Azerbaijan

of these articles is occupied with the State of Azerbaijan. For the historical region, which is in the outside northwest Iran, see Āzarbāydschān.
Azərbaycan Respublikası
Azärbaycan Respublikası
Republic of Azerbaijan
Flagge des Aserbaidschan Wappen Aserbaidschans
(detail) (detail)
office language Azerbaijani (Aseri)
capital Baku
system of government Präsidialrepublik
head of state İlham Äliyev (İlham Əliyev)
prime minister Artur Rasizadä (Artur Rasizadə)
surface 86,600 km ²
number of inhabitants 8.328.000 (conditions 2005)
population density of 90 inhabitants per km ²
gros domestic product/inhabitant 887 US-$ (2004)
independence from the Soviet Union to 18. October 1991
currency Manat
time belt UTC +4
national anthem Azərbaycan, Azərbaycan!
Kfz characteristic AZ
Internet TLD .az
preselection +994
Karte Asiens, Aserbaidschan hervorgehoben
Karte von Aserbaidschan

Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani Azərbaycan/Azärbaycan) is a state at the Kaspi sea.

Table of contents

geography

layer

Azerbaijan lies in the Caucasus and borders on Russia, Georgien, Armenien and Iran. In the autonomous republic Nachitschewan, which represents a Exklave, possesses Azerbaijan eleven a kilometers long border with Turkey. The Republic of Azerbaijan is with 44° to 52° eastern length and 38° to 42° northernWidth.

landscape

Azerbaijan has a surface of 86.600 km ², 5,500 km ² of it takes the autonomous Republic of Nachitschewan . At least 15% of the national territory are controlled for mountain Karabach by the neighboring country Armenia, among them and its communications to Armenia.

The highest mountainthe Bazardüzü is in the Caucasus with 4.466 M. Largest lake is the Sarisu at 67 km ². The Kura flows after 1.515 km length into the Kaspi sea. To the national territory also the islands Pirallahi and Tschilow on the Kaspi sea belong.On the peninsula Abşeron gives it several oil fields.

The country is covered to 50% of field, to 11.5% of forest and to 1.6% of water. About 18,000 animal species - under it 102 kinds of mammal - live in Azerbaijan.

Climate

convenient in the subtropical zone, points the climate of Azerbaijan relief-causes substantial differences up. In the valleys half desert and steppe climate prevail, in the coastal regions against it are subtropical climate. The average yearly temperature amounts to 13,1°C.

cities

the largestCities are (conditions 1. January 2005):Baku of 1.116.513 inhabitants, Gäncä 303.268 Inhabitant, Sumqayıt of 265,150 inhabitants, Mingäçevir of 95,453 inhabitants, Qaraçuxur 72.989 Inhabitant and Äli Bayramlı of 70,220 inhabitants.

See also: List of the cities in Azerbaijan

population

the republicAzerbaijan has 8.328.000 inhabitants. 90% of the population belong to the turksprachigen people of the Aserbaidschaner. The remaining portion (10%) Russians , Ukrainer , Taly , Jew , Kurd , Awaren , Mescheten ( 106.000) form, for act arene, Turk, Armenian, Georgier as well as Lesgier. 52% of the population live in cities. 28% of the population are old under 15 years. The population growth amounts to 0.89%.

Due to the armed conflict with Armenia and the Armenian occupation of these persisting since 1993Areas live 700,000 to 800,000 Aserbaidschaner (conditions 2003) as refugees under miserablen living conditions.

languages

state and office language is since end of the Soviet Union alone Azerbaijan Turkish (self-designation Azərbaycan Türkcəsi), which has about 30 million native speaker. Since December 1992again Turkish latin writing applies (see new Turkish alphabet) and this is generally obligatory on the official correspondence since 2001. The meaning of the Russian one decreases ever more. It becomes however in the official correspondence with the other GUS- States and the Russian minority in the country further uses.

See also: Turksprachen

religions

prevailing religion is the Islam. Azerbaijan is except Iran, the Iraq and Bahrain the only country with Shiite population majority: Over 2/3the Aserbaidschaner profess themselves to the Shiite and only 1/3 to the Sunni faith direction. While the Soviet time was the worship in Azerbaijan as also in other centralasiatic countries forbidden. With the women the head cloth is only conditionally common.

In Azerbaijan live todaystill 25.000-30.000 Jews. They can be divided into three groups: aschkenasische Jews of European origin, so-called mountain Jews and/or. Acts and Georgian Jews. To 9. March 2003 was opened in the capital Baku a new synagog. This concerns thosefirst newly built synagog in an predominantly Muslim inhabited state.

history

major item: History of Azerbaijan

been because of the eastern edge of the south Caucasus, belongs to Azerbaijan to the oldest industriellen manufacturing plants of sources of energy such as oil and gas. Already in the early Middle Agesbelonged oil well-known as „Greek fire the “to the export hit of the region around the peninsula Abşeron in Azerbaijan.

