Atom bomb releases on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
the atom bomb releases on Hiroshima and Nagasaki became to 6. August and 9. August 1945, briefly before the end of the Second World War, of US-American bombers accomplished. With the explosions of the uranium bomb Little Boy over the port Hiroshima and the plutonium bomb Fat one over the industrial city Nagasaki roughly 80,000 and/or 75,000 humans died immediately and further 60,000 and/or 50,000 within fewer weeks at the consequences of the radioactive radioactive contamination. The explosion effect of the bombs with an explosive yield of 13 and/or 25 kilotons TNT equivalent and the fires after the explosions destroyed large parts of the two cities.
After the first test of an atom bomb in the Alamogordo desert in new Mexico to 16. July 1945 (Trinity test) were this the second and third atomic explosion at all and the so far only atom bomb releases in a war.
Table of contents
decision for bombardment
the decision over an ultimatum at Japan fell to the Potsdamer conference (17. July - 2. August 1945) of winner powers in the war against Germany in July 1945. It was affected by the height of the past American losses in the war against Japan and the losses which can be expected in the case of an invasion and an occupation of the country. Japan had lost and could at this time nearly its entire fleet, the main part of air forces and most of the conquered areas only for favorable peace conditions while maintaining the national sovereignty hope. For a landing on the Japanese Hauptinseln indicated American of military an expected Verlustzahl of 60.000 soldiers. After death the Franklin D. Roosevelts in April 1945 acting new US president Harry S. Truman gave to 26. July 1945 in the name of the USA, which Republic of China under Chiang dock shek and the united Kingdom of the Potsdamer explanation off, in which it requested the Japanese guidance for immediate and unconditional surrender. Already two days before, to 24. July, was the instruction for the preparation of the attack on Hiroshima for the 3. August been issued to the responsible commander, general Carl Spaatz.
Trumans explanation did not contain referring to the planned employment of the new weapon, but white only in consciously aggressive form on the superior military power of the allied ones and their determination to the fight up to the complete destruction of Japan. In May 1945 furnished American Interim Committee for the development of suggestions for the use of the atom bombs manufactured in the Manhattan project had to 2. June the recommendation expressed to use the weapons immediately after their completion and without preliminary warning against goals of the Japanese Kriegsindustrie without attention of possible civilian victims. However at least one of the members of the committee, the Untersekretär in the war Ministry Ralph Bard, expressed clear doubts to use the weapons completely without preliminary warning.
to release over Hiroshima
see major item atom bomb release on Hiroshima.
release over Nagasaki
major item: Atom bomb release on Nagasaki
the release of the bomb Fat one became to 9. August 1945 accomplished by the bomber Bockscar, which belonged to the 509th Composite Group stationed on Tinian. As a goal originally the city Kokura was intended, due to more closely cloudy appearance however after three unsuccessful approaches the secondary target Nagasaki was attacked. Since here likewise bad visibilities prevailed, no accurate goal release could be accomplished. The instructions actually read under such circumstances to break the release off the pilot decided however for an approach of radar.
The bomb was dropped around 11:02 clock several hundred meters off the planned discharging point on closely inhabited area; actually a direct attack on the Mitsubishi Rüstungsbetriebe was planned. The explosion into approximately 470 meters of Bodenhöhe destroyed 80 per cent of all buildings in the periphery of a kilometer and left only few survivors. „Fat one “detonated in a valley, so that the surrounding mountains absorbed the effects on the environment of the city. Altogether died however about 75,000 humans at the direct sequences of the explosion, which kt with an explosive yield of 22 TNT over a distance of 4 kilometers of objects in fire set and which nearly only from timber buildings existing city gradened to a large extent.
to 15. August 1945, six days after the second atom bomb release, was radiated an explanation of the Tennōs over the completion of the war, in which it recognized the conditions of the Potsdamer explanation. This day was celebrated as V-J Day (Victory over Japan). The documents over the surrender of Japan became to 2. September signatoryly by the Japanese military guidance, the mainland army capitulated to 9. September. Thus the Second World War was now also in the East Asian combat area terminated. For Hiroshima and Nagasaki the end of war meant that now foreign assistance, approximately via the red cross, could take place. The US army accomplished a detailed documentation of the bomb damage in the following months under line of the military assigned one for the Manhattan project, general Leslie Groves, in which also scientists and the medical profession participated. The published results were however propagandistically coined/shaped. In particular the radiological effect of the weapons was answered in the negative, which demanded still months after the explosions of ten thousands victims. It becomes estimated that in Hiroshima to end 1945 further 60,000 first survivors succumbed to the consequences of the radioactive contamination as well as burns and other heavy injuries. Until 1950 the number of the late victims in both cities had risen to altogether 230,000, which were most the effects of the primary radioactive contamination to the victim please (see also Hibakusha).
descriptions of bombardments
- Michihiko Hachiya, Hiroshima Diary (Chapel Hill: University OF North Carolina, 1955), ISBN 0807845477. Diary of a physician, who was during bombardments in the city, over the months after.
- John Hersey, Hiroshima (New York: Vintage, 1946, 1985 new more chapter), ISBN 0679721037. , dt. Hiroshima: 6. August 1945, 8 o'clock 15, with a preface by Robert Jungk. - Unveränd. Nachdr. - Hamburg: Europ. Verl. - Anst., 2005. Report of an American journalist briefly after beginning of the crew with interviews of survivors.
