Athens

base data
state: Greece
region: Attika
geographical situation:
Coordinates: 37° 58 ′ 40 " N, 23° 43 ′ 40 " O
37° 58 ′ 40 " N, 23° 43 ′ 40 " O
airport: Eleftherios Venizelos
age airport: Hellenikon air haven (closed to 27. June 2002)
Height: 0-1413 m and.NN
surface: 427 km ²
inhabitants: 729.137 (city)< /br> 3.753.726 (dye) </br>(1. January 2005)
Population density: 1,708 inhabitants km ²
postal zip code: 100
telephone preselection: 210
Kfz characteristics: YX*, YZ*, YA*, YB*, YE*, YH*,
as well as all characteristics
with two letters
city arrangement: Quarters of Athens
of suburbs of Athens
address that
City administration:
Odos Athinas 62/Platia Kotzia
10552 Athens
homepage: Dimos Athinon
politics
mayor: Theodoros Becharakis, lp
Satellitenbild Athen
satellite photograph Athens
historical map of Athens (1888)

the city Athens (Greek Αθήνα = Athina), which owes their name of the Greek goddess of the wisdom Athene,is the capital of Greece. The actual city has 729,137 inhabitants, the dye of 3.753.726 inhabitants (conditions in each case 1. January 2005). It lies in the most spacious level of the landscape Attika with the rivers Ilisos and Kephisos and is at threeSides of mountain courses surround, by the Hymettos (1,026 m), by the Pentelikon (1,109 m), by the Parnes (1,413 m) and of the Ägaleo (468 m), the fourth side opens to the sea, for the Saroni gulf.

After the excessive quantity Athens was created by king Kekrops.The city is continuously settled and thus safe for approximately 5,000 years one of the oldest settlements and cities of Europe.1985 became Athens first culture capital of Europe. Into the list world cultural heritage of the UNESCO became 1987 the Akropolis and 1990 that Monastery Daphni taken up.

Table of contents

history

major item: History of Athens

the history of the city Athens hands about 7,500 years, into the Jungsteinzeit, back. Around 1300 v. Chr. on the Akropolis a mykenischer palace was established. The oldest city plant was limited to the upper surface of a steep, only rock hill accessible from the west, the late than castle (Akropolis) the militaryand religious center of Athens formed. The surface was already very promptly gradened and surrounded with a strong wall, which became secured with nine one behind the other arranged gates (Enneapylai). This plant was called after the Pelasgern, which one the building, Pelargikon attributed. Within this castle the old kings of this part of Attika lived. Athens stood since more jeher under the special protection of the Zeus, an early delighted altar was dedicated to which, as well as the city-protecting Athene (Athene Polias), also the oldest temple of the city, which Hekatompedos was geweiht. Opposite the outside town-gate the oldest market of the city, the Agora lay.

, The different parts of the landscape Attika is attributed to the sayful king Theseus to one Polis to have combined. Athens was from now on after the surface the largest Greek city state (refrained from the special case Sparta). Athens as Atti democracy and guidance power in the attischen sea-federation reached the high point of its political and cultural influence during 5. and 4.Century v. Chr. (classical time). Also as the city 86 v. Chr. the Roman realm was incorporated, kept it their status as intellectual center. This changed only in the year 529 n. Chr., as the last philosophy schools on instruction of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. were closed.

Only in 9. Century became the city bishop seat with the Parthenon as bishop church. Athens became in 4. Crusade (1204) after the income Konstantinopels Frankish duchy, after the idea of the Catalan companythe rule of the Florentiner ( 1388 and 1402 ) of the Turks (1392) followed, the Venezianer (1395). After the case Konstantinopels 1453 became 1456 Athens of the Osmanen under Sultan Mehmed II.conquered, the Parthenon becameMosque and the Erechtheion to the Harem. The city continued to lose now ever at meaning. Due to several destruction between that 17. Century and that 19. Century sank the city to an insignificant province place down and had 1834, as itto the capital of the again created Greek kingdom one raised, hardly more than 1000 inhabitants.

Today Athens is a modern large city.

economics

the main industries are the tourism as the textile, main source of income and Lederwarenindustrie, the high and foundation engineering,Banks and insurance, production of food and luxuries as well as the paper and graphic arts industry. Thus nearly 50% of the Greek industrial enterprises are in Athens.

Athens has the advantage of the peripheral location of Europe, there the city thereby to an important commercial post betweenEurope and the Orient become.

Besides Athens could register 2001 by the entry to the monetary union a strong upswing credit system, which is based on more favorable the credits become. Many Greeks built themselves thereby a house, what again the building industry of benefitcame, anyway already from the preparations on the olympic plays profited.

In addition, this apparent upswing was criticized. Thus the durability of the jobs was doubted and stated that the job market had to become more flexible. In addition the control system is to be reformedand the privatisation of state enterprises must precede faster:

education

in Athens

  • the national Kapodistriakon university of Athens (based 1837) sits
  • the national technical university of Athens (1836)

as well as art, economics and agrarian universities.

