of these articles describes the philosopher Aristoteles. For the ruler of the same name of Kyrene, see Aristoteles (Kyrene).
Aristoteles Büste

Aristoteles (Greek Αριστοτέλης Aristotelēs, * 384 v. Chr. in steam turbine and gas turbine system Irish Republican Army / Macedonia, † 322 v. Chr. in Chalkis / Euböa) were a Greek philosopher, natural scientist and a one of the most influential philosophers of the abendländischen history of ideas, which justified numerous disciplines either or affected crucially. After its origin Aristoteles also the Stagirit was called.

Table of contents


384 v. Chr. Aristoteles in steam turbine and gas turbine system Irish Republican Army was born as a son of the Nikomachos.Its father was a body physician at the yard of king Amyntas II. Macedonia. In the year 367 v. Chr., with 17 years, Aristoteles occurs Platons academy Athens and studied there 20 years.

347 v. Chr.Platon dies. The linethe academy does not take over Speusippos, a nephew Platons, and the obviously more talented and talentiertere Aristoteles. That is connected with the fact that Aristoteles Metöke was, possessed in Athens no citizen right and therefore could not take over the academy. Aristoteles follows the callthe Tyrannen Hermias of Atarneus in small Asia, which was likewise Platonschüler and a Vasall of the Perserkönigs at the same time. Aristoteles married the niece of the city prince Pytias and created in Atarneus a school (Diogenes Laertios, 5.3 f.). Of 343 v. Chr. to 336 v. Chr. informed Aristoteles on behalf the Macedonian king Philipp II. its son Alexander the large one.

335 v. Chr. Aristoteles returned to Athens and creates there its own school, the Lykeion (later also Peripatos called).This exists to approximately 40 v. Chr. and from it the philosophical direction of the Peripatetiker comes out . 323 v. Chr.Aristoteles leaves Athens, since after Alexanders death wins the anti-Macedonian party the upper hand and Aristoteles of the Gottlosigkeit is accused. Itflees after Chalkis, the place of birth of its nut/mother, where he dies in the following year (Diog. Laert. 5.6 FF.).

And do writings teach

which are from Aristoteles delivered?

With the delivered writings of the Aristoteles - the corpus Aristotelicum - it actsnot around the exoterischen writings published by it. These are up to (z. T. extensive) quotations with later writers lost. Completely received however since that the 19 is. Jhd. esoterischen writings or Pragmatien so mentioned. Actsitself around notes, Vorlesungsskripte or material collections, those first only for the internal use intended were and only in the first century v.Chr. by the expenditure of the Andronikos of Rhodos (S. and) were made accessible for a broader public. These writings are thereforein style and structure often with difficulty accessible. Of the exoterischen writings published to Aristoteles' lifetimes, the z. T. when dialogues were written in the style Platons, very little is delivered. A picture of these writings supplies at the earliest still the Protreptikos,a leaflet for philosophy, put on on public effect.

Aristoteles' organization of fields of knowledge

Aristoteles was concerned with numerous fields of knowledge, which are however in most cases not congruent with the today's areas of same name. For example ethics for Aristoteles is not infirst line a theory of the moral and separately in many points also not from the policy, which it calls frequently together both also under the term of the political sciences. The distinction is most important in three large kinds ofRanges knowledge: the theoretical, practical and poietischen (bringing out).

  • (1) The theoretical science regards what of humans is independent and possesses no outside purpose except the realization. Into it above all physics and the Metaphysik fall.
  • (2) The practical science brings up for discussion what lies in the range of the human actions, which brings however nothing out except the action. Hierein falls above all Aristoteles' ethics and the policy.
  • (3) The poietische science examines what within the rangethe human activities lies and here an object brings out. The writing Poetik of the corpus Aristotelicum brings up for discussion thereby (nearly) excluding the seal.
  • A further important part of the delivered aristotelischen writings are to a certain extent Metawissenschaften, which lie apart from this three-organization of the sciencesand above all the logic concern.

Central one methodologische elements of philosophy Aristoteles'

contrary to Platon, which understands philosophy as all ranges of human knowledge a comprehensive unit science, proceeds Aristoteles from a concept with single sciences as independent disciplines. Hereit supports also by empirical research (in the broadest sense) and argues in the elaboration of its theories with the healthy human understanding as well as with the theories of its predecessors and the opinion of the public (Doxographie). “First philosophy”,D. h. the Metaphysik is however before-arranged as basic knowledge shank of being ends as being ends the other sciences.

