Ariel Scharon

Ariel Scharon before an Israeli flag with a press conference

Ariel (“Arik”) Scharon (he. אריאלשרון), born as Ariel Scheinermann (* 27. February 1928 in Kfar Malal in the Scharonebene), is an Israeli politician and a former general. The former chairman of the Likud and founder of the Kadima were twice a Secretary of Defense of Israel, once ministers of foreign affairs of Israel and from 2001 to 2006 Prime Minister Israels.

Ariel Scharon has a strongly polarizing effect due to its biography and its political working. In particularin Israel many regard it as a hero, who along-coined/shaped the State of Israel from the war of independence always importantly. In the Arab public and at some groups of human rights he applies however as a war criminal. On the other side are its opponentsin Israeli rights the opinion, it is much too ready to compromise in his office as an Prime Minister opposite the Palestinians.

Table of contents

family

Scharon son one is Polish - German father and a Russian nut/mother.Its father Samuel had locked straight his agriculture study, when he fled 1921 as active Zionist before the Red Army and into the area of today's Israel emigrated. His Mrs. Vera Schneeroff had therefore not been able to lock their medicine study, which hertheir life long repented. It was socialistically adjusted neither, contrary to many immigrants of this time, nor it divided the Zionismus of its man.

The family went not into a socialist Kibbutz, but into the Moschaw Kfar Malal, where thoseDecisions were collectively made , but everyone its own country possessed. The political attitude of the nut/mother and the fact that Scharons father jumped over itself as only studied farmer and little ready to compromise humans over the decisions of the community, made from ArielScharon an outsider among the village children.

Early years

service in the Hagana

with 13 Scharon began to participate in the guard service of the Moschaws and visited the High School in Tel Aviv. In the year 1942 Scharon 14-jährig of the underground organization Hagana stepped, thatForerunner of the Israeli army. With 17 Scharon, never an outstanding pupil, made the Abitur. Because its father did not divide the actions of the Palmach against Jewish nationalconservative groups, which fought the British, Scharon stepped not this elite unit, butthe settlement police . Already since that 21. December 1947 had been durably mobilized the Hagana, and Scharon was involved in several actions.

War of independence

at the beginning of the Israeli war of independence of 1948 was Scharon platoon leader in an infantry company, which belonged to the Alexandroni brigade.It fought among other things in the first battle for Latrun (26. May 1948), where it was extinguished nearly perfectly heavily wounded and its course (military). Later he was appointed the clearing-up officer in the battalion, that first in the north against the Iraqis, later, briefly before end of war, in the south against the Egyptians fought.

After the war the Alexandroni brigade was shifted into the reserve status, and Scharon became an officer of the clearing-up in the Golani brigade, where he was appointed soon the captain and a battalion commander coursevisited. In the year 1950 he was appointed the clearing-up officer for the entire central command. Because of the consequences of a malaria Scharon took 1951 a mehrmonatige time-out and bereiste for the first time to Europe and North America. In November 1952 Scharon began, for the first time underthe guidance of Mo Dajan, with command actions behind hostile lines. At the end of the yearly he decided however to withdraw itself from the active service.

It began a study of history and culture of the Near East at the Hebrew one University of Jerusalem, at which it had written itself already once 1947 without consequences for agriculture. To 29. March 1953 he married his first Mrs. Margalit (short Gali), Romania, whom he had become acquainted with 1947. Margalit died in the year 1962with a car accident, and also their common son died 1967 by an accident with a rifle of the family. Scharon married late Margalits younger sister Lily, with which he has two sons , Omri and Gilad Scharon. Lily Scharon died in the year 2000.

Military career

the unit of 101

after assaults of terror, possible made by borders of Israel, in the years 1951 137 , which can be supervised with difficulty , 1952 162 and 1953 of again 160 usually civilian victims, partially in the suburbs TelAvivs had demanded, several attempts were undertaken to implement counterstrokes against centers of the terror. These were however a little effective and not by particularly trained troops were implemented, why they often led to important losses. Also Scharon led one of these failed counterstrokesout, and its military analysis of the action led to the fact that Ben Gurion Mordechai Makleff assigned the establishment of a special-purpose force. At the end of July 1953 finally became Scharon with the guidance of this unit, which unit entrusts 101, why it reset its studyhad.

