Arthur Kronfeld

Arthur Kronfeld (* 9. January 1886 in Berlin; † 16. October 1941 in Moscow) was a German psychiatrist.

As Psychotherapeut and psychologist, Sexualwissenschaftler and science theoretician, in addition, a politically engaged physician was Arthur Kronfeld unusually broadly more educated and far engaged a Jewish scientist with thorough philosophical training and artistic inclinations, et phil., Professor at the Charité the Friedrich William university in Berlin and at” neuropsychiatric Forschungsinstitut Gannuschkin “, today's Forschungsinstitut for psychiatry in Moscow, where it separated under unsettled circumstances by common Suizid with its wife from the life.

Table of contents


1886 - 1904: Childhood and youth

were born Arthur Kronfeld as the first of four children of the attorney Dr.jur. Salomon, towards. Sally crowning field from Thorn, son of a Jewish Kantors, royal senior counsel in Berlin since 1884, and his Mrs. Laura, Tochter of the Cologne Kommerzienrats and city delegate Benjamin dear man. To parents' house, childhood and youth little is well-known. - Min ever Maria Dronke in their exile in New Zealand some admittingness min never did not attain his 1904 born sister under her later name.

1904 - 1909: Study time

1904 Primus of the Sophiengymnasiums in Berlin center; first admitted publication” Goethe and Haeckel “to 70. Birthday second and beginning of a friendship of many years with the law student at that time and later writer briefly Hiller, the pioneer of the literary expressionism.

Medicine study in Jena, Munich, Berlin (over its first, 1906 published and Ernst Haeckel dedicated book with a evolution-theoretical paper over” Sexualität and aesthetic feeling “in former times contact with Magnus deer field; starting from 1907 lifelong friendship with from Berlin originating the philosopher Leonard Nelson with intensive commitment in its circle, also of Göttinger mathematicians such as Carl Runge, Ernst Zermelo, Felix Klein and Hermann Minkowski, above all however of David Hilbert estimated new Fries' school and from this adult Jakob Friedrich Fries society - in this before that 1. World war of deputy chairmen and secretaries - with Alexander Rüstow, Arnold and Bertha Gysin, Carl Brinkmann, Ernst Blumenthal, Franz Oppenheimer, Gerhard Hessen mountain, Hans's mill stone and Rademacher, Heinrich Goesch, iris Runge, Karl emperor, briefly Grelling, Ludwig carrots, Marcel T. Djuvara, max fount, Michael Kowalewsky, Otto Apelt, Paul Bernays, Richard Courant, Rudolf Otto, Walter field man, Alleweldt, Baade and Dubislav as well as many different, in the K. above all its two years older fellow students and later Nobelpreisträger Otto Meyerhof to know and estimate learned; later also member in the society of the friends of the philosophical-political academy, who opened for their part Trägerin 1924 boarding school milling mill were , with contacts combat federation (ISK), socialist in the 1926 created international ones, and the further periphery Nelsons with Erna Blencke, Georges switching fire, Grete Henry Herrmann, Gustav tail man, Heinrich Düker, Julius Kraft, Mary Saran, max of Hodann, Minna woodpecker, Otto lion stone, Willi Eichler, created of Nelson 1918 beside the international socialist young final federation ( IJB) , among other things), conclusion of the study 1908 in Heidelberg, where it and others There Viktor of Weizsäcker to know learned, which he admits with Meyerhof and probably also with the writings of victory mouth Freud made, and medical state examination 1909.

1909 - 1919: First probations

fireworks in Heidelberg

technical training as Medizinalpraktikant at the citizen of Berlin of urban hospital Moabit under George Klemperer and at the grossherzoglichen psychiatric university clinic Heidelberg under Franz Nissl; of this nearly on the day exactly one year after Karl Jaspers to 7. December 1909, one week after its friend Meyerhof, which had submitted the third part for the psychology of the illusion of its book of” contributions for the psychological theory of the mental disordersas thesis, with a study for 1906 and after it designated serologischen reaction, developed accomplished with Emil baron von Dungern at Krebsforschungsinstitut Heidelberg under Vincenz Czerny, from August von Wassermann also attains a doctorate and to the 1. June 1910 as a first budget-moderate assistant employed, after doing its military service 1911/12 among other things with the Gardekürassieren in Berlin as an unsalaried employee assistant actively - together with Karl Wilmanns, Hans's walter Gruhle, August Homburger, Otto climb, Albrecht Wetzel as well as Martin pasteboard home and Karl Jaspers, whereby he dedicated himself together with Jaspers, Gruhle as well as Meyerhof and its friend Otto being castle, under participation of the medical student at that time Vladimir Eliasberg first to the analysis of the” psychological theories Freud's and related opinions “, whose registered results he even in the USA then already end of 1911 publish and 1913 out also in a Russian translation in Moscow bring could. 1912 further graduation to the Dr.phil. with an association study already in Berlin with Theodor pulling experimentalpsychological as a student begun ” to the mechanism of the view “ with the philosopher August measurer in pouring.