The substance teachings as central element of philosophy Aristoteles'

fundamental for Aristoteles' philosophy altogether are the question: Wherein does the basis lie all Seins?Herethe term is central ousía ( Greek ουσία), which was translated in the later tradition with substance. What is now ousía a thing? Ousia is independent, which this thing their is its after, from coming and coincidental at short noticeCharacteristics. Ousía thereby that that of these characteristics, is is even independent and about which these are dependent. Grammatically or kategorial expressed, this is called the fact that the substance is that, to which the characteristics are attributed or about which is anything at all stated;what is stated by the substances, are their descriptors. Aristoteles' answer to question, which now the lasting substantial is, is finally that ousía the determining form - which eidos - is, the cause all Seins is.Like that is z. B. eidos of Sokrates what its people shape, its people its determines; after the philosophy this Hylemorphismus knows - the teachings that an article from determining subject (hylê) and determining form (morphê is alternative term for eidos) exists to be understood and the form the organizing principle of the subject actual than general forerunner of the theory of the genetic code.

The theory ousía works Aristoteles in the so-called. first philosophy out, inunite under the title Metaphysik delivered papers. It plays however also within many other ranges of its thinking an excellent role, and. A. in De Anima, who investigation its that specific and for all alive one is determining.

Aftereffect of philosophythe Aristoteles

Rezeption in the antique

theory of the Aristoteles coined/shaped its school, the Peripatos, after its death far less deeply than Platons teachings its academy. Aristoteles did not become admiration assigns, those with that Platons with thatPlatonikern would be comparable. This meant on the one hand openness and flexibility, on the other hand lack of contentwise justified co-operation. The Peripatetiker dedicated itself above all to empirical natural science and was concerned among other things also with ethics, soul teachings and state theory. Aristoteles' pupil Theophrastos came, itsSuccessor as directors/conductors of the school, and its successor Straton too partly different results than the school founder. After Stratons death (270/268 v. Chr.) began one period of the fall.

The study and commentating of the writings of the Aristoteles apparent became in the Peripatosneglected, anyhow far less eagerly operated than the Platonstudium in the competitive academy. Only in the first century v. Chr. provided Andronikos of Rhodos for a composition of the training writings (lectures) of the Aristoteles. For a broader public “exoterischen” writings determined, in particularthe dialogues, were for a long time popular, were lost however in the Roman Kaiser era.Cicero still knew it. The Peripatetiker regarded the training writings as particularly for its internal instruction use intended. In the Roman Kaiser era the most influential representative of the air dead reading mash was Alexanderof Aphrodisias, which represented the number of deaths of the soul against the Platoniker.

Although Aristoteles had attached great importance to the refutation of core components of the Platonismus, there was the straight Neuplatoniker, those in late ancient times a relevant contribution for preservation andSpreading of its inheritance carried out, by it its logic took over, commentated and into its system integrated. A particularly important role played thereby in the 3. Century n. Chr.Porphyrios, in 5. Century Proklos and finally as last in 6. Century Simplikios, the important Aristoteleskommentare wrote. In 4. Century wrote Themistios Paraphrasen to works of the Aristoteles, which obtained a strong aftereffect. It was under the lateantique commentators the only Aristoteliker; the others aimed at a synthesis of Platonic and aristotelischer views, howthe Platonic predominance came.

With the prominent antique church fathers Aristoteles was a little well-known and unpopular, some despised and scoffed its dialectic. They verübelten it the fact that it the universe as ungeschaffen and regarded and the individual immortality of the soul imperishabledoubted (and/or. after its understanding denied). However some Christian Gnostiker and other shedding tables Christians had a more positive relationship to Aristoteles:Arianer (Aetios, Eunomios), Monophysiten, Pelagianer and Nestorianer - a circumstance, that the philosophers for the church authors only quitesuspect made. Syrians - both monophysitische and nestorianische - translated the Organon into their language and argued intensively with it. In 6. In addition, century wrote the Monophysit Johannes Philoponos of Aristoteles comments, practiced sharp criticism at the aristotelischen cosmologyand physics. He was with its Impetustheorie a forerunner latemedieval and earlymodern criticism at aristotelischen kinematics.

Rezeption in the Middle Ages

medieval representation of the Aristoteles

in the Byzantine realm was considered Aristoteles in the early Middle Ages little. Its influence made itself predominantly indirectly valid,indeed over usually the again-Platonically gesinnten lateantique authors, who had taken over parts of its teachings. Therefore mixture was also from the beginning given again-Platonic ideas. With Johannes of Damascus the aristotelische component steps out clearly. In the 11. and 12. Century came itto a revival of the interest in aristotelischer philosophy:Michael Psellos, Johannes Italos and its pupils Eustratios of Nikaia (both because of shed they condemned) as well as the primarily philologically oriented Michael of Ephesos wrote comments. The emperor daughter Anna Komnena promoted these efforts.