Scharon selected the personnel carefully, and in October 1953 had the unit of 45 members stationed in Camp Sataf, that were subjected to a hard training. The unit began designated actions in the enemy's country as'' deterrence operations''. With their command enterprises in the hostileHinterland was taken only little consideration for civilians. With one together with a company paratroopers undertaken attack on the Jordanian village Kibbija were killed 69 humans. Most victims were hidden held civilians, itself despite eviction order in their houseshad, which were blown up by the Isaelis. In its autobiography Ariel Scharon writes:

“Even if the civilian victims a tragedy were, were the attack on Kibbija nevertheless a turning point. After so many defeats and misses it was now clear that thoseIsraeli troops again in addition in a the position were to find and hit targets far in the hostile hinterland. Which meant this for the moral of the army, can hardly be exaggerated. “

The paratroopers

after Mo Dajan at the end of of 1953 to the Israeli general staff bossappointed, the unit was 101 with the paratroopers was merged, and Scharon became a boss of the battalion, which successfully worked according to estimate of the Israeli guidance. After the Kibbija action however only purely military goals were attacked. The lifted out positionthe paratrooper and the fact that Scharon used its personal contact to Ben Gurion and Dajan and by sharp criticism at the methods of the army made its personal ambitions clear, led to problems Scharons with its superiors in the army.To conflicts it came also with the new Secretary of Defense Pinchas Lavon, which, anxiously around the effects with regard to foreign policy of the actions, tried in vain Scharon to zügeln. Into this time as a commander of the parachute battalion also the large-scale attack on the Egyptian fallsHeadquarters in Gaza to 28. February 1955, which entailed extensive political consequences; it was for instance a Mitgrund for an involving of the Soviet Union into the conflict by Gamal Abdel of wet. A further important action was the attack upJordanian military headquarters in Kalkilja in October 1956.

The Sueskrise

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In the Sueskrise played Scharons 202. Paratrooper brigade a crucial role. 890. Paratrooper-asked. secured after an airborne landing the east exit of the strategically important Mitla passport. ThatRemainder of the brigade under Scharon fought itself in two days on the Landweg 200 km by hostile area to the passport forwards.

Scharon asked several times unsuccessfully to be allowed to attack the passport however only permission, clear up to let, received him overit, if it should be vacant to take later. In generous interpretation of its instructions Scharon sent a reconnaissance patrol very strong for pure reconnaissance purposes, which was festgenagelt in the passport center by heavy fire. Scharon sent thereupon also the remainder of its brigade toSupport. In now developing combat the Israelis could conquer the passport, 38 Israeli soldiers came themselves however thereby around the life.

Several years later went some participants battle to the press and accused Scharon, it have itsReconnaissance aircraft thoughtlessly brought in danger, in order to provoke the Egyptians. Other Scharon took to veterans of the action however in protection. It was the first time that the sense of an action Israel Defense Forces in the Israeli public discusses so intensivelybecame.

Career stop in intermediate wartime

the Mitla incident found the displeasure of Scharons superior and brought its military career on years outside almost to the stop. He remained commander of the paratroopers until he in the autumn 1957 of Dajan for one year afterEngland on staff the college was sent. There it wrote an analytic work with the title:“COMMAND interference in Tactical Battlefield Decisions: British and German Approaches ". After its return he became Colonel and commander of the infantry - school, a task thosebecause of its Inaktivität did not assure to it. Later a Kommandantur of a reserve infantry brigade was added. Scharon began also a tank - training course and attended an evening class for law with the Tel Aviver department of the Hebrew University of (the conclusion it finally made 1966). UpPressure of Ben Gurion appointed it Tzur finally the commander of a reserve tank brigade, again an inactive role, which assured to it however because of its interest in the strategic meaning of tanks rather. Only however as end of 1963 Jitzchak Rabin, a laterWork party politician was appointed, the general staff boss, Scharon was again included and the commander of the northern supreme command under Awraham Joffe appointed. 1966 it was carried finally by Rabin into the rank of a major general (Aluf), appointed the director of the military training and becameCommander of a reserve division.

The six-day war

before the six-day war made itself Scharon as well as Joffe and Matti Peled strong to change original tactics conquests along a stage plan planned and at the beginning on a front along of the Gaza Strip was limited. Scharon wanted an attack, which wanted to merge both at the same time and from the beginning all available forces into the combat happening, and the entire Sinaifront to cover should. After the appointment Dajans to the Secretary of Defense could become generally accepted this conception. InWar kommandierte Scharon the most powerful armored division at the Sinai - front (the two other divisions were from valley and Joffe), which created the break-through in the area of Kusseima and Abu Ageila. It was finally also Scharon, that the 6. EgyptianDivision destroying struck. Rabin appointed Scharon the commander of the Sinai, where he was responsible also for the supply of the Egyptian soldiers scattered in the desert.

As a boss of the military training it began different training centres immediately after the war, into thatTo shift West Jordan territory, in order to secure the areas. At the end it had almost all former Jordanian military camps and barracks, which were because of the important strategic points occupied. It tried to convince also Dajan, the families of the soldiers in the proximitythese barracks to settle, was not successful however first. In the year 1969 he became a boss of the southern command of the Tzahal.

