attention is a process of the resources assignment of the limited Verarbeitungskapazität of the brain. The goals of attention allowance are the perception of the environment, thought and feelings, as well as the own behavior and acting. It moved due to the technical progress in secondWorld war in the research focus. The soldiers were not frequently able to serve the new devices adequately although they were trained to it.
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the capacity of the brain is limits
the brain has a reduced Verarbeitungskapazität, itcannot infinitely many attractions at the same time consciously process. Therefore it must select, which information for the organism of importance is and with attention to be considered to have and which information is less relevant and thereby to be faded out to be able. Becomes informationnot within 5 seconds attention given, is lost it. After Neisser (1967) the system, which keeps unmachined information, is the echoische memory.
The process of attention allowance is characterized thereby by allowance (orientation) and selection (selectivity) thatArticles and the associated inattentiveness in relation to other articles. Allowance is characterized by an increased awakeness and activation, while the selectivity has the function of a filter, in order to separate important and unimportant information.
Now those places itselfQuestion, by which criteria the brain judges the relevance of the attractions. Thus on the one hand new attractions with attention are considered (orientation reaction, curiosity). On the other hand the attention is directed toward emotional occupied information, some indirect marker for importance forthe organism are. The more emotion-filled a thing is, the more easily falls it us to direct our attention toward it. Needs, interests, attitudes and motives play therefore with the emergence and distribution