Article (kind of word)
to the kind of word of the articles (also: Companion, in school grammars also: ) Words, which determine this in connection with a Nomen and more near, count sex word. The article sets the meaning to the listener knowledge in relationship and marks something as individual admits:„Times the clock communicates “, generally: „the sun “as Unikum, „humans “as kind, up-to-date still unknown: „A man entered the tavern “, or copy of a kind: „A fish has Kiemen. “Due to their function articles become the Determinantiven /Determinantiencounted. They are a substantial component of a nominal cliche.
Grammatically can be indicated in the German Kasus , Genus and number at the article: „the woman “in the Nominativ, „the woman “in the genitive. Article gives it only in some languages, as toExample the Germanic languages such as German and English, the Roman languages, the Greek one and the semitischen languages such as Arab and Hebrew (see column „Web on the left of “). In the Swedish one the indefinite article is placed in front as in German, the certain articles as Suffix realizes.
The Turkish, the Russian and the Ukrainian do not have an article. But Russian and Ukrainian uncertainty can mark more differentiated as for instance the German. An article is missing also in latin, in the Baltic and most slawischen languages(Bulgarian and Macedonian form an exception). The Baltic and slawischen languages press the admitting heating degree particularly by means of the word position out (S. also topic Rhema arrangement). In addition, aspect, Kasus and lexical means (Demonstrativpronomina) know here the function of the articletake over (S. Gladrow and Birkenmaier in bibliography). In the Baltic languages the certainty is expressed partially by means of long adjective forms (see. lit.jaunas vyras “() young man” vs. jaunasis vyras “the young man”).
In some languages it gives in such a waydivision article mentioned, so z. B. in the French (de). and in the Italian. Also in some German dialects there is the division article, for example in the Deutschkärntner dialect (z. B. ane earth apples).
Table of contents
tables for the German
| of the certain articles
| the indefinite article
was still articleless the indogermanische original language,thus the use of the article in the course of the high-German language development becomes as a rule with generic name (“the woman sleeps; a girl cries ") obligatorily. Differently with family names and Prädikativa: “Hans is a baker”. Family names are usually used with article only if forwardsstands for the name an adjective. In Southern Germany, as well as in Austria, it is however quite common, names, except in the address to use with certain articles. Ingerid Dal actually attributes to it that articles penetrated over surnames, the those Appellativawere medium high German, like the strickaere (“Seiler”). Place names are always used except for few exceptions without articles. Also Abstrakta and material names can be used as subject without articles, without the meaning changes: “() Beauty passes”; “() Money governs thoseWorld ". Furthermore certain adding do not permit an article: “It has hunger”; “I drive car” (however in contrast to this: “It drives Mercedes” and also “I drives the car on the yard. ”).
Artikellosigkeit continues to itself leave in a large number of proverbs andformulaful connections find: “House and yard”; “Man and mouse”. Here it concerns Relikte of the older articleless use. Into this connection fall also seals, which should copy stylistic delivered Volkslieder: “Boy spoke - Röslein resisted.” Frequently morphologic are enoughMeans not out, in order to indicate Genus, Kasus and number, since different Kasus must formally collapse and serve so the article as Kasusmerkmal.
Alternatively can be used in place of the article other determinative one as for example none/these/those/some/everyone/my etc. Complete Artikellosigkeit is inNew high German only in exceptional cases possible.
Grammatiker also Pronomina rank article word in the broader sense among the kind of word article, because these can replace the article, if they are used as attribute.
e.g.: none/this/that one/some/each computer program
further designations of this extendedDefinition including the Determinativpronomen are article word, December RMI to and Determinator. It is to be noted that article words are evaluated as such only if they accompany a noun. Without this characteristic are there usual Pronomina.
Artikellosigkeit does not only mean,that some languages (e.g.: slawische languages) kind of word article do not exhibit, but also that they possess as required also no article word. These words are in the Plural of the indefinite articles, e.g.: with the pair of terms the newspaper vs. Newspapers. One calls newspapersthen a zero-article for demarcation against constructions, which forbid the use of an article as for instance it have thirst.
Including the article word into the definition of the kind of word article even articleless language types have an article.
e.g.: lat. is four and/or. soot. eto muz for dt. “this man”
source: Metzler, Bisle Mueller, Helbig
complete Artikellosigkeit is in the new high German only in exceptional cases possible.