The Jom Kippur war

after the attack of Arab states on Israel for the prelude of the Jom Kippur war 1973 was recalled Scharon from the military retirement.It succeeded to it in arbitrary initiative, under ignoring the instructions of his superior major general Chaim bar Lev to break through with its armored division the Egyptian working lines in the Sinai and over the Sueskanal cross. It helped to turn a threatening defeat away of Israel. Since that timeit applies for many in Israel as a hero.

Political career/development

from 1973 to 1974 and from 1977 to today he was a delegate of the Knesset. In the Likud - government of Menachem Begin officiated to Scharon only as a Secretary of Agriculture (1977 -1981), then as Secretaries of Defense (1981 - 83). As an agriculture Minister starting from 1977 it becomes one of the most important advocates of the settler movement.

In consequence of the Israeli occupation of the south of Lebanon committed the Lebanese-Christian Falange allied with Israel - militias 1982 inthe Palestinian refugee camps Sabra and Schatila massacre at Palestinian civilians. An Israeli committee of inquiry, the Kahan commission, indicates 460 victims as secured, and proceeds due to secret service information from approximately 800 civilian and military victims. Beyond the Israeli determinations becomes ofapprox. 1600 mostly civilian victims gone out. The Kahan commission accused not complicity, but nevertheless negligent omitting to Scharon, and found it therefore 1983 as politically indirect guiltily at the massacre, whereby it was forced as a Secretary of Defense to the resignation. To onecriminal condemnation did not come it however.

In Belgium 2002 because of the joint responsibility Scharons at this massacre first a preliminary investigation was opened, the accusation was rejected however due to the immunity of acting cabinet members. The stay of proceedings did not take any position to the question of guilt andis today disputed until.

In the following cabinets Scharon remained first Minister without division (1983 - 84), from 1984 to 1990 Ministers for trade and industry and ministers of building (1990 - 92). In this time it developedlong-range Israeli settlement plans in the Palestinian West Jordan territory with the disputed settlement ring around east jerusalem, to which also Maale Adumim belongs.

After the change of government 1992, with which the work party under Jitzhak Rabin replaced the Likud, was Scharon member of the Knessetand there members of the with regard to foreign policy and the defense commission. As a sharpest opponent relating to domestic affairs Rabins branded Scharon Rabin because of the peace treaty of Oslo as a traitor. 1996, in the year after the murder Rabins, achieved the Likud under Benjamin Netanjahu a new choice victory;Scharon became a Minister for the national infrastructure and promoted as such the substantial development of the Jewish settlements in the occupied Palestinian areas. 1998 appointed Netanjahu Scharon the minister of foreign affairs. As a minister of foreign affairs Scharon requests itself its compatriots, in the occupied areas “in such a waymany mountain summits as possible to be taken ".

1999 defeated the work party under Ehud Barak the Likud, whose chairman Netanjahu was guessed/advised into the vortex of a financial affair. Netanjahu withdrew as a party chief and Scharon became first übergangsweise, in September 1999 then finallyits successor.

To 28. Septembers 2000 visited Scharon accompanied by approximately 1,000 journalists, policemen, military and politicians, both of Muslims, and of Jews and Christians as holy regarded temple mountain in Jerusalem, in order to clarify thatthe temple mountain also the Jew belongs. It wanted to also clarify with the fact that its opinion to Israel control of a united Jerusalem at each place had to keep. With its attendance Scharon, he said had come with a peace message, he saidin addition:

“I am convinced that we can live together with the Palestinians. ”

Although the attendance expressly with the moslemischen administration of the temple mountain it was co-ordinated, came to violent arguments; with demonstrations in the connection also with sharp ammunition at demonstrators one shotand some hurts and killed. The temple mountain attendance Scharons falls temporally with the beginning of the 2. Intifada together. According to opinion of most observers it released with it its outbreak. The Palestinians call the second Intifada also handy “aluminium-Aqsa” - Intifada, designatedto the mosque of the same name on the temple mountain. On the other hand there were deadly notices and long-range plans of the Palestinians for the armed rebellion already in the direct time before it.

Prime minister

Ariel Scharon in Washington, April 2004

after the failure of the peace discussions wonScharon to 6. February 2001 a special choice around the office for Prime Minister and became thereupon to 7. March 2001 of Israel prime minister. Its promise was particularly attractive to grant to security needs of the Israeli population highest priority and the terror for many Wählerinnen and votersto terminate. It could fulfill this promise however until today not completely. Scharon rejected Yassir Arafat as an interlocutor on Palestinian side, accused to it authority at the terror, isolated Arafat internationally and left a public discussion of the targeted killing Arafatsor its classification from the Palestinian areas too, until it placed it in as far as possible destroyed Mukata under house arrest.