In the Islamic area the effect of the works of the Aristoteles began early and was broader and deeper than in late ancient times and in the European early and high Middle Ages. That air dead reading mash dominated qualitatively and quantitatively in relation to the remaining antique tradition. Already in9. Century were available most works of the Aristoteles in Arabic language, just as antique comments. In addition a rich false (pseudo aristotelisches) bibliography partial of again-Platonic contents came. Among the latter writings ranked like the theology of the Aristoteles and the Kalam fi mahd aluminium-khair (Dear de causis). The aristotelischen ideas were from the outset also again-Platonic mixed, and one believed in an agreement of the teachings Platons and the Aristoteles. In this sense aluminium-Kindi ( 9 interpreted. Jh.) and aluminium-Farabi (10. Jh.) and thosethem the following later tradition the air dead reading mash; with ibn Sina (Avicenna) the again-Platonic element stepped more strongly into the foreground. Relatively pure air dead reading mash represented however in 12. Century ibn Rušd (Averroes), numerous comments wrote and thosearistotelische philosophy against aluminium-Ghazali defended.

In latin the Middle Ages were first to in 12. Century only a small part of the complete work of the Aristoteles spreads, i.e. two of the logical writings (categories and De interpretatione), the Boethius in early 6. Century translates andhad commentated, together with the introduction of the Porphyrios to the category teachings. This bibliography, later than Logica vetus designation, formed the basis of logic instruction. This close delimitation changed with the large translation movement 12. and 13. Century. In 12. Century becamethe logical writings which are missing so far (Analytiken, Topik, Sophistici elenchi) in Latin language available; they constituted the Logica new facts. Then one to other nearly all remaining works came in addition (partly only in 13. Century). Most writings becameseveral times into latin transfer (either from the Arab one or from the Greek one).Michael Scotus translated Aristoteleskommentare of the Averroes from the Arab one. They were eagerly used, which in the second half 13. Century for the emergence of latin Averroismus, that ledfor conditions at that time of relatively consistent air dead reading mash was.

In the course 13. Century became the writings of the Aristoteles as standard text books the basis at the universities (in the faculty of the free arts) claimant of the scholastischen science; 1255 became its logic, nature philosophyand ethics at this faculty that Paris university as subjects prescribed. The guide roller came to that Parisians and the Oxforder university. The Aristoteleskommentare of the Albertus Magnus was trailblazing. Writing Aristoteleskommentaren became a principal occupation of the Magister, and manyfrom them the commentated text books held for practically mistake-free. One studied the science theory particularly intensively apart from aristotelischen methodology, in order to use it as basis for a hierarchically arranged system of the sciences. Resistance rose however from theological side approximatelyindividual theories, particularly against the theses of the eternity of the world and the absolute validity of the laws of nature (exclusion of miracles), as well as against the Averroismus. Therefore it came 1210, 1215, 1231, 1245 and 1277 to church Aristotelesverboten. They arranged themselvesbut only against the nature-philosophical writings and/or. against individual theses and could the triumphant advance of the air dead reading mash only temporarily restrain. These prohibitions did not concern only France (above all Paris), in Oxford applied it. Aristoteles became “the philosopher” absolutely: with Philosophus (withoutAdditive) was only it meant, with Commentator Averroes. Opposite standpoints (particularly in the theory of knowledge and anthropology) represented trailers of the Platonically affected theories of the Augustinus, particularly Franziskaner (“Franziskanerschule”). Finally sat down from the Dominikaner Thomas von Aquin modifiedand aristotelische instructional system (Thomismus) developed further through, first in its medal and later in the entire church. However one attributed further again-Platonic writings to injustice to the Aristoteles, whereby the overall view of its philosophy was falsified.

Rezeption in the modern times

In the Renaissance human made new, much more easily readable Aristotelesübersetzungen in latin, and one began to read also the Greek original texts. It came to violent controversy between Platonikern and Aristotelikern, whereby the human involved was inclined by the majority to Platon. Itimportant Aristoteliker gave such as Pietro Pomponazzi (1462-1525) and Jacopo Zabarella (1533-1589 ), and it developed at that time in the evening country of more Aristoteleskommentare than during all Middle Ages in the Renaissance in addition. As in the Middle Ages the tendency also still prevailed with many Renaissance scholarsforwards to reconcile Platonic and aristotelische points of view among themselves and with catholic theology and anthropology. Since that 15. Century was however possible it, owing to the better entrance to the sources the extent of the fundamental contrasts between Platonismus, air dead reading mash and catholicismto understand better. During the switching of these realizations the Byzantine philosopher Georgios Gemistos Plethon played an important role. Independently of it prevailed (again) the scholastische air dead reading mash, which continued the medieval tradition, with its method and terminology at schools and universities still todeeply into the modern times, also in the lutherischen areas, although Luther rejected the air dead reading mash.

