthis in the military governments (1966 - 1973 and 1976 - 1983). In the democratic meantime however artistically very high-quality films were produced.

1968 came La hora de loosely hornos (German: The hour of the blast furnaces) of Pino Solanas out,a film, which is considered as one of the high points of the political Latin American cinema. Another important political film producer from this time is Raymundo Gleyzer. After the military dictatorship the cinema began to regenerate the reign of terror. Films developed such as La Historia Oficial (Luis Puenzo), La Noche de loosely Lápices (Héctor Olivera) and late garage Olimpo (Marco Bechis), which brought partly fictitious, partly true cases of “disappearing so mentioned” on the canvas.

1997 led Pizza, Birra, Faso (Adrián Caetano)the epoch of the “Nuevo Cine Argentino”, in which above all stories from the environment of the simple people and Slumbewohner were filmed.

Today the Argentine film scene is particularly in Buenos Aires and in smaller measure also in Rosario and Santa Fe very actively. Internationally most well-known under the directors at present probably the Berlinale is - winner Pino Solanas with its socialcritical films the matter such as Sur , El Viaje as well as the current documentations Memoria del Saqueo and La Dignidad de Nadies, which describe the condition of politics and society of today's Argentina.

television

Argentina a national

television station

, Canal 7 [ 20] has media [work on]. Besides there is a multiplicity of local and national, privateTelevision stations, which are to be received over antenna and cable. The moreover one an unbelievable number of transmitters, which are spread only over cables and satellite. The most well-known transmitters are Telefé [21], Canal 9 [22] and Canal 13 [23], thoseradiate also local of programs in many regions.

Some Argentine TV serials (called Telenovelas, literally thus television novels) became because of their low production costs and the high quality an export hit particularly to Eastern Europe.

With the goal of a stronger integration of Latin AmericaArgentina as well as Uruguay, Venezuela and Cuba is involved in the satellite transmitter teleSUR, which took up its transmit mode in July 2005.

radio

radio is a very popular medium in Argentina. There is an enormous abundance of nationaland private Radiosendern. From the private Radiosendern many are united and so in Cadenas, radio chains can one many transmitters from Buenos Aires generally speaking country receive. For the ethnic Germans municipality in Argentina becomes Sundays a four-hour radio program meeting place Germany ([24]) radiated. For Argentinier, which live abroad, particularly the morning radio program radio Lagos ( [25]) of Julio Lagos is interesting. This radio moderator tries by the linkage of conventional radio, Internet radio, Chat and Web operational readiness level inTo bring foreign country living Argentinier of the homeland more near and in reverse.

Composition of Argentine radio and television stations one finds a comprehensive on the Web operational readiness level Argentina radio ([26]).

printed media

it are published in Argentina over 200 daily papers.The most important capital sheets are Clarín, La Nación and Crónica; the latter has about picture newspaper - level, is published however six times on the day. An left-alternative newspaper from Buenos Aires is Página 12 with detailed culture part, which is published by the Clarín group.Further important newspapers are La Capital (Rosario), La Voz del Interior (Córdoba) and La Gaceta (Tucumán).

In recent time a set of newspapers in the large cities, those attained meaning, free of charge particularly inPenalties and courses to be distributed (for example La Razón, El Diario del Bolsillo).

In Argentina there is besides a large number of magazines and weekly papers. The most well-known news magazines are Noticias and Veintitres. There is also a German-language Weekly paper, the Argentine day sheet.

See also: Argentine newspapers [

work on] sport

would list

die Bombonera, das Stadion von Boca Juniors
the Bombonera, the stadium of Boca junior
Rugbyspiel Argentinien-Frankreich
Rugbyspiel Argentina France

the Argentinier is one of the fussballbegeistertsten peoples of this earth. Already 1893 became the Argentine football federation Depr. based and belongs thus to the oldest national football federations of the earth. The first international match of the Argentine national team was delivered 1902 against Uruguay. Since that time the national team won fourteen times the South American football championship, the Copa América, and twice the soccer world championship.The two most well-known football clubs are River Plate and Boca junior, with the latters in former times the most well-known Argentine football player, Diego Maradona, played. The plays between these two crews are called Superclásicos and the public life stand still practically, ifthese two crews meet one on the other.

Secondarymost popular sport in Argentina is Rugby. The Argentine Rugby national team, the Pumas, plays on highest international level, cannot however not to the large crews, like the New Zealanders, near-rich.

Apart from football and Rugby Polo enjoysa large interest in Argentina. The Argentine pole Oman shank, whose members all belong to the family Heguy, is the best one of the world. Since 1949 Argentina without interruption is world champion.

Contrary to Polo, which is played rather by members of the Argentine Oberschicht,Pato is a play of the normal Landbevölkerung.

See also: Copa América, Argentine participants in the olympic summer games 2004 in Athens, football in Argentina

holidays

should a holiday on a Saturday or a Sunday fall, then is thatwhereupon the following Monday usually work-free. This regulation does not apply to New Year, Easter and Christmas, the day of the work as well as the 24. March, 25. May and the 9. July.

Additional holidays, which are work-free for member of the Jewish municipality (data are variable and depend on the Jewish calendar):

additional holidays, which are work-free for the members of the Muslim municipality (data are variable and depend on the Islamic calendar):

travel information

Germans, Austrian and Swiss citizen need for the entry to Argentina onlystill at least six months valid passport and then 90 days can be one visa-free in Argentina. An extension of these 90-Tage-Frist is available against a payment of 100 AR$ with the Argentine aliens registration office (Dirección Nacional de Migraciones), anotherPossibility is it to leave the country and again enter, in order to receive a new residence permit. One gets a residence permit also, if one a work contract has, in the country studied or visits another recognized educational facility. Further information about entryand one finds visa modalities under http://www.mininterior.gov.ar/migraciones/.

origin of the state State of

the name Argentina means “silver country” (lat. argentum = silver). Argentina got its name by the loading of the Spanish silver fleet with the precious metal from Potosí (Bolivia) at the delta of the Río de la Plata.

literature

  • Benson, Phillip; Möginger, Robert [treatment]: Polyglot Apa Guide, Argentina, publishing house: Langenscheidt, Munich: 2000, ISBN 3-8268-2468-7
  • Bodemer, Klaus/Pagni, Andrea/forest man, Peter (Hrsg.): Argentina today. Politics. Economics. Culture., Frankfurt A. M.: 2003. ISBN 3893545883
  • Jost, Christoph: Argentina: Range and causes of the national indebtedness and problems of the conversion of debts in: Foreign information 11/2003, Konrad Adenauer donation: Sank Augustin, ISSN 0177-7521 (to downloading: [27])
  • Llanos, Mariana/Nolte,Detlef:Menem throws the towel. A political new start in Argentina under Néstor Kirchner? in: Focus Latin America 10/2003, Institut for Iberoamerika customer: Hamburg, ISSN 1437-6148 (to downloading: [28])
  • o.A.: A survey OF Argentina in: The Economist of 15. June 2004, EconomistGroup: London, ISSN 0013-0613
  • Galeano, Eduardo: The open veins of Latin America, Peter Hammer publishing house Wuppertal: 1973, ISBN 3-87294-162-3

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Wiktionary: Argentina - word origin, synonyms and translations
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Coordinates: 37° 11 ' S, 67° 22 ' W

 

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