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you serve above all the direct receipt of sound broadcasting - and television signals with one usually 60 to 90 cm large parabolic antenna or also satellite dish. Thus are receiptable over 1.500 similar and digital channels for over 102 million households in Europe. Owner of the satellite fleet is the SES global (before times: SES Astra - Société Européenne of the Satellites Astra) with seat in Betzdorf in Luxembourg.
|19,2° east||23,5° east||28,2° east||37,5° west||19,2° east planned||deactivates|
|Astra 1K||of Astra 1D||Astra 2A||Astra 4A||Astra 1L November 2006||Astra 1A|
|Astra 1E||Astra 3A||Astra 2B||Astra 1M 2008||Astra 1B|
|Astra 1F||Astra 2D|
Zurzeit have to a large extent the positions 19,2° east and 28,2° east for the direct receipt meaning, PREMIERE have on Astraforeign programs locked 3A (23.5° east), which can be subscribed against fee. It is to be counted on the fact that Astra becomes in the future more important 3.
elevation values apply for elevation table for the branch RA satellites on 19,2° east in Germany:
some the satellites are equipped, so for example with special techniques developed by Astrawith
to a multiplexing for
satellite sowing mode, a service for interactive television [work on] named Dolphin. While the subscription account and customer administration of liable to pay the costs channels are to be made directly by Astra, becameraised basic charges in the future also for free programs (Free TV). SES president Ferdinand Kayser justifies this measure at higher technical expenditure, critic sees in these plans however a strategy for maximization of profit; in this way “by the back door” a broadcast fee for commercial television programs is to be introduced,the satellite, television, and wiring loom drivers among themselves divide themselves.
In addition the operators of RTL and Pro7/Sat1 came to an agreement over the feed of their programs with the prominent German cable companies in the digital cable system. This would be connected with a “basic coding” of all advertising-financed, so far freely receiptable television channels. Around oneTo prevent, the commercial television companies already plan drift from cable customers to the satellite direct receipt since longer to radiate their television programs also over satellite only coded. The central marketing of the channels would be made then by the branch RA subsidiary APS, the earlier Playout center from premiere.
The assumption of this formerOperating section of premiere by Astra is contested at present by the satellite rival business Eutelsat at the Kartellbehörde. If the Dienstleister should drop back premiere, the Dolphin plans could become fast rubbish. The Federal Cartel Office determines for February against the participants of the Dolphin project, because of the justified “first suspicion on abuse of a dominating the marketPosition ". In this connection also the utilization of the federal league first radiant emittance rights is exactly observed by the cable consortium arena.
Besides RTL and Pro7/Sat1 plan several liable to pay the costs auxiliary channels, which will transfer digitally over cables and satellite are. Therefore itself the offers (Fernsehbouquets), receiptable over Astra and cables, might increasinglyto be adapted and according to similar tariff models accounted for. The agreements made with the cable companies plan the feed of paying offers, which are marketed together by television companies and wiring loom drivers and above all the television companies as additional source of income to serve to be supposed. Still is unclear, as of Astra as“Infrastructure fee” spent monthly lump sum the receipt of public, thus be entitled-financed channels, affects. The transmission responsible persons of pool of broadcasting corporations and Second Channel of German Television expressed themselves already clearly against a coded radiant emittance over satellite.
At the beginning of March communicated Astra, with Swiss enterprise Kudelski over the development of a new coding system of the kind Nagravision to have commercialunited become (also premiere uses so far a special variant of Nagravision). In the middle of March agreed arena and Astra on renting an entire satellite transponder for the transmission of the federal league meetings, at which arena holds the Erstrechte. Arena is on the range of Astrainstructed, since approximately 16 million households over the satellite direct receipt refer its television signal.
The prominent electronics manufacturers protested meanwhile against the Dolphin standard given by Astra, because it refuse other marketing platforms or freely receiptable channels the technical entrance to the receivers manufactured according to the specifications of Astraor to make more difficult could. They closed at the 11. March to a working group together, in order to be able to speak in the future with a voice. Astra made concrete quotations for the devices which can be manufactured (99 euro) in an advertisement and wants these after accurate technical defaults produce to let. By thosealready today dominating the market position branch-race with the satellite reception with manufacturers and politicians will increase to fears loud, Astra operate market bulkheading and wants his singular position financially to exhaust.
- list of the geostationary satellites
- television satellite
- satellite-to-receiver telecasting
- list of the television stations list of the television stations list
- of asiatic TV programs in
- Europe list of the radio broadcasting programs Astra,
- sending over
- the branch RA satellites, digital to radio (addr)