Armenia

of these articles treats the Republic of Armenia. For further meanings see Armenia (term clarifying).
ՀայաստանիՀանրապետություն
Hajastani Hanrapetut `June
Republic of Armenia
Flagge Armeniens: oben rot, dann blau und unten orange Wappen Armeniens
(detail) (detail)
office language Armenian
capital Eriwan
system of government Präsidialrepublik
head of state Robert excrement crowd January
prime minister Andranik Markarjan
surface 29.800 km ²
number of inhabitants 2.991.360 (conditions July 2004)
population density of 100 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 725 US-$ (2004)
independence from the Soviet Union to 21. September 1991
currency Dram
time belt UTC +4
national anthem Mer Hayrenik
Kfz characteristic ARM
Internet TLD .am
preselection +374
Karte Asien, Armenien hervorgehoben
Karte Armeniens mit Nachbarländern; im Osten das armenisch besiedelte Berg-Karabach

Armenia (poor. Հայաստան/Hajastan) is a Binnenstaat in the Caucasus (Anterior Asia). It lies in the mountain country between Georgien, Aserbeidschan, Iran and Turkey. The country corresponds to the northeast part of in former times larger Armenia and attained with dissolution of the USSR 1991 its independence.

Table of contents

Web on the left of [work on

]

Geografie Armenia between 38° 51 ' and 41° 16 ' northern latitude as well as 43° 29 ' and 46° 37 ' of eastern length and cover an area of29,800 km ² in the northeast of the Armenian high country (i.e. in the Caucasus). It borders in the west on Turkey, in the southwest on the Azerbaijani Exklave Nachitschewan, in the south on Iran, in the east on Azerbaijan and in the northat Georgien.

Armenia is a pronounced mountain country - 90% of the national surface are appropriate more for than 1,000 m over the sea level, the middle height are 1800 M. From the north the Ausläufer of the small Caucasus high over 3.000 m extends. The highest collection is the extinct volcano Aragats (4090 m) (nearby Biblical era advice), the deepest point is to approximately 380 m highly because of the bank of the Araks ` at the border to Turkey. The area lies in a Faltengebirge -it resulted and still changes from the collision of the Eurasi plate with the Arab plate - and is accordingly strongly earthquake-endangered (see also disturbance line).The rock is often volcanic origin. Under the proven Bodenschätzen are differentCopper oxides most importantly, those as by-product molybdenum, iron and gold contain, in addition uranium, different metalloids, half jewels and rock sorts such as Tuff, basalt, marble among other things In addition mineral waters come for welfare purposes and the everyday life use.

The largest lake of Armenia is thateast of Eriwan approx. 1,900 m Sewansee with a surface of 1.417 km, lain highly, ². The longest rivers of Armenia are Arax, Worotan and Kasah.

cities

the largest cities and their numbers of inhabitants (January 2005) are:

  1. Eriwan: 1.093.499
  2. Gjumri: 148,383
  3. Wanadsor: 107,394
  4. Etschmiadsin: 49,514
  5. Hrasdan: To 40.796

see also list of the cities in Armenia

relief

climate

Klimadiagramm Eriwan
climatic diagram Eriwan

the territory of the Republic of Armenia lies in the subtropics, by thoseconsiderable differences in height - the Aragats (4090 m) and the deepest point at the Arax (approximately 380 m) e.g. lie. from each other removes only approximately 80 km - and the kleinteilige landscape arise however different local Klimaten. On the one hand the close seas workcompensatorily, on the other hand one the high mountains of the environment favour extreme fluctuations. The high summits of the Caucasus work against strong cooling break-downs from the north. In the valleys and valleys the climate is continental, whereby the midday temperatures mostly lie in the summer over 30, inthe mountains altogether somewhat coolly and at the border to Iran subtropically and very much drying.

See also climate Eriwans

to planting and animal species

Syrian brown bear

the area of the Republic of Armenia is species-rich, it gives a multiplicity of endemic kinds.In the Araxniederung are salt plants. Up to a height of 1400 m Artemisia are far common. In the gebirgigen area many thorny bushes grow (among other things Thistles). In the high mountains increase xerophile plants arise. Around 1900 were still approximately 25% [1] of the surface of trees or bushes, 1964 cover still

Armenische Felseidechse
Armenian rock lizard
approximately 15% [2], 2005 only 8-10%. In Sangesur in the south of the country forest up to a height of 2400 m arises. In still higher situations resemblesthe plant world that of the alps. There are many reptiles, among them the Armenian rock lizard and poison queues (e.g. vipers); under the Arachnids also scorpios. In damp valleys live wild pigs, Schakale, deer, minks, sea gulls and eagles; in the steppes in the mountains above all rodents;in the forests also Syrian brown bears, game cats and wolves.