Ariel Scharon achieved to 28. January 2003 with its Likud party a new, large choice success. In the second term of office of Scharons governmentwith the establishment 720 km of a long separation fence partly in the midst of the Palestinian areas one began, which is strengthened over a distance of 20 km with concrete and whose international legal status is extremely disputed.

To 23. March 2004 quit the Hamasto the repeated mark and as reaction to the targeted killing Ahmad Jassins on to want to murder Ariel Scharon. Only few days after the killing Jassins Scharon turned out again under pressure. Delegate of the Schinui - a party, which is involved in the government,Scharons demanded resignation. To 28. March had communicated a state attorney that it wants to raise sons against Scharon and its accusation. In the middle of June 2004, after months-long determinations, decided to accuse the Israeli prosecutor general Menachem Masus, head of the government Ariel Scharon not of corruption.Since the suspicion was not to be confirmed and thus a condemnation appeared improbable, the procedure was stopped. Scharon had at the same time with Masus also another conflict: This had publicly blamed, there Scharon it, regarding the West Jordan territory and Gaza, of „the occupied areas “ spoke - in deviation to the official Israeli linguistic usage, which uses „disputed areas “. Scharon put no increased value despite the floating preliminary investigation on a relaxed relationship to the chief prosecutor, and insisted further on its word choice.

In December2003 submitted one-sided departure plan from the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Jordan territory, well-known as „crowd on plan the “ , to Scharon, according to which all settlements in the Gaza Strip and four in the West Jordan territory are to be dissolved. Despite international criticism to the fact that this plan not alsothe Palestinians is co-ordinated, see many this plan as step in the correct direction and break with the past settlement politics of Israel. Others see into the fact only the insight that the military expenditure to hold the settlements in the long term in Gaza upDuration was not portable. The plan cost Scharon sympathies during the settlement movement and to political rights Israel, brought it however agreement in the moderate and left spectrum. In order the plan, which contradicted its earlier policy, to intersperse it terminated the coalition alsoSchinui and Schas and a large coalition with the work party was received. Many do not see genuine contradiction to its earlier policy, but only one diverting manoeuvre, in order to extract the border shifts in the West Jordan territory by the separation fence in favor of of Israel the international attention.Internal party-line it had to exist a struggle for power with the opponents of the plan among Ministers of Finance Benjamin Netanjahu, which withdrew briefly in August 2005 before execution of the Gaza departure from its office.

Scharon quit to 21. November 2005 its resignation from the ministerial position andthe withdrawal from the Likud on. It created a new party with the name Kadima („forward “) in the same month, after the resistance in the Likud against the settler departure had grown, which used its good chance with the following new elections.

Illness

To 18. December 2005 suffered Scharon an easy impact accumulation. An obviously innate heart error was discovered, to 5. January 2006 to be operated should. The eve of the operation strong brain bleedings were determined, probably due to a further impact accumulation. Scharon becameinto an artificial coma transferred and had to undergo in the next days to several neurosurgical operations. The Regierungsgeschäfte were transferred to the deputy Prime Minister Ehud Olmert. Starting from that 9. The treating physicians began January to set the beta exercise means off. This procedure should originally within 36 hours finally its. With tests on Saturday, that 14. January brain activities in both brain halves were measured, it gave however no signs for awaking from the coma. Therefore publicly the fear was expressed, the comaa consequence of the impact accumulation can be actual.[1]

It is considered as safe that Scharon will not be able to exercise its office any longer. This brings a difficult situation for the Israeli policy with itself, since in the last years pursued in particularPolitics opposite the Palestinians and the new party Kadima with the person Ariel Scharons are closely connected.

In the Israeli public criticism at the medical supply Scharons became loud; one should not have permitted it therefore, without medical company upto return its remote farm. A journalist of the newspaper Ha'aretz formulated: “Israel lost now two Prime Ministers, because they were not sufficiently protected: Rabin before force, and Scharon before illness. “

Under the numerous recovery desires also such were from political opponents, outthe Arab world and from the Pa; only members of the Hamas and the Iranian president Ahmadinedschad wished publicly death to Scharon.

At the 11. The physicians decided February 2006 to a further emergency operation, after investigations damage to the digestive tract of thePolitician and problems during the blood supply of the internal organs had shown. Explanations of the treating physicians according to Scharons condition is critical after the operation „, but stable “.

At the beginning of of April 2006 took place a further operation for the locking from holes in the head, throughthe previous operations were conditioned.

At the 11. April 2006 decided the Israeli cabinet to explain Scharon for durably incapable of holding office. Its successor in the office for Prime Minister became its deputy Ehud Olmert.

Literature

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