During the Heidelberger years also briefly more intensive commitment in the context of the literary early expressionism with poems, essays and book reviews into the action of Franz Pfemfert, the storm of Herwarth Walden, Saturn of Hermann master and harsh ore Grossberger, the Kondor of briefly Hiller and the Argonauten of Ernst Blass; over Hiller and his citizen of Berlin new club also admits or gets used to of Erwin Loewenson (Golo Gangi) with George Heym, Jakob van Hoddis (investigation 1912), David Baumgardt, Friedrich Schulze Maizier, as well as with Alexandra ram Pfemfert and Else Lasker pupil, in Heidelberg with Gustav wheel break, Jacob spades pool of broadcasting corporations and Friedrich Burschell, probably with briefly Wildhagen, the brother of Fritz Wildhagen as well as with max of Scheler and Otto Buek; 1911 also cooperation at the supplement to the Heidelberger newspaper literature and science; Friendship with the son of king Chulalongkorn of Thailand, that with a Heidelbergerin in August 1912 philosophy students prince Rangsit von Chainad as well as own engagement married with Sophie ride mountain made of Warsaw in August 1913.

To the autumn of 1913 changes to Berlin to the urban lunatic asylum Wittenau (Humboldt clinical center, ehem. Karl Bonhoeffer mental hospital) to Hugo Liepmann with expansion and intensification of its science-theoretical studies over the psychological bases of the psychological medicine and international publication activity.

war fires

in the First World War front physician and others before Verdun and Douaumont, several times excellently; after a head injury 1917 transfer to Freiburg i.Br. into the war military hospital of the army department B for the setting up one nerve station as well as 1918 also a flier commission of inquiry for the execution of aeropsychological investigations. In this time marrying with the shorthand-typist Lydia Quien originating from Berlin. In November 1918 prominent role in the free citizens worker and soldier advice, establishment of an university graduate trade union and at the 11. November of mentally leading delegates in the national committee of Baden in Karlsruhe with the proclamation of the new republican government.

1919 - 1933: Successes in Berlin

at Institut for Sexualwissenschaft

after short renewed activity with now at the urban lunatic asylum of heart mountains in Berlin Lichtenberg (Ev. ) Liepmann joint founder and supervisor transact hospital queen Elizabeth heart mountains to 6. July institute for Sexualwissenschaft of Magnus deer field with Friedrich value home as well as later also to August Bessunger and Hans Friedenthal, at also Carl Mueller Braunschweig, opened Arthur because, Bernhard Schapiro, Franz Prange, Ludwig Levy spring, max of Hodann, Ferdinand baron von Reitzenstein, K. Hiller among other things were active. While seven-year-old activity employment for the new direction psychological psychotherapeutisch oriented movement mentioned in the entire medicine at that time with intensive publication, lehr and publisher activity, engaged there, (1920 the science-theoretical basic work the nature of the psychiatric realization, 1924 the text book Psychotherapie, starting from 1922 the row small writings for soul research, which was resumed 1928 briefly by Carl cutter, with authors such as Theodor Friedrichs, William Haas, walter Lurje, Carl bridge, Emerich Décsi, briefly Singer, gas clay/tone Roffenstein, ehem. Rose stone, Sydney Alrutz, briefly Hillebrandt, Werner particularly oh-read, Alexander heart mountain and George count von Arco) as well as organizational cooperation in numerous medical combinations, starting from 1923 in the citizens of Berlin medical society for Parapsychi research, in their closer circle K. 1930 in presence of among other things W. Oh-read, Otto Fanta and” Albert Einstein “relatives further to woman and to testing the Metagraphologen Otto Reimann contributed, while it 1931 beside mentioned Carl bridge when” scientific adviser “participated with testing the alleged Hellsehers Hermann stone cutter, mentioned Hanussen “. Besides also personal co-operation with numerous colleague such as Alfreds' stork, Edith Jacobson (Yak-generic term son), Ernst Kretschmer, Karl Birnbaum, Ludwig Binswanger, Siegfried Berne field, Victor Emil baron von Gebsattel, Walter Schindler, and pupils such as Erich star mountain, Franz Baumeyer and Karl Balthasar.

scientific acknowledgment

1926 address in own practice within the range of the southern zoo and Habilitation for psychiatry and nerve medicine with Karl Bonhoeffer with a work over the fundamental role of the psychology in the psychiatry, so that K. 1927 as” mediators of an opinion way, the any more not to be ignored may not do “(Gustav of miner in its Habilitationsgutachten) the first lecturer of the Charité bestallte because of its psychotherapeutischen qualification and thus in Germany became, when who converted he 1929 to the Evangelist faith, 1930 its it even most important text book the perspectives of the soul medicine published, 1931 to n.b. a.o. Professor was appointed and 1932 still his text book the character customer to bring out could.

