the astronomy (Greek αστρονομία - literally the regularity of the stars, out άστρο, ástro - the star and νόμος, nómos - the law) is the science of the Gestirnen. It examines those with scientific meansCharacteristics of the objects in the universe, thus heavenly bodies (planet, moons, stars including the sun, star cluster, galaxies and - heaps), the interstellar subject and the radiation arising in the universe. Beyond that it strives for an understanding of the universe as a whole, its Emergence and its structure.
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history of the astronomy
major item: History of the astronomy
the astronomy is considered as one of the oldest sciences. The beginnings of the history of the astronomy probably lie in the ritual admiration of the heavenly bodies. In a process lasting for thousands of years first astronomy and nature religion , late astronomy, meteorology separated and calendar calculation, in the outgoing Middle Ages then astronomy and Astrologie. Substantial milestones for our knowledge about the universe were later the invention of the telescope before approximately 400 years, which completed the kopernikanische turn, as well as in 19. Century the introductionthe photography and spectroscopy. Since the center 20. Century has to overcome the astronomy with unmanned and manned space travel the possibility the terrestrial atmosphere and without its restrictions observe, thus within all ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.In addition comes for the first time the possibility, which examined objects to visit directly and different than only purely there observing measurements accomplish. Parallel to it ever larger telescopes for earthbound observations are built.
fields of activity of the astronomy
the astronomical scienceit is generally divided after the examined objects, as well as after it whether the research of theoretical or beobachterischer nature is. Important fields of activity are astrophysics and celestial mechanics, the physics of the solar system, in particular the Planetologie, the galactic astronomy,those the Milky Way and its center investigates, the extragalactic astronomy, those the structure of other galaxies and its active cores, or , the relativistic astrophysics, which is occupied for instance with black holes, examines gamma lightnings as the procedures highest-energy in the universe,and finally the cosmology. The observing astronomy is divided for information from all increasingly less according to used wavelength coverages, thus radio astronomy , infrared astronomy, visual astronomy , ultraviolet astronomy, Roentgen astronomy, and gamma astronomy, there ideally these sources also ofindividual researcher to be consulted. At present newest field of activity is the Exoplanetologie.
Apart from the closer methods of the classical astronomy, which is occupied with the means of astrometry and celestial mechanics with the structure of the universe and these listed,and space travel can be regarded to the astrophysics, which investigates the physics of the universe and the objects therein , as experimental astronomy.
astronomy and other sciences
with the astronomy physics is very closely connected and mathematics, which fields of activity have themselves often fertilized. The universe proves in many cases as laboratory of physics, many theories of physics can only in the sky be tested, and the aufwändigen computations of the astronomy were mainspring toto modern numeric mathematics and the data processing.
The co-operation of the astronomy with geodesy ( astronomical geodesy, position determination, navigation) and the calendar calculation is traditional in the question of the Zeitbestimmung and with the optics in thatDevelopment of astronomical instruments. Thus geodetic methods are used also for the determination of the gravitational field as well as the figure of other heavenly bodies.
In the last decades also the co-operation of the astronomy with modern geology and geophysics became ever more important, therethe geosciences in the reason a subsection of the Planetologie represent. The mineralogy analyzes with same methods the rocks of the earth as also different heavenly body. The Kosmochemie as part of chemistry examines the emergence and distribution of the chemical elements and connectionsin the universe and the chemical evolution, the Exobiologie the circumstances of emergence and existence of lives outside of the earth.
The moreover one it comes increasingly to interdisciplinary research with originally rather spirit-scientifically aligned disciplines of the science:
Astronomy history as partthe sciences of history examines the history of the astronomy. Buildings and finds from pre and earlyhistorical time are interpreted increased in astronomical connection. There itself the astronomy in addition in the context of the cosmology with the questions about the emergence, the development andbusily, there is the end of the universe in addition intersections to theology and philosophy.
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- list more well-knownAstronomer - observatory
- portal: Astronomy and the astronomy categories, offer topic tables an overview;
an alphabetical offers
- the alphabetical index of the astronomy articles.
- For current sky information, references to the own observation and sides of astronomical amateur combinations:
see also amateur astronomy.
- Joachim gentleman man: Dtv Atlas astronomy. Dtv, March 2005. ISBN 3423032677
- astronomy. Basic knowledge school (Duden), M. CD-ROM. 2001. ISBN 3-411-71491-3
- Albrecht us old, Bodo Baschek: The new cosmos. ISBN 3-540-42177-7
(standard text book for the study)
- Meyers manual universe,Signpost/guide by the world of the astronomy. 1994 (7. over work. Aufl.) ISBN 3-411-07757-3
- P. Murdin (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia OF Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2001. ISBN 0333750888 - http://eaa.iop.org/
- of stars and space, monthly magazine for astronomy
- astronomy today, Popular magazine for astronomy and space travel, 10 expenditures/year, German expenditure of Sky & Telescope (English. Wikipedia)
- star messenger, östereichische monthly magazine for astronomy
- Interstellarum, 2-Monatszeitschrift for practical astronomy
- astronomy + space travel, 2-Monatszeitschrift for instruction, advanced training, spare time ISSN 0004-6310
- operate do we work on astronomy? In: Institute for Max-Planck for astronomy - an article out stars and space
- frequent questions posed in the German astronomy newsgroup
- NASA: Astronomy Picture OF the Day - daily a new astronomical picture with founded explanation(English)
- Astronomia.de - an overview of the topic
- the cosmos messenger - everything of the astronomy