In the protected area Chosrow live also Luchse and some Caucasian leopards.

Armenia is the homeland of the Granatapfels. Latin name of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) translated „Armenian apple reads “. ThoseApricot belongs to the symbols of Armenia, therefore also the color of the lowest strip of the flag of Armenia.

population and language

of the inhabitants of the country are 95% Armenian, 3% Russian. The remaining 2 per cent maketo a majority Kurd out. In Armenia the natural population trend is declining. Between 1991 to 1998 are approx. 740.000 to 780,000 humans particularly to Russia and into other states of the GUS emigriert.

The Armenian language is a partthe indogermanischen family, the Armenian alphabet 5 became at the beginning. Century by Mesrop Maschtoz provides. Since at that time the alphabet became the firm basis of the national language and the culture.

The dominating religion in the country is the Armenian one Apostoli church, about 94% of the population belong to her. There is a catholic minority of the Armenian-catholic rite, also Armenian-catholic church mentioned. To the important minorities witnesses Jehovas (0.5%) belong, Most Kurds of Armenia are Jesiden.

Work on []

History

major item: History of Armenia

early history and antique one

around 850 to 600 v. Chr. the realm of Urartu is in the area of Armenia. About 518 v. Chr. Armenia is integrated into the Perserreich of the Achaimeniden, throughthe Perserfeldzug Alexanders of the large one (334-323 v. Chr.) in its realm is integrated.

188 v. Chr., after the defeat of the Seleukidenreiches, the largest diadochus states the Alexanders of the large one, against which makes Romans in the battle of magnesiathe dynasty of the Artaxiaden.

Large Armenia to an independent kingdom. Around 95 to 55 v. Chr. is the high point of the Artaxiadenstaates and the antique kingdom of the Armenians under Tigranes the large one, which can be proclaimed to the king of the kings.Its alliance with Mithridates of Pontos brings it into the conflict with the Romans, whose sovereignty it must recognize at the conclusion.

The Parthern dominant in Mesopotamien and Iran succeeds in the years of our time calculation, representative of the own ruling familyto set the Arsakiden (Arschakuni) on the throne, which the Romans 66 n. Chr. recognize.

Armenia, II VII A.D.

252 to 297 succeed in to the Sassaniden bringing large Armenia under their influence. Only as Diokletian the Sassaniden 297 defeated, must these the sovereignty give - Trdat up III. from the house of the Arsakiden, the 301n.Chr mounts the throne. the Christianity in Armenia introduces. Armenia becomes so the first Christian state of the world. Im Jahr 301 wird das Christentum zur Staatsreligion erklärt.

387 divides Rome and the Persian realm of the Sassaniden the largeArmenian kingdom among themselves. The Armenians nevertheless develop a high-standing Christian culture, literature and an architecture - particularly after the creation of their own alphabet by Mesrop Maschtoz in the year 405.

Roman provinces

as the Sassaniden under Yazdegerd II. try to introduce the zoroastrische state religion to Armenia it comes to a rebellion of the Armenians. Follows a long guerrilla war, which finally ends with the acknowledgment of the Christianity 484.

In 6. Jh. becomes Armenia one of the main combat areas between the Byzantine realm and the Sassaniden. From 591 to approximately 640 the Byzantinern succeed in bringing the majority of large Armenia under their control however occupation leads to rebellions of theArmenian aristocracy.

the Middle Ages

the bell tower of the monastery Haghpat

the Arabs succeed it, after several changes in the sovereignty between Byzanz and the Kalifat to establish to 700 their rule durably in the country. In 8. and 9. Jh.it comes to a set of rebellions of parts of the Armenian aristocracy, which are often bloodily struck down; during this time the guidance in the aristocracy of the sex of the Mamikonean changes those to that the Bagratiden (Bagratuni), their power also on partsGeorgiens to expand can.

Aschot I. then under utilization of the gradual attenuation of the Kalifats to 885 /886 succeed in establishing Armenian kingdom which is recognized both by the Kalifen and by the Byzantine emperor. Aschot II.(915-928) bringsthe liberty fights to the conclusion.