In the Persian realm of the Sassaniden the find places of oil and gas in the area of Abşeron and in other localities of Azerbaijan servedenriching the imperial office for treasure, but did not only attain also their meaning as important cult places of the then dominant zoroastrischen religion teachings. Until today one knows the remnants of the old zoroastrischen temples in localities with particularly intensive natural in many districts of AzerbaijanNatural gas missions find.

The oil fields Abşerons were explained after islamizing Azerbaijan as source of the sayful financial welfare famous and as the property of the religious donations (waqf). Thus they contributed substantially to the receipt and their bloom.

The largely put on industrielle dismantling of the kohlenwasserstoffhaltigen sources of energy in the area of the today's Azerbaijan is however in closest way connected with „the Russianperiod in such a way specified of the history of the country. The Russian colonial administration in the northern part of the country drove beginning that 1870er years energetically the auction of the state country on the peninsula Abşeron in front.

A goal was it to win private investments for the dismantling of economically attractive resources of the region. The economic upswing following on it, connected with enormous production increase on thatFields of Abscheron, a successful basis for the self-sufficient supply of the Russian economy with important products of the petrochemical industry created such as kerosene, Masut and lubricants.

During 1893 still 51% of the Weltförderung on the USA and 46% upRussia escaped, 1898 the Bakuer district the US-American yield had overhauled and ascended to the world largest oil assisted area, whatever supplied the Western European market and with American export your a hard competition supplied themselves.

After the Sowjetisierung 1920 and the nationalization of allAzerbaijani manufacturing plants took place new investments into the petrochemical industry of Azerbaijan. The consequence was a substantial rise of production, although direct control on the part of the Muscovites center of strategic resources of Azerbaijan no possibility for the influencing control for the distribution of productionon the part of the Azerbaijani republic guidance permitted.1941 nevertheless supplied with to Azerbaijan 175 million barrel oil, which corresponded to a portion of 75% in totalSoviet production. It is not therefore surprising that the oil fields from Baku to strategic goals of the Caucasus- Campaign of the armed forces during 2. World war were explained.

With the exploration of the new gigantic oil fields in other regions of the USSR, in particular in west Siberia, the meaning of the Azerbaijani sources of oil in the economic life of the Soviet Union decreased/went back gradually.The high quality of the Azerbaijani oil, based on its low sulfur portion, made however also later its employment possible than fuel for flying objects, in particular for military aircraft and rockets. In addition to Baku the residents training facilities supplied further the necessary technical personnel for thoseSoviet petrochemical industry.

The caused chaos by the military arguments around the mountain Karabach - region led in first years of independence (explains to 18. October 1991) for the decrease of the entire national oil and gas production. In the next years that becamelowest promotion level registers: eight to nine million tons annually.

politics

government

Azerbaijan are a Präsidialrepublik with an in chamber parliament. The condition became to 12. November 1995 discharges.

The Azerbaijani parliament, the national assembly (milli məclis) have 125 seats, which are selected so far after a mixed proportional and majority choice system for one period by five years. A seat in parlament is kept free for the constituency mountain Karabach (Dağliq Qarabağ). The parliament became to 4. November 2000 forfive years selected. The next elections find to 6. November 2005 instead of. Then after a pure Mehrheitswahlrecht in 125 constituencies one selects.

Head of state is a president, who is selected in secret, general choice for the period by five years. ThatOffice of the president holds İlham Äliyev (also Ilham Alijew), son before of the deceased president Heydär Äliyev. It belongs to the governing party Yeni Azərbaycan . After the choice of 15. One announced a result of over 80% to October 2003for it. It left itself to 31. Octobers 2003 inaugurieren.

Prime Minister is since that 4. November 2003 again Artur Rasizadä of the president party new Azerbaijan.

Minister of foreign affairs is Elmar Mämmädyarov.

opposition and criticism at the government

The opposition accused with the Präsidentenwahlen in October 2003 electoral fraud to the government. International choice observers (among other things of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro) reported of falsifications and intimidation attempts. To publication of the result it came to 16. October in the capital Baku tooUnrests, with which at least two humans were killed, many were hurt and several opposition politicians were arrested.

Since the independence of Azerbaijan ran except the Präsidentenwahl 1992, from which Äbülfäz Elçibäy followed as a winner, each choice undemocratically.

The opposition politician Qabil Hüseynli designates Azerbaijanas “halbfeudal, of clan and the mafia controls”. Nine of the ten richest men of the country are members of the government. Among them are also the police and a tariff boss.

memberships in international institutions

EBRD, Council of Europe, GUS, GUAM, IWF, NATO - partnership for the peace, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Euro, black sea restaurant economics, UN, World Bank.

the conflict around Bergkarabach

Azerbaijan is in a long-lasting argument with the neighbour republic Armenia around Bergkarabach,an area on Azerbaijani territory, which is inhabited by the majority by Armenians, 1991 for independently explained and in the meantime by Armenian armed forces occupied itself. For details to this conflict see the article Bergkarabach.

military

it exists onecompulsory military service starting from that 18. Lebensjahr.

