Atonale music

Atonale music or Atonalität generally designates a music, whose Harmonik not on a basic clay/tone - as in (Dur Moll) the tonality or with modalen scales - is fixed. Their characteristic is the emancipation of the dissonance. Of the twelve-clay/tone music orfrom serial row techniques (serial music) it is defined by the absence of constructional principles. The term became initially in polarizing mixers intention of the conservative music criticism on composing Arnold beautiful mountain, in particular on its three pieces of piano of op.11 (1909)used. Both beautiful mountain and Alban mountain (in its broadcast transmission which Atonal is? from 1930) this term refused itself.

Table of contents

had touched historical

development the Atonalitätalready Franz Liszt in its late pieces of piano and Alexander Skrjabin. The over-rampantly growing use of Chromatik during the late romance or with composers such as max of active had atonale tendency. Also the use of Bitonalität or Polytonalität, the use of twoor several kinds of clay/tone at the same time, led into the frontier of the Atonalität. The first phase, which exists in the task of the traditional Harmonik, is also called “free Atonalität”. Beautiful mountain tried to create an order principle within the atonalen music and developed the methodthe “composition with twelve tones” (later than twelve-audio engineering apostrophiert), referred only one on the other, for the first time which it would use starting from 1923 (in some the five pieces of piano op.23 and in most sets of the Suite for piano op.25). This twelve-clay/tone principle guarantees however firstyet compellingly the Atonalität, but a to a large extent even distribution of the twelve did not only keep at a moderate temperature half-tones within the kompositorischen sentence. Depending upon row structure and vertical organization of the tones it is quite possible to compose pieces in row technology as tonally feltbecome. The twelve-audio engineering was developed further after the Second World War to the Serialismus and dominated the avant-garde of the serious music during the 1950er years in Europe. Further important Wegbereiter of the atonalen music were beside Alban mountain and Anton of webers (those togetherwith beautiful mountain among the second Viennese in such a way specified school to be subsummiert), Ernst Krenek, Paul Hindemith, Igor Strawinsky, Béla Bartók and many other more.

aesthetic debate

in its 1949 published philosophy of the new music pleads Adorno for beautiful mountain atonale composition way and opposes these to the neoklassizistischen style Strawinskys regarded as relapse into already outdated composition technology. The atonale revolution around 1910 by beautiful mountain means the release of the music from the obligation of the tonality for Adorno and therebythe unhindered development of the musical expression qua free Atonalität with the full impulse life of the sounds. However it turns in the same writing decidedly against late twelve-audio engineering developed by beautiful mountain.

Like each artistic revolution (itself from later viewoften rather as evolution, when advancement represents) also the means of the Atonalität were violently attacked of conservative spirit. The conductor Ernest Ansermet about has the bases of the music in the human consciousness of 1961 of the atonalen music it in his bookExistence right at all agreed upon, since in it a senseful musical stylistic idiom is given up and by the omission sense pin ends of a tonality a founded aesthetic judgement by the listener is not possible. The production of a psychological echo in the listener by atonale music is deceptiveSinnhaftigkeit only forwards. (Carl Dahlhaus disproved new magazine for music in its article Ansermets Polemik against beautiful mountain, 1966 - Ansermets acceptance as unscientific.)

most objections are based on two basic assumptions:

1. Tonality is a language (or at least thoseBasis of a language) and their relinquishment would equal the Sinnlosigkeit of joining words (= tones) without grammar.

2. Tonality would create those in principles of nature - in particular oscillation conditions of the nature clay/tone row, to the interval orders of the Quintenzirkelsled - and leaving of this basis would let the works “against natural” become inevitable.

On the other hand into the field it was led that

ad 1. Tonality rules obeys, but by any means a language character does not have. In particular leaves itself over illustrative effects (e.g. weigh-end Sechzehntelketten =) Or literarily introduced clay/tone symbols ( kinds of cross clay/tone = Kreuzigung Christi) to water minerals water outside no meaning teachings provide.

ad 2. the Central European systems of the music from millenium-old practice human products developed are and only reduced to scientific regularities to attribute leave themselves. Like that are in the systemthe tendency kept at a moderate temperature - been based on that nearly all music for the baroque - except the Oktaven no intervals “purely” been correct.

Too this also today still much controversies aesthetic debate see. Discussion to this article.

reactions

see: Minimum music, Neotonalität, positives music Group

literature

 

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