Parallel to it under leadership of W. Eliasberg takes part in the preparation and execution starting from 1926 of the annually accomplished general ones medical congresses for Psychotherapie as well as establishment of the general medical society for Psychotherapie in the 1. December 1927 and its citizens of Berlin local's group with Alfred Döblin, Johannes Heinrich Schultz, Karen Horney, Erwin Straus, Fritz Künkel, max of Levy Suhl and max of Grünthal, walter Schindler among other things, starting from 1928 also in the executive committee of the AÄGP and in the adviser of their federation magazine as well as then starting from 1930 after their renaming to the central sheet for Psychotherapie with J.H.Schultz and Rudolf Allers particularly in their editorship; besides and additionally to co-operation with the business guide of archives for Wohlfahrtspflege Siddy Wronsky also chairman of the point federation of the two, of F. Künkel respectable. Manès Sperber led sections of the citizens of Berlin local's group of the international combination for individual psychology (IVIP, IAIP) of Alfred eagle and organization V. International congress for individual psychology in the citizens of Berlin city hall as well as additionally cooperation during the preparation of the international hygiene exhibition in Dresden 1930/31.


1931 candidacy to citizen of Berlin physician chamber as (since 1926) a member of the association of socialist physicians with Alfred Döblin, Ernst Simmel, Max Hodann, Ernst Haase, Bruno Cohn, Minna Flake, Karl Löwenthal, Günther wolf, Annemarie Bieber, I. Klauber and I. Wendriner (after documents from the third realm also SPD - member). In October assumption of the psychotherapeutischen treatment of Sina L. Wolkowa, the oldest daughter of Leo Trotzki - represented in that 1985 film ZINA turned by Ken McMullen - during the treatment of their Lungentuberkulose in Berlin by the Pulmologen William May (Ernst May?).

1932 a gutachterlicher witness during the slandering process Adolf Hitler against Werner Abel in Munich, signing of many personalities such as Albert Einstein, Anton Erkelenz, Arnold branch, Emil Julius Gumbel, Erich Kästner and Erich Zeigner, Ernst Toller, Franz Oppenheimer, Hanns Erich fire-place ski, Heinrich man, Helene Stöcker, Karl and Käthe Kollwitz, briefly Grossmann, Maria Hodann, Minna woodpecker, Otto Lehrmann Russbült, briefly Grossmann, Pietro Nenni, Theodor hard TIG and Theodor of the Plivier, Vitus Heller, Walter hammer, Willi Eichler among other things carried urgent appeal of the international socialist combat federation of L. Nelson for the” structure of a uniform worker front “against” the destruction of all personal and political liberties “by the national socialists, and assumption one the Hauptreferate over” the meaning Kierkegaards “on X. International congress for psychology in Copenhagen.

1933 - 1941: Suppression and exile (Switzerland, USSR)

of the systematic elimination of all Jewish voices from the public spirit life in Germany by the National Socialist government starting from 1933 (see. ” Seizure of power and synchronising “in time of the national socialism) tried to work crowning field on its way by the fact against that it established Psychotherapeuti practice an alternative to the central sheet for Psychotherapie, controlled under the patronage of Carl Gustav young from” German Psychotherapeuten “, in co-operation with William Stekel in Vienna with the publication of the magazine. It was supported thereby by considerable representatives of the psychological medicine from completely Europe - last by Oskar Forel, Prangins, walter Morgenthaler, Berne and John Eugen Staehelin, Basel ” for Switzerland “, then” for the nordischen countries “by Poul Bjerre, Stockholm, Sweden, Oluf Brüel, Copenhagen, Denmark and Helgi Tomasson, Reykjavík, Iceland,” for Holland “by L. van the refuge, Amsterdam,” for Romania “of Eugeniu Sperantia, Cluj as well as” for Russia “of J. E. Galant, Leningrad and N. P. Bruchanski, Moscow.