In the second half of the 11. Jh. the realm perishes by unfortunate wars and internal Zwistigkeiten. The last ruler is murdered by the Byzantinern. In the consequence Armenian refugees create 1080 in Kilikien an independentPrincipality of small Armenia under the Rubeniden. This groups itself with the cross drivers against Byzantiner and Turks. 1342 fall the kingdom to the catholic Lusignans of Cyprus, comes however soon thereafter to the Egyptian Mamluken and whereupon to the osmanischen realm.

modern times and presence

in the sieved Russian-Turkish war 1828 to 1829 the eastern part of Armenia came under the sovereignty of the Russian realm. After the ninth Russian-Turkish war 1877 to 1878 in the context of the Balkans crisis that had Osmani realm in peacetime of San Stefano further parts of east Armenia and the provinces Kars and Ardahan at Russia transfer.

To 24. April 1915 arranges the 1908 to power come and - contrary to the multi-cultural policy of the Osmani realm- nationalistic oriented young-recent movement, from whose rows also Mustafa Kemal Atatürk comes, the arrest and Deportation of Armenian intellectual in Istanbul and introduce thereby the genocide at the Armenians .

The memorial place to the genocide

1918 - 1920 existed thoseindependent Armenian republic, which the Entente followed against the Central Powers. In the contract of Sèvres of 10. August 1920, one that Paris suburb contracts, which terminated the First World War, was intended the independence of Armenia. The contract never is into force stepped, because he was not ratified by all Contracting States. The flag and the coat of arms (see above) are since the Unabhängikeit of the Soviet Union 1991 again symbols of the today's Republic of Armenia. Due to the Greek-Turkish war (1919-1922) the contract becamefrom Sèvres in the contract of Lausanne in favor of Turkey revises. 1920 were divided Armenia between Turkey and Soviet Russia. After establishment of the USSR 1922 east Armenia became a part of the Transkaukasi socialist Föderalen Soviet republic.

1936 became east Armenia a formally independent Union republic of the Soviet Union and was called from now to Armenian socialist Soviet republic. It developed to an important location of the chemical industry, the shoe industry and computer science. Many electronic construction units for Soviet space travel and also robot becamehere entwicklet. In the Soviet Union Armenian CSSR was among other things because of the warm climate a popular destination.

Armenian CSSR was since the end of the eighties beside Estni CSSR, Letti CSSR and Litaui CSSRa center of the September-advicistic movements within the USSR, which the dissolution accelerated. At this time also the conflict flamed a by the majority Armenian settled area around Bergkarabach, within Azerbaijani CSSR.

Eriwan with the era advice, Turkey in the background

to 7. December 1988 shook a heavy earthquake the region Lori in the north of Armenian CSSR, which reached the value 6.8 on the judge scale. Many buildings, in particular schools and hospitals, held not conditions and 25.000 for the earthquakeHumans died. In addition the winter temperatures and the unpreparedness of the authorities came. The government left foreign aids in the country. This was the first case, as the Soviet Union accepted foreign assistance in larger extent. The economic development of this region becomes throughthe lasting damage of the infrastructure still obstructs.

In August 1991 Armenian CSSR was renamed following the first republic into Armenian republic. After the declaration of independence to 21. September 1991 developed the today's Republic of Armenia. Thatsouthern, by far largest part of the historical settlement area of the Armenians remained under Turkish rule.

See also Kingdom of small Armenia, Armenian, Armenian in Central Europe, list of the rulers of Armenia, genocide at the Armenians

to politics

to 21.September 1991 explained itself Armenia independent, in dissolution, of itself the Soviet Union for. The parliament, the national assembly, is selected every four years. There is only one chamber.

To 6. October 1991 became Lewon Ter Petrosjan the first president thatArmenian republic selected. To 22. September 1996 it was red-elect. Its popularity sank however increasingly. In February 1998 it was forced to the resignation, because it made additional concessions at Azerbaijan in the war around the region Bergkarabach the solution of the conflict.Lewon Ter Petrosjans Minister, aforementioned of prime minister and späterm successor in the office for president Robert excrement crowd January, rejected a peace plan, which international mediators had suggested in the September 1997 and which Lewon Ter Petrosjan and Azerbaijan endorsed. Excrement crowd January won 1998 the preferred presidency elections. ItsRe-election 2003 was accompanied of irregularities. In January 2006 a constitutional amendment demanded already for a long time by the Council of Europe came into force, which grants to the parliament of more rights. The president may appoint for example still the Prime Minister, he must now howeverby the parliament to be confirmed.

