a physician or a lady doctor (v. griech.: αρχίατρος archíatros = that uppersound, body physician; too more archiater (latinisiert)) concerns itself with the Vorbeugung (prevention), recognition (diagnosis), treatment (therapy) and aftercare of Diseases and accidents.

The variety of the diseases and their possibilities of treatment led to a breakdown of the Humanmedizin into a large number of fields of activity and Subspezialisierungen (see: List of medical fields of activity). The dental medicine takes a privileged position.

The Germanic name forthe occupation of welfare (old high German lâchi) for example Swedish läkare is , in the English leech in (Blutegel) or in the surname receive laughter man (detailed data to the Etymologie).

Into many specializedlinguistic Komposita the original Greek word dips (γ) ιατρός and/or. the older, more scholarly form ιατήρ up: iatro towards - by medical acting, the Psych causes more iater - the soul physician etc.

Table of contents


the function of the” physician “and/or. the” Heilers “is one oldest mankind. Colloquially in equating of medicine - the medical profession - medicine man presses himself stillout. First is only the designation of a field of activity within the medical welfare art. Third can be positively used in the sense much knowing physician in addition, with negative Beiklang of one secret knowledge carrier.

The occupation sociology teaches that a profession like thatthe physicians under such circumstances its own condition moral develops, whose most well-known form is the” oath of the Hippokrates “. In glaring cases (see. the” Triage “) stands it before nearly unsolvable tasks. Their intactness would leave itself to z. B.see to it whether with lethal epidemics the physicians do not defect.

Physicians are subject to a national monitoring of the permission (license to practise medicine in D, S. and. in other European Union countries) and and. A. that physician-solicitor-genuinly, which large restrictions in the publication and publicationsmeant. Physicians cling to their patients not on success of their acting, can be obligated to the compensation them however under the criterion of the physician adhesion.
Criminally medicine of the bodily injury is equated, which is not punishable only if the a amplifier to this the treatedPerson is present and the action on the conditions up-to-date medical knowledge vorgenommmen becomes - exemption from punishment does not apply to Quacksalberei. (§§ 223 FF StGB)
Physicians take a key position in the health service and decide by its using up practice considerably overthe sales development of Pharmaunternehmen, from which they will lastingly umworben by Pharmareferenten.


the free practice of the medicine is permitted in Germany only approbierten physicians, with fixed restrictions may also welfare practical man patient treat. Special ranges that Diagnostics and therapy become also (i.d.R. on Veranlassung accomplished by physicians) of members of the welfare auxiliary occupations.

The license to practise medicine as a physician presupposes a six-year study of the Humanmedizin. The country widely uniform license to practise medicine order regulates the training of the medical student concerning the duration and thatContents of the training in the individual subjects, as well as the examinations. This locks with the state examination . From October 1988 until October 2004 a 18-monatige activity was in addition to as a” physician in the practical course “under supervision one the acquisition of the full license to practise medicinenecessarily approbierten physician. Subsequently, to the study it is to be trained further usually that a physician works for several years as Assistenzarzt on a hospital, over on one or more special fields the medicine and possibly. to acquire a specialist title, that thoseA condition for the address is. Established physicians work in free practice, if necessary. also with several physicians in a joint practice or a practice community.

Each physician is obligation member of the physician chamber (national physician chamber), in whose area it exercises its medical activity. In Germany are at present(Conditions 2004) 394,400 physicians announced, of it are 88,000 without medical activity. 59,000 family doctors and 58,900 specialists possess the cash-medical permission. In the hospitals 146,300 physicians are busy.


in Austria is one with the graduation (the finalUniversity studies) first doctor of the entire medicine (Doctor medicinae university-sow/Dr. med. univ.). Independently as a physician actively will may one also here only, if either for three years in the context of the” rotation “different (defined) disciplines became to go through and the work of the respectiveDepartment executive committee was evaluated positively. Thus one acquired” jus practicandi “, thus the authorization for the independent practise of the profession as a physician for general medicine. Alternatively the training as a specialist can take place immediately after the graduation. Many specialists complete the rotation however forwardsBeginning of the training totally or partly.


in Switzerland one is authorized after with the state examination locked the 6-jährigen study first Swissly federal diplomierter physician and as such to the work as Assistenzarzt in hospitals and medical practices. ThoseTraining as the independent practise of the profession authorized specialist lasts depending upon technical between two (” practical physician “) and 8 years after the study conclusion. For a specialist title must besides a specialist examination are put down. Afterwards itself the physician may do” specialist for <field of activity> FMH “call.Permission for the practice opening is regulated kantonal, the permission for practise of the profession zulasten the health insurance companies by the health insurance company central association Santesuisse is given, is however only one formality. Up-to-date exists however a practice opening stop, which the practise of the profession zulasten the health insurance companies limits. Only with need proof, e.g.with a practice assumption, a permission is possible. The respective specialized company examines - so far this at all possible actual whether each specialist of its advanced training obligation (depending upon field of activity 60-100 hours per year) follows. Since that 1. January 2005 applies to the Assistenzärzteand maximum number of hours worked per week of 50 hours justified upper physicians one by the country-wide valid work time law. Up to then were contracts with the formulation” the work time depend on the needs of the hospital “usually, whereby work times often over 60 and 70 hours perWeek, without financial reconciliation to carry out were. Also with the new work law the Assistenzärzte and upper physicians carry still scarcely 20% out more weekly hours than the remaining persons employed in more more hospital and wider public range (42-Stundenwoche). Thus arise for thoseAssistenzärzte of hourly wages and total compensation under those the welfare auxiliary personnel (nurses, Physiotherapeuten etc.) lie. To young upper physicians corresponding applies compared with welfare auxiliary personnel with technical training and higher length of service stage (e.g. Intensive nurses). The leading physicians and Chefärzte are financially in the total compensation betterposed, however they are separated from the work time law and have thereby no legal protection of their maximum work time.

physicians in other occupations


280,000 (approx.) lady doctors and physicians were employed in the health service of the FRG 1998. Of it about 115,000 inown practice. 135,000 lady doctors and physicians were active in the hospital. (Data of the BÄK)

at present (to conditions 2004, see Abbi.) 394,400 physicians are announced, of it are 88,000 without medical activity. 59,000 family doctors and 58,900 specialists possess the cash-medical permission.In the hospitals 146,300 physicians are busy.


  • equilibrium
which brings the doctor around his bread?
a) the health, b) death,
Drum holds the physician, on that it lives
us between both in the Schwebe.
(Eugen Roth)
  • to apple A day keeps the doctor away (an apple on the day and the physician remains away)
  • who heals, is right! (age-old medical wisdom)

see also

Wikiquote: Physician - quotations

health service - health service Switzerland
patient - patient order - care right - group consultation - Visite
account fraud, upper physician


  • Wolfgang And. Kind of hitting a corner: Historythe medicine. 5. Aufl. 2005, 335 S. 35 Illus. ; ISBN 3-540-21287-6. Springer, Berlin and. A. (Relative knappe and well readable wissensch. Representation of the total topic.)
  • Werner E. Gerabek among other things, (Hrsg.), encyclopedia medicine history, walter de Gruyter Publishing house, Berlin2004, 1,544 sides, ISBN 3-11-015714-4
  • William Haberling, Franz Hübotter and. Hermann Vierordt (treatment): Biographic encyclopedia of the outstanding physicians of all times and peoples. 2. Edition. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin and Vienna, 1929-1935.
  • Via medici book series: Occupation planner physician; Markus Vieten, Thieme publishing house, ISBN 3131161051

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Wiktionary: Physician - word origin, synonyms and translations

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