1935 decided crowning field with its wife however to the emigration, after also still the training power at the citizens of Berlin university had been extracted from it. It could with its entire household, to whom one already belonged because of its extent valuable technical library, into Switzerland moves, where it at that admitted at that time private sanatorium Les Rives de Prangins of O. Forel briefly employment found. it accepted 1936 under the pressure of a classification ultimatum of Swiss authorities a call to neuropsychiatric scientific Zentralinstitut for advanced training in Moscow, when whose coming off its former citizen of Berlin pupils Erich star mountain had mediated in Moscow and in Switzerland Sergius Begotzki (Bagocki) as there representatives of the USSR. At psychiatric Forschungsinstitut P. B. Gannuschkin became crowning field director/conductor of the department for experimental therapy, to which he introduced the insulin shock therapy learned in Switzerland with max Mueller as by way of trial working method of Schizophrenen.

it received the Soviet nationality, one year , to 1937 together with its wife in which in Germany the Gestapo ensured that in agreement with the realm physician chamber “on the one hand the license to practise medicine was denied to him - with the reason, it was as a Jew” anarchist adjusted “and besides from Switzerland had tried to increase with the exhibition of prescriptions to two former citizens of Berlin patients the” Opiumsucht in Germany and to damage thus the German people “ - ” extracted and it on the other hand by the medical faculty in Heidelberg its medical doctor degree. Soon it began to publish also Russian again and hold lectures, before it was appointed 1939 the director of the department for experimental pathology and therapy of the Psychosen.

After the assault of Hitler on the Soviet Union crowning field became politically active 1941 a last mark: in radio endings, on the anti-fascist meeting of two thousand Soviet scientists to 12. October 1941 in Moscow with their world-wide call” at the scientists and head workers of the entire world “to the” fight against the Hitler dictatorship, the verschworenen enemy of all culture and science“, and with 1993 in Russia again presented, originally possibly for the ZK of the CPSU written a representation of the personality of prominent Nazi sizes as” degenerated “, in whom he revealed also intimate details over Adolf Hitler and its Entourage under denominations (S. Lothar Machtan: Hitler's secret, Fischer 2003, S. 405).

Perhaps it was first overwhelming a false estimate of the situation in view of that successful German autumn offensive against Moscow, or a reaction to the arrangement issued by the People's Commissariat for health, in accordance with which it should itself the Chefarzt of the psychiatric hospital in Tomsk to make available “: to 16. October 1941, a day memorable for Moscow, he decided with his wife to the common Suizid by income of a large dose Veronal, whose consequences were not to be cancelled Andrei Wladimirowitsch Sneschnewski after discovery by the director of the institute any longer.

Crowning field more published” deduction “covers approximately 200 skilled work and far over 500 reviews. In Russia it is considered as a classical author of the psychiatry; its publications written there will be to also in this country in a bilingual expenditure for book soon at the disposal.


of books

  • 1906 Sexualität and aesthetic feeling in their genetic connection - a study. 1912 over the psychological theories
  • Freuds and used Singer, Strasbourg and Leipzig opinions - systematics and critical discussion. Angel man, Leipzig (extra pressure; Over.: Moscow 1913) S.A.E. Fr.
  • 1920 the nature of the psychiatric realization - contributions to the general psychiatry I. Springer, Berlin
  • 1924 Hypnose and Suggestion. Ullstein, Berlin (row: Ways to the knowledge Nr.11; Over.: Leningrad 1925, Moscow 1927; Prague 1931; Tallinn 1991)
  • 1924 Psychotherapie - character teachings, psychoanalysis, Hypnose, Psychagogik. Springer, Berlin (2. verb. and. erw. Edition 1925)
  • 1927 the psychology in the psychiatry - an introduction to the psychological realization ways within the psychiatry and their position for clinical-pathological research. Springer, Berlin (Habilitationsschrift; English. Over. 1936);
  • 1930 perspectives of the soul medicine. Thieme, Leipzig
  • 1932 text book the character customer. Springer, Berlin
  • 1932 with S. Wronsky and R. More purely: Social therapy and Psychotherapie in the methods of the welfare service. Heymann, Berlin
  • 1941 Degenerati u wlasti [degenerated at power], Moscow, Krasnojarsk 1941, Magadan 1942, repr. Moscow 1993; m.d.T. Krowawaja schajka degeneratow [the bloody gang of the degenerated one] also Swerdlowsk 1942.

publisher shanks

  • 1922-1927 small writings for soul research finery man, Stuttgart (1928 briefly u.d.T. Writings resumed to the soul research of Carl cutter)
  • 1934-36/37 with W. Stekel: Psychotherapeuti practice - quarter writing for practical medical Psychotherapie. Feasting man, Vienna

Monographien, manual contributions, articles in technical periodicals

Web on the left of

| | * Literature of and over Arthur Kronfeld in the catalog of the DDB



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