Duration: 1.5 years

of armed forces: 72.100

the portion of the military expenditure of the BSP is very high with 6,6% in the international comparison.

administrative arrangement

administrative arrangement of Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan is divided into:

The autonomous Republic of Nachitschewan is divided into six Rayons and a Sahar.

1. Babäk 2. Julfa 3. Naxçıvan seeing air 4.Ordubad 5. SAE AC 6. Şahbuz 7. Şärur

  • 1. Abşeron
  • 2. Ağcabädi
  • 3. Ağdam
  • 4. Ağdaş
  • 5. Ağstafa
  • 6. Ağsu
  • 7. Äli Bayramlı seeing air
  • 8. Branch era
  • 9. Bakı seeing air
  • 10. Balakän
  • 11. Bärdä
  • 12. Beyläqan
  • 13. Biläsuvar
  • 14. Cäbrayıl
  • 15. Cälilabab
  • 16. Daşkäsän
  • 17. Däväçi
  • 18. Füzuli
  • 19. Gädäbäy
  • 20. Gäncä seeing air
  • 21. Goranboy
  • 22. Göyçay
  • 23. Hacıqabul
  • 24. İmişli
  • 25. İsmayıllı
  • 26. Calf AC acre
  • 27. Cure since me
  • 28. Laçın
  • 29. Länkäran
  • 30. Länkäran seeing air
  • 31. Lerik
  • 32. Masallı
  • 33. Mingäçevir seeing air
  • 34.Naftalan seeing air
  • 35. Neftçala
  • 36. Oğuz
  • 37. Qäbälä
  • 38. Qax
  • 39. Qazax
  • 40. Qobustan
  • 41. Quba
  • 42. Qubadlı
  • 43. Qusar
  • 44. Saatlı
  • 45. Sabirabad
  • 46. Şäki
  • 47. Şäki seeing air
  • 48. Salyan
  • 49. Şamaxı
  • 50. Şämkir
  • 51. Samux
  • 52. Siyäzän
  • 53.Sumqayıt seeing air
  • 54. Şuşa
  • 55. Şuşa seeing air
  • 56. Tärtär
  • 57. Tovuz
  • 58. Ucar
  • 59. Xaçmaz
  • 60. Xankändi seeing air
  • 61. Xanlar
  • 62. Xızı
  • 63. Xocalı
  • 64. Xocavänd
  • 65. Yardımlı
  • 66. Yevlax
  • 67. Yevlax seeing air
  • 68. Zängilan
  • 69. Zaqatala
  • 70. Zärdab

infrastructure

Eisenbahnnetz: 2123 km (electrified of it 1300 km)

road system: 24,981 km (92.3% fastened)

motorizing: 49 Kfz/1.000 inhabitant

international airport: Baku

port: Baku

economics

the economy of Azerbaijan grows very fast.The GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT rose in the year 1999 around 7,4%, 2000 around 11,4% and 2001 around 9,9%. This development is based to a large part on an expansive oil industry, which represents the most important industry of the country. 2005 gained the oil industry67 per cent. GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT. The development of the other sectors is the largest economic challenge of the country.

Between 2000 and 2005 the GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT per head of 652 to 1.400 US Dollar grew. Nevertheless live after computations of the World Bank 47% of the populationunder the poverty border.

oil

Azerbaijan promotes 477,000 barrels (75.836.939, 680656 litres) oil per day (2005). For the export of the oil the BTC oil pipeline (Baku - low-read - Ceyhan - oil pipeline) was built and opened in the summer 2005. Itdaily barrel crude oil of Baku can transport millions into the Turkish port Ceyhan. The capacity can later on 1,8 millions Barrel per day to be increased. The profits from the raw material promotion are to flow in the future into a national oil fund. Withthis is to take precautions for the future of Azerbaijan after the oil age and macro-economic stability create. A further goal of the president İlham Äliyev is it to reduce and take thus to the opposition potential supporters the poverty.

corruption

A large problem of Azerbaijan is the high degree at corruption. The country occupies one of the last places in the statistics of the Transparency international.