The building of the State Department at the place of the republic in Eriwan

Armenia is one of the few countries of the second world in such a way specified, in which (ex) communist parties were involved in the government never. Armenia is memberthe following international organizations:VN, advice for collective security, GUS, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, Council of Europe, NATO - partnership for the peace, EBRD, black sea restaurant economics

the conflict around Bergkarabach

Armenia is in a long-lastingArgument with the neighbour republic Azerbaijan around Bergkarabach, an area in Azerbaijan, which is inhabited by the majority by Armenians. It explained itself 1991 for independent and calls themselves Nagorno Karabachi republic. Roughly 17,500 Armenians and 25.500 died in this conflictAserbaidschaner, 700.000-1.000.000 Aserbaidschaner and 300,000 Armenians became refugees. Since an armistice in the May 1994, which followed control of a scarce fifth of Azerbaijan by troops of the Republic of Armenia and the internationally not recognized Nagorno Karabachi republic, the situation improvednot substantially. Until today there is no break-through in the relationship between Armenia and Azerbaijan; a condition, which affects their economic development negatively. For details to this conflict see the article Bergkarabach.

foreign policy

major item: Foreign policy thatRepublic of Armenia

the foreign policy of the Republic of Armenia is to serve above all three purposes:

  • national security,
  • the development of the economic relations with the foreign country

and

economics

1988 Armenia becameby a very heavy earthquake partly destroys, which loads some regions still. The privatisation began 1994 and is in the meantime to a large extent final. The annual Pro-Kopf-Einkommen averaged in the year 2004 790 dollar. In the year 2005 the tax and customs returns amounted to304 billion.Dram (680 millions. US-$) or 21.6 per cent. more than 2004. Nevertheless the incomes make only 14.4 per cent. the gross domestic product - in the international comparison a very low value. Armenia exhibits two digit growth rates, could not however yet thoseResource from the year 1988 regain.

The agriculture is based particularly on the cultivation of fruit and vegetable as well as tobacco. On the use of the raw materials (copper, bauxite, gold and. Molybdenum) is based the economy of the country. The power supply is based onlyto a small part on the domestic hydro-electric power plants at the Rasdan, the discharge of the Sewansees. The industry is developed few. Their most important branches are mechanical engineering, chemical industry, textile, metal, food and aluminum industry.

Armenia is member of the world trade organization. The trade becomesby the closed borders to Turkey obstructs. Money transfers of the numerous foreign Armenians support the economy. Of it 45 per cent came. from Russia and 15 per cent. from the USA [3]

administration

Armenia is divided into eleven provinces (more marser, Singular Mars):

  1. Aragatsotn (Արագածոտնիմարզ)
  2. era advice (Արարատիմարզ)
  3. Armavir (province) (Արմավիրիմարզ)
  4. Gegharkunik (Գեղարքունիքիմարզ)
  5. Kotayk (Կոտայքիմարզ)
  6. Lori (Լոռումարզ)
  7. Schirak (Շիրակիմարզ)
  8. Sjunik' (Սյունիքիմարզ)
  9. Tawusch (Տավուշիմարզ)
  10. Wajoz Dsor (ՎայոցՁորիմարզ)
  11. Eriwan (Երևան)

culture

acquaintance Armenian and Armenischstämmige

Literature

  • Armenia. 5000 years art and culture. Wasmuth, Tübingen 1995
  • Tessa Hofmann: Approximation at Armenia. History and present. C.H. Beck, Munich the 1997
  • Jakobs Künzler: In the country of the blood and the tears. Experiences in Mesopotamien during the world war (1914-1918)- (Time certifications). Chronos, Zurich 1999
  • Adriano Alpago Novello: The Armenians. Bridge between evening country and Orient. Belser, Stuttgart/Zurich of 1986
  • jasmines Dum Tragut: Armenia discover. Tre, Berlin 2004
  • Henri Stierlin: From Konstantinopel to Armenia and from Syria to Ethiopia.Belser, Stuttgart/Zurich 1996
  • Franz Werfel: The forty days of the Musa Dagh. Fischer TB, Frankfurt 2002
  • Huberta of Voss: Portrait of a hope: The Armenians. Life pictures from all world. Schiler, September 2004, ISBN 3899300874

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Armenia - word origin, synonyms and translations
Wikiquote: Armenian proverbs - quotations


coordinates: 40° 23 ' N, 44° 57 ' O

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)