culture andObjects of interest

of buildings

Akropolis in Athens
Tempel des Zeus
temple of the Zeus
  • Syntagmaplatz, underground station Syntagmaplatz (alsoas museum parliament building (king palace) arranges, hourly awake change of the Evzonen before the tomb of the unknown soldier (Sunday morning marching-up) first Athener cemetery, burial places of Heinrich Schliemann
  • and his Mrs. Sophia, Georgios Averof, Melina Mercouri with antique objects found with the building ), Andreas Papandreou, Adolf Furtwängler (archaeologist), at the grave of Sophia Afendakis the “sleeping” (Koimomeni), the work one of the most important Greek sculptors, Giannoulis Chalepas (1854 - 1937)
  • Lykavettos (mountain of 277 m in the middle in Athens, outstanding outlook on Athens, rack railway)
  • resoundingthe urban central market for fish and meat
  • the Plaka is the oldest accomodation of Athens. There, below the Akropolis, one finds many taverns, restaurants and small business in a labyrinthischen tangle of lanes.
  • Byzantine churches, z. B. Hagioi Theodoroi (11. Century), Hagios Joannis Theologos (11. /12. Century) or Hagios Eleftherios - small Metropolis (11. /12. Century)
  • monastery Daphni (with Byzantine mosaics)
  • monastery Kaisariani

architecture 19. Century in Athens

  • Neoklassizisti ensemble of academy and national library.First developed after plans of Christian Hansen the university building (1842). 1891 were inaugurated the Academy of Sciences after plans of Theophil Hansen in the execution of Ernst Ziller (the completion retarded by driving king out of Otto outAthens). Likewise 1891 were finished the national library after drafts by Theophil Hansen. In direct neighbourhood are the catholic bishop church and ehem. Eye-clinch (draft of Karl Friedrich Schinkel)
  • parliament building (the former king palace) at the Syntagma place of Friedrich of gardner, adjacent national garden and Zappeion exhibition building
  • Peloponesi station and Larissa station of Ernst Ziller
  • mansions of Ernst Ziller, who is most well-known: House Schliemann (today: Numismati museum) and house Stathatos (today part of the Goulandris museum)

architecture 20. Centuryin Athens

museums

  • archaeological national museum
  • Epigraphi museum
  • Akropolismuseum
  • museum for kykladische art (Goulandris museum)
  • Benaki museum
  • railway museum of the EYE
  • Philateliemuseum
  • Numismati museum
  • Byzantine museum
  • national gallery
  • Archaeological museum
  • jetty from Greek naval museum jetty from ship museum Trokadero Marina in Palaio Faliro [work on] olympic
  • plays of Athens Olympic
  • of sport Complex in
  • Athens 1896 found Jewish museum Ellinikos
cosmos,

the interactive museum

of the Metrostation Moshato) firstOlympic plays of the modern times instead of. 2004 found here XXVII. Olympic plays instead of.

demography

Athens grew up in the past 150 years extremely fast to its current size. During it 1832 Greece modern with the establishmenthardly had 1,000 inhabitants, then there is today in the region of Athens about 4 million inhabitant. Important basic data are the Greek-Turkish war of 1920/21, as Greece in the contract of Lausanne the eastern Thrakien and the province Smyrna (today İzmir) to Turkey to deliver had. Over one million Greeks had thereupon their homeland leave. Many found a new homeland in Athens. Therefore some quarters carry so also still for the names of the “old” homeland: Nea Filadelfia, Nea Smyrni etc.Also the Sportverein AEK Athens the association of the refugees is, the K stands for Konstantinopel.

The development of the numbers of inhabitants in the area Athens and jetty from after the Second World War ran as follows:

1940: 1,1 millions
1951: 1,4 millions
1961: 1,8Million
1971: 2,5 millions
1981: 3,0 millions
1991: 3,1 millions
2001: 3,7 millions

traffic conditions

Athens is junction of the most important Greek railway connections and by two motorways is cut, which northward, the south and the west to lead. The Athener portin jetty from one of the important ports of the Mediterranean is and to 27. March 2001 became a new international airport (approx. 25 km from the city centre far away) opens. The airport is served halfonce per hour by the Metro. The travel of and to the city centretakes 44 minutes.

climate

the urban climate of Athens is a completely special in Greece and also in Europe. By the situation of Athens, surrounded in the west, the north and the east of mountains and the prevailing hoist in Greece, is thatClimate in Athens still more dryly and more warmly than in other regions of the country. Summer temperatures reach during heat periods, the three, four days to persist and from June to Septembers arise can between 40 °C and 45 °C in the shade. By the closeSettlement hardly cools it down at the night. Temperatures of +30 °C around midnight are not the standard in the summer, 35 °C rarity. Only against tomorrow the thermometer falls briefly under 30 °C. Thus the Athener is nights the warmestin Europe and are inferior to those only little in the Arab area. In the winter against it it comes more frequently to cool air break-downs from the north, which can lead then particularly in the northern urban districts also in regular intervals to a Schneedecke. ForCentral European conditions are above all the November days still amazingly warm. While it has winter temperatures” in other southEuropean cities already “, there is in Athens often to in the middle of November still 20-25 °C on the day. But the spring begins later and Marchand April are still amazingly cool. The temperature average values are appropriate for 11.4 in the cold season (Decembers until February) between 9,6 °C and °C. Isolated it gives also frost day with lowest temperatures to -5 °C. In the warm season (May until Septembers) moveitself the temperature average values between 20,5 °C and 28 °C. In Athens become per year approx. 2700 sun hours counted. Altogether the yearly amount of precipitation remain also under 400 mm per year in Athens on a very low level. Most precipitation fallsof at the end of of Octobers to at the beginning of of February. As particularly of light precipitation the summer months prove June until Septembers.

sons and daughters of the city

Die Agora in Athen vor 1946
the Agora in Athens before 1946

sees also


Web on the left of

general to Athens

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sister projects

Wiktionary: Athens - word origin, synonyms and translations
Commons: Athens - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wikiquote: Athens - quotations
 

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