to public expenditures for health, education and defense

between 1992 and 2000 that layPortion of the public expenditures for

culture

famous Aserbaidschaner

  • Üsejir Hadschibejow (* 18. September 1885 in Schuscha; † November 1948 in Baku) was inComposer and author of the first opera (named “Leyli and Medschnun”) in the Islamic Orient
  • Muhammed Fuzuli (* 1495; † 1556) were a poet from the area today's Iraq, that for its lyric works a special celebrity in the eastern culture areahad attained
  • Kara Karajew (* 1918; † 1982), Fikret Amirow (*1922; † 1984) and Faradsch Karajew (* 1943) are the most well-known composers of classical music in Azerbaijan
  • Rashid Behbudov (* 1915 in low-read, Georgien; † 1988) were one of the most famous singersthe country with international admittingness, the honor appeared to the “people artist of the USSR” as lyric tenor in the opera and received. Today a theatre is designated in Baku after it.
  • Aziza Mustafa Zadeh (* 19. December 1969 in Baku) is a Komponistin, a Pianistin and a singer
  • Vagif Mustafa Zadeh (* 1940 in Baku/Azerbaijan; † 16. December 1979 in Taschkent/Usbekistan) was a composer and a pianist. The musical style direction developed by Vagif is more traditional a mixture made of jazz, elements of the classical piano music andAzerbaijani improvisation music Mugam, a musical Modalsystem, which determines intervals, melody guidance and rhythm.
  • Lotfi Zadeh (* 1921 in Baku): Inventor of the “Fuzzy logic
  • Anar (* 1938 in Baku) is a famous modern Azerbaijani writer. In Germany particularly was its novel“The elevator drives past” (1978)) admits, over unfortunate love between Tähminä and Saur told, which fail because of the conservative traditions of the society.
  • Nizami, (* around 1141 in Gäncä, aserb. also Gəncə, † 1209) was more importantly PersianMore closely.
  • Faslullah Naimi Täbrisi († 1394 in the lock Alindschaqala in close proximity to Naxçıvan), famous Azerbaijani philosopher and poet, founder of the Khurufismus teachings
  • Imadäddin Näsimi (* 1370 in Schamachi Azerbaijan, † 1447 in Aleppo (Syria)) famous Azerbaijani poet was and widens thatKhurufismus teachings
  • Gasim bej Zakir
  • Abdurrahim bej Hagwerdijew
  • Mirzä Fätäli Axundov (* 1812 in Nukha (Schäki) - Azerbaijan; † 27. February 1878 in low-read), writer, reconnaissance aircraft, philosopher, author of the first theatre comedies in the Islamic Orient and the first draft of latin of alphabet for Turkvölker
  • YusifWäsir Tschämänsäminli (* 1887; † 1943), writers, after Azerbaijani and Turkish sources author of the famous novel “Ali and Nino “
  • Müslüm Maqomayev (* 17. August 1942 in Baku), famous Azerbaijani opera and hit singer
  • Natavan
  • me SAE Schäfi Waseh (*1792 in Gäncä, aserb: Gəncə † 1852), famous Azerbaijani poet, whose verses Friedrich of Bodenstedt 1851 into the German language translated and published under the name “songs of the Mirza Schaffy” into Germany. The book had giant success and became into severalother European languages translates.
  • Conductor Maestro Niyasi (* 1912 † 1984)
  • Rustam Ibrahimbekov (* 1939 in Baku), famous Azerbaijani writer, film script author of the cult film “white sun of the desert” (Beloje solntse pustini), and the oskargekrönten film “of the sun fatigued” (1994, Utomljonnijesolntsem), member of the European film academy
  • Tahir Salachow
  • painter Togrul Narimanbekow
  • Mähsäti Gändschäwi, famous Azerbaijani Dichterin in the 12.Jh.
  • Teymur Rəcəbov (* 12. March 1987 in Baku), chess large masters and “chess miracle child”

Azerbaijani kitchen

the Azerbaijani kitchen is variousand resembles the Turkish kitchen, whereby there are many common courts.

The high-viscosity soup Piti e.g. is mutton-pot with Kichererbsen. Dovga is a soup from sharp yogurt, spinach and other herbs with rice and Fleischklös or without (depending uponRepublic area).

A variant of the main court Dolma consists of among other things filled with herbs peppered Hackfleisch and rice, in the wine sheets. Dolma gives it also from Auberginen, Paprika, bulbs and other vegetable.

A variant of the main court Plow consists of rice, mutton andadditional added. The court gives it in different kinds. Thus it e.g. gives.Plow with chicken meat and Kastanien in place of mutton. Also fruits (e.g. Granatapfel), vegetables, herbs or drying fruit are frequently used.

A popular refreshment beverage is crowd-asked that, made of milkor lemon, Minze or Basilikum, or in addition, from many other different fruits are prepared.

literature

  • Wagner, refuge Günter: Oil and natural gas in the Caucasus Kaspi region. Geographical ones round-look (Westermann publishing house, Braunschweig), volume 49, 1997, S. 355-361.

See also

Web on the left of

Wiktionary: Azerbaijan - word origin, synonyms and translations


coordinates: 40° 6'N, 47° 19 ' O

 

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