Possessivartikel (lat. possidere “possess”) are again a subclass of the article words. It actsaround possession-indicating Possessivpronomina, which are used as article
e.g. my head, development of the use in Wulfilas
article already can
its book , their foehn [work on] be proven. Ingred Dal leads their use on the influence of the GreekOutput text back, in which articles were used. In the old high German its use continues to become generally accepted always, although not yet in all consequence. In the medium high German the occurrence of articleless nouns is already very strongly reduced. In this language period is also the form of the article setting before Possessivpronomen and noun, impossible in the new high German: “the iuweren beautiful more tohter “. A further today uncommon construction is the simultaneous use of certain and indefinite article, itself particularly before a relative clause orwith the Superlativ to prove leaves: “daz a most beautiful grass “.
The certain articles developed from the Demonstrativpronomen dër, diu, daz and already as Relativpronomen one used. In consequence its developed for together laws in such a way specified the Demonstrativpronomen from thatsimple Demonstrativpronomen and the unflektierbaren demonstrative particle SE. Therefore first also only the first part is inflected; the final inflection becomes the rule here only later.
This trend can be observed today in beginnings also in some Baltic and slawischen languages. In Czech ones context-bound nouns a Demonstrativpronomen is often placed in front, likewise in Litaui. In the Polish one as required placed behind Demonstrativpronomina emerges , which emphasizes above-mentioned expressions.
The indefinite article developed from the Numeral old-high-German and medium high-German (gothical ains), like alsothe indefinite article in the Roman languages came out from latin unus (French un , une compares; Spanish un, una). Also the use of the indefinite article becomes in the medium high German the rule. However the development reached only after andafter the conditions that between the use about certain and indefinite article, as well as Artikellosigkeit a concrete meaning relation was understood.
Ever further penetrating of the article use can be attributed to a constant tendency in the development of the Nebensilben, itself tointo the modern language continues. From languageeconomic reasons it comes to the Nebensilbenabschwächung and also to the Nebensilbenvokalausstossung. (Apokope and Synkope). This primarily lautliche constant affects also the form system, since it affects substantially the inflection morphemes. Throughthe weakening full tonus towards final syllable vowels to e, different Kasus formally collapses; the article is used, in order to indicate the Kasus. The tendency is strengthened therefore by the Nebensilbenabschwächung from the synthetic to the analytic language's building.
However it is also discussed whether not perhapsthe Nebensilbenabschwächung a consequence of arising the certain article is.
- Birkenmaier, Willy (1979): Article functions in article lots a language. Studies for nominal Determination in the Russian one. Forum Slavicum 34. Munich. [Examines rendition of the German article in Russian]
- Bisle Mueller,Hansjörg (1991): Article words in German. Semantic and pragmatic aspects of their use. Tübingen: Niemeyer.ISBN 3484302674 [describes the article use within a pragmatic theory “of the co-ordination of common knowledge”]
- Gladrow, Wolfgang (1979): The Determination of the noun into the Russian one and German. A konfrontative study.Leipzig. [Examines rendition of the German article in the Russian]
- Grimm, Hans Jürgen & Heinrich, Gertraud (1976): The article. Leipzig: VEB encyclopedia. [Thorough representation for foreign language instruction without large theoretical requirement]
- Grimm, Hans Jürgen (1986): Investigation to the article use in German. Leipzig: VEB encyclopedia. [Scientificallymore fastidiously than Grimm & Heinrich (1976). Refers also GermanRussian and German-Czech comparisons.]
- Kolde, Gottfried (1989): The article in German circumstances-nominal. Tübingen: Niemeyer. ISBN 3484310960 [very thorough and scientifically broadly founded representation of the article use with descriptions of circumstances]
- father, Heinz (1979): ThatSystem of the article forms in present German. 2. improved edition. Tübingen: Niemeyer.ISBN 3484103590 [a classical author. Strukturalisti method]
- father, Heinz (Hrsg.) (1979): To the syntax of the Determinantien. Tübingen: Fool. ISBN 3860574213 [the essays the articles treat in connection with other Determinantien like “everyone”,“these”, “all” “some” etc. Method: Generative grammar]
- J. van the Auwera (OD.), The semantics OF Determiners. 1980
- H. - J. Grimm, encyclopedia to the article use. 1987
- I. Home, article and definiteness, 1991, 487-535
- N. Sky man, Deiktikon, article, nominal cliche. To the Emergenz syntakt. Structure. 1997
- Helbig and. J. Buscha: “German grammar. A manual for foreigner instruction ", 1979