In the sechzehnten century Bernardino Telesio and Giordano Bruno of frontal attacks undertook on the air dead reading mash, and Petrus Ramus stepped for a nichtaristotelische logic (RAMism). Butonly since that 17. Century displaced a new science understanding the aristotelisch scholastische tradition. In physics Galilei introduced the reversal. In biology could do itself aristotelische views to in 18. Century hold.

The aftereffect that was very strong and continuously Poetik of the Aristoteles, in particular its tragedy theory. It particularly coined/shaped theory and practice of the theatre during all early modern times, apart from some weighty exceptions in Spain and England (Shakespeare). The Poetik was present since 1278 in Latin translation, 1498and 1536 appeared human translations. On it the Poetik of the Julius Caesar Scaliger ( 1561) was based, the seal teachings of Martin Opitz (1624), the French theatre teachings 17. Century (doctrine classique) and finally the rule art demanded by Johann Christoph Gottsched (Criti Dichtkunst, 1730).

In 19. Century began the modern Aristotelesforschung with the Aristoteles total expenditure of the citizens of Berlin academy, which procured Immanuel Bekker starting from 1831. After their numbers of lines and side Aristoteles is this very day quoted.

On the philosophy 20. CenturyAristoteles did not influence with its science system, but she inferred, particularly only individual suggestions from its work in ontologischem area and regarding the distinction of practical and theoretical reason and science.

Works (selection)


of primary texts

  • translations:
    • Grumach, Ernst (Begr.),Flashar, light courage (Hrsg.):Aristoteles. Works in German translation, 19 Bde., academy publishing house, Berlin 1965 FF. (With usually very good comment parts)
    • of Barnes, Jonathan (Hrsg.): The Complete Works OF Aristotle, 2 Bde., Princeton 1995 (collection of the relevant EnglishTranslations)
    • Rapp, Christian OF Wagner, Tim: Aristoteles, Topik. Translation, introduction and comment, Stuttgart 2004 (Reclam)
  • Greek text editions:
    • div. Hgg. in the row: Oxford Classical of text (OCT) with Oxford University press edited.
    • div. Hgg. and translators in the row: Loeb ClassicalText (LCT) with Harvard University press edited (Greek text with English translation)

secondary literature (emphasized particularly for a riser)

  • introductions:
    • Book home, Thomas: Aristoteles, Freiburg i. Break. 1996
    • code, Alan D.: Aristotle, OUP 2005 (introduction of the probably best connoisseur of the aristotelischenMetaphysik)
    • Detel, Wolfgang: Aristoteles, Leipzig 2005 (problem oriented introduction)
    • hopes, Otfried: Aristoteles, Beck' row philosopher, 2. revised Aufl., Munich 1999 (outstanding introduction, which lights up the practical philosophy of the Aristoteles and prescription ion history more closely)
    • Rapp, Christof: Aristoteles toIntroduction, Hamburg 2004 ISBN 3885063980 (one of the best German-language introductions to Aristoteles with very good thematically arranged Bibliografie for a risers)
    • Ross, W.D.: Aristotle, Routledge 2004 (introduction/representation from the feather/spring most important Aristoteles researchers of the 20.Jh.)
  • topic tables manuals:
    • Barnes, Jonathan(Hg.):The Cambridge Companion ton of Aristotle, Cambridge 1995 (very good introduction to Aristoteles with thematically arranged contributions of some the namhaftesten Aristotelesfor and current, thematically arranged 80 side Bibliografie)
    • book home, Thomas/Flashar, light courage (Hgg.): One can begin today some more alsoAristoteles, Hamburg 2003 (contributions considerably Aristotelesfor in view to Aristoteles and modern philosophy)
  • philosophy history & Doxographie:
    • Flashar, light courage (Hg.): Sketch of the history of philosophy. Philosophy the antique volume 3: Older academy. Aristoteles. Peripatos 2. , examined and extended edition,by light courage Flashar, Hans's shopkeeper, † Fritz Wehrli, George Wöhrle, Basel 2004 (the most detailed philosophy-historical representation of the philosophy of the Aristoteles and its history of the impact)
  • encyclopedias:
    • Hope, Otfried (Hg.): Aristoteles encyclopedia, Stuttgart 2005 ISBN 3520459019
    • horn, Christoph/Rapp, Christof (Hgg.): Dictionary thatantique philosophy, Munich 2002 (with numerous entries too for Aristoteles central terms) ISBN 3406476236
  • further Monographien:
    • Hunter, Werner: Aristoteles, Berlin 1923. (importantly within research history, but as introduction unsuitable)
    • Patzig, Günther: The aristotelische Syllogistik. Logical-philological investigation on thatBook A of “first analytics”, 3. Aufl., Goettingen 1969
    • Sorabji, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations (Hg.): Aristotle Transformed. The Ancient Commentators and Their Influence, Ithaca/New York 1990 (concerning the Rezeption and commentating in late ancient times important work)


Aristoteles in the art

See also

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