One designates articulation (
linguistics ) with articulation in the linguistic sense the education of human speech sounds, thus the speech procedure.
Basic condition for the sound formation of humans is the respiration, those over the lung (more exact: from the alveoli) the breathing air needed for speaking supplies. One speaks in this sense also of the Phonationsstrom. With this it concerns primarily expiratorischen Phonationsstrom, i.e. only breathed out air normally serves the sound formation.
In order to be able to understand the speech procedure better, one must make oneself a picture over it, over the bronchi up to the mouth area takes which way of the Phonationsstrom of the lungs, i.e. which speech tools are involved with the speech procedure, and as this way from the breathing air sounds develop.
Table of contents
the speech tools
under the term of speech tools one understands not only the tongue, but likewise the lips, the teeth, the palates, the palate gel, the Gaumenzäpfchen, Rachenhöhle and nose area as well as the larynx and the actual respiratory organs, where “speaking” takes its beginning. The supraglottale range becomes recapitulatory, i.e. the range above the larynx consisting of oral cavity, nose area and throat area as tail pipe designates. All organs and components of the tail pipe are involved in the articulation of human language: Lips, teeth, tongue, palate, palate gel, Gaumenzäpfchen, throat, Kehldeckel and nasal cavity.
the respiratory organs
under the designation of respiratory organs, also Respirationsorgane mentioned, one subsummiert often beside the lungs and the bronchi also the air-leading organs, like bronchial tube, throat, nose. A special role with the production of sounds plays the larynx.
the human larynx
the larynx consists of cartilage mass, volumes and muscles and is characterised by a special mobility. Altogether one recognizes five cartilages: Ring cartilage, sign cartilage, two placing cartilages and the Kehldeckel in such a way specified. As the name already says, the ring cartilage is a closed ring, which widens itself to the rear to a large cartilage plate. It sits on the bronchial tube and is laterally connected by joints with the sign cartilage. The sign cartilage consists of two plates, which are open together grown and to the rear in front and above and down exhibit a horn in each case. The Gelenkverbindung between sign cartilages and ring cartilages is at the lower horns, so that both cartilages can tilt against each other.
, Where the two plates of the sign cartilage are connected, exists a connection with the Kehldeckel, which ascends diagonally to the rear. It has the form of a spoon and consists of soft cartilage mass. He locks the entrance of the larynx against the throat.
The larynx is from the outside ore branchable. When swallowing one notices, how the Kehldeckel puts over the laryngeal entrance. The placing cartilages play a special role. They sit articulated on the rear Oberrand of the ring cartilage and look like small pyramids . They run out forward into the being correct extensions in such a way specified.
Between these and the wall of the sign cartilage are the two being correct lips (see also: Vocal cords) strained. The being correct lips actually are muscles. They run from the internal edge of the sign cartilage in a horizontal line directly to the placing cartilages and are connected by volume fabrics with the ring cartilage.
The placing cartilages can turn in each case around the own horizontal axle or slide apart or to each other and affect with it the position of the vocal cords, which are connected with them. The position between ring and sign cartilages on the other hand permits by mutual tilting an increase or a decrease to the tension of the being correct lips.
The actual function of the larynx is however not the being correct formation. It controls actually the way of breathing air from the outside to the lung and in reverse from the lung outward. The Kehldeckel has a protective function, because he ensures for the fact that solid or liquid food does not arrive into the bronchial tube and thus into the sensitive lung fabric. When coughing for example complicated procedure runs off, by which foreign bodies are removed from the lung and the bronchi.
By the presence of the being correct lips, by the mechanics and particularly by the situation of the human larynx however only the formation of “voice” and thus speaking are possible.
with the formation of language sounds comes it to different movements between the speech tools, specified co-ordinated one on the other, above, thus
- the subglottalen organs (lungs and respiratory system)
- the organs of the larynx
- and the organs of the beginning pipe (throat, mouth and nose area).
In order to produce a sound, the following processes run off in the human body:
- Initiation of a Phonationsstroms from the lungs
- Phonationsprozess: Overcoming of the being correct lips
- actual articulation process: the speech tools are brought into the necessary position.
emergence of the Phonationsstroms
by volume increase of the thorax by means of the chest musculature, the ribs and the Zwerchfells can expand the lung and it develops a negative pressure, so that air can flow over the respiratory system into the lung. By lowering the ribs and lifting the Zwerchfells the lung pulls together on the other hand again. The positive pressure developing thereby is pressed as Expirationsluftstrom the lung over the bronchi into the bronchial tube. The bronchial tube is flexible and ends above with the larynx. Only there, in the larynx, it decides whether the Expirationsstrom becomes the Phonationsstrom or not.
the Phonations and articulation process
after leaking out air the larynx, meets it occurs there the being correct lips (vocal cords). Normally the being correct lips are in breathing position. The placing cartilages of the larynx lie apart very far, so that the being correct lips for the breathing air do not represent any handicap.