- Ibuse Masuji, black one rain, novel, Frankfurt/Main: Fischer paperback publishing house, 1985
- Toyofumi Ogura, Letters from the end to OF the World: A roofridge hand account OF the Bombing OF Hiroshima (Japan: Kodansha internationally Ltd., 1948), ISBN 4770027761.
- Gaynor Sekimori, Hibakusha: Survivors OF Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan: Kosei Publishing company, 1986), ISBN 433301204X.
- To Charles Sweeney et al., War's end: At Eyewitness account OF America's load Atomic mission ISBN 0380973499.
- Kyoko Selden et al., The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan into the decaying World) ISBN 087332773X.
- Nagai Takashi, the bells of Nagasaki: History of the atom bomb, Munich: Rex Verl., 1955
history and prehistory of the events
- William Craig, The case OF Japan (New York: Dial, 1967)
- Michael J. Hogan, Hiroshima in History and MEMORY
- Fletcher toggle, Charles W. Bailey, NO High Ground (New York: Harper and Row, 1960)
- Robert Jungk, Heller as thousand suns: the fate of the atomic researchers /Robert Jungk. With a preface by Matthias Greffrath. - Munich: Heyne, 1994 (first 1959)
- Pacific was Research Society, „Japan's Longest Day “, the internal Japanese account OF the surrender and how it which almost thwarted by fanatic soldiers who attempted A coup against the Emperor.
- Smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Rhodes, The Making OF the Atomic Bomb, (New York: Simon & shoemaker, 1986.)
- Gordon Thomas, Max Morgan Witts, Enola Gay (New York: Stone and Day, 1977)
- J. Samuel Walker, prompt and Utter Destruction: President Truman and the Use OF Atomic Bombs Against Japan
- Stephen Walker, „Shockwave: COUNT down ton Hiroshima “(New York: HarperCollins, 2005 - ISBN 0060742844)
- Stanley crying robbery, The load, Great Victory: The end to OF World was II, July/August 1945, (New York, Truman Talley Books/Dutton, 1995)
debates over bombardments
- Gary Alperovitz, The Decision ton of Use the Atomic Bomb New York: Vintage Books, 1995, dt. Hiroshima: the decision for the release of the bomb, Hamburg: Hamburg edition 1995
- Thomas's B. Everything, Norman Polmar. Code name Downfall: The Secret plan ton of Invade Japan and Why Truman Dropped the Bomb, (New York: Simon & shoemaker, July 1, 1995), ISBN 0684804069.
- Günther differently, the man on the bridge: Diary from Hiroshima and. Nagasaki, - Munich: Beck, 1963
- bar clay/tone J. Amber, (OD) The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues, (bad clay/tone: Little, Brown, 1976)
- smelling pool of broadcasting corporations B. Franc, Downfall: The end to OF the imperially Japanese Empire (Penguin, 2001 ISBN 0141001461)
- franc, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations B., “Why Truman Dropped the Bomb: Sixty years more later, incoming goods have the secret intercepts that shaped his decision ", The Weekly standard, August 8, 2005, p20
- Paul Fussell, Thank God for the atom Bomb (Ballantine, Reprint 1990), ISBN 0345361350.
- Robert Jay running clay/tone, Greg Mitchell, Hiroshima in America: A helped Century OF Denial, pours, 1996, ISBN 0380727641
- Robert James Maddox, Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision, (University OF Missouri press, 2004)
- Robert P. Newman, Truman and the Hiroshima Cult, (Michigan State University press, 1995). Critical analysis of the postwar opposition against the bomb.
- Philip Nobile, (OD) Judgement RK the Smithsonian (New York: Marlowe and company, 1995) ISBN 1569248419. Controversy about the 1995 into the Smithsonian institution planned exhibition, which was finally called off.
- Ronald Takaki, Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb, Little Brown, ISBN 0-316-83124-7, locomotive D769.2.T35 1995
- Shigetoshi Wakaki, Hiroshima: the infamous maximization of a mass murder; the first report of an expert and eye-witness Einl. by Dieter Bartling. - Tübingen: Grave ore, 1992
Web on the left of
|Commons: Hiroshima in rubble - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Commons: Nagasaki in rubble - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Commons: Little Boy - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Commons: Fat one - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Summary OF target Committee Meetings on 10 and 11 May 1945 (English)
- The Decision ton drop the Bomb - document collection of the Truman LIBRARY
- Notes OF the Interim Committee Meeting, Friday, 1 June 1945 (photocopy of the original documents, English)
- Bard memorandum, 27. June 1945 (English)
- employment instruction of chief of staff general mobile phone at general Spaatz, commander of strategic air forces, 25. July 1945 (English)
- diary entry Harry S. Truman, 25. July 1945 (description of the employment instruction, English)
- Potsdamer explanation, 26. July 1945 (English)
- time article over the decision in potsdam
- time article over the bomb releases and the surrender
- which humans of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Grauenhaftes happened
- Hiroshima - the surrender of the moral
- 60. Anniversary Hiroshima - a command with devastating consequences