In order to bring the Phonationsprozess on, the being correct lips must go into certain positions. With the formation of be correctful sounds Phonationsstellung (being correct position) takes place, i.e. the being correct lips locks the glottis, thus the open area between them, nearly completely. The Phonationsstrom squeezes itself so drop by drop through the glottis and brings the being correct lips into fast oscillations. Complicated periodic oscillations consisting of partial tones, also sounds develop mentioned. The frequency (possible are approx. 70-1000 cycles per second) depend thereby on the length and the pitch of the tension of the being correct lips, those by position of the placing cartilages and/or. the tilting motion between ring and sign cartilages to be adjusted.
as soon as in the being correct lips a primary sound was produced, flows for these into (of throat, nose and oral cavity) consisting the tail pipe. The tail pipe is comparable with a musical instrument, with which the once produced oscillation is modified into a clay/tone. The human tail pipe is thus oscillationable and works thereby as resonance area so mentioned. The noises and sounds produced in the larynx are modulated in the tail pipe to speech sounds.
In principle one must differentiate with the speech sounds between sound sounds and noise sounds. With the isolated articulation of a “sharp” s as for example in Mau s, it actually concerns a noise. It develops, if the glottis is in breath position (see illustration) and is formed between the seam of the tongue and the edge of alveole a tightness. In order to produce a sound, it is thus not necessarily necessary that the being correct lips go into Phonationsstellung (being correct position). Thus a be correctless consonant develops also during breathing position. With the isolated articulation s “yield ” as in S onne against it, are the glottis against it in Phonationsstellung (see illustration). During this very close approximation of the being correct lips develop forces, which shifts the air flow into a consequence of periodic oscillations (Bernoulli effect). Develops a be correctful consonant, which produces a sound by tightness formation between tongue seam and edge of alveole: the be correctful (yield) s.
- the Artikulator is the active part of the articulation, which touches oneself on the articulation places (the articulation place) in addition-moved or it:
- Lower lip
- Apex (tongue point)
- corona (tongue seam)
- Dorsum (tongue back)
- Radix (Zungenwurzel)
- right vocal cord
- the articulation place is the relatively immovable part of the tail pipe and a goal of the Artikulators. One designates the sounds accordingly:
- the kind of articulation is finally the way, as the contact between Artikulator and articulation place (articulation place) presents itself. One speaks in this connection also of the overcoming mode, which the Phonationsstrom must take.
- If one presses air between the lower lip (the Artikulator) and the Oberkieferzähnen (the articulation place), then a /f/ develops as in “travel”.
- If one presses however the lower lip against the Oberlippe and if one opens this “catch”, then a /p/ develops as in a “party”.
- In the case only mentioned a sound results by tightness formation, in second from a catch with following solution of the same. In both cases develops for example noise, which we notice as speech sounds. During being correct participation, i.e. if the being correct lips with the articulation of these sounds in being correct position go develop for /v/ as into “wine” or /b/ as into “leg”. In addition, the Phonationsluft can flow without that she must overcome an obstacle, by the tail pipe, as with vowels and the half vowels, a sub-group of the Approximanten the case is. Vocal ones, half vowels and be correctful consonant are sounds, which we notice as speech sounds. Catch, tightness formation or unhindered leaking out of breathing air are actually the three only overcoming modes.
- orally (air escapes by the mouth)
- Plosiv (catch formation and Plosion)
- Vibrant (“flutter”, D. h several catches and Plosionen one behind the other)
- TAP (phonetics) (unique catch formation) Flap
- (phonetics snaps) (unique catch formation) Frikativ
- ( tightness formation with noise) snaps
- Affrikate (separate catch sound without Plosion with the escaping of air by a tightness formation)
- half vowel (tightness formation without noise)
- vowel (tightness formation without noise)
- lateral one (tightness formation at the tongue sides without noise)
- nasal (air escapes by the nose)
- Nasal (phonetics) (catch formation and escaping of air by the nose area)
- (air escapes by nose and mouth) Nasalvokal
- orally (air escapes by the mouth)
- (production of differences of pressure with the help of the glottis) nasaliert
- Velar (production of differences of pressure with the help of the Velums)
- click (phonetics) (catch)
representation and description of language sounds
sounds leave themselves thus by indication of the articulating organ as well as the articulation place, to the kind of articulation, the kind of the being correct participation (be correctful vs. be correctless), Aspirierung (Behauchung), which duration and the intensity describe rather exactly. By intensity one understands the pressure strength of the Phonationsstroms, which is coupled with the strain of the articulation musculature in the phonetics. One knows consonant ones and vowels in strained and relaxed (English. “tense/lax”, see also: Fortis, Lenis) divide, vowels additionally into such with or without lip roundness.
During the being correct participation must be considered that there are fully be correctful and partial be correctful consonants, depending upon point of being correct employment (English. ” voice onset “).
Apart from the primary characteristics of sounds further secondary sound characteristics can be determined:
of the human languages of the world to Palatalisierung Velarisierung Pharyngalisierung Glottalisierung Labialisierung with the help of a phonetic transcription like the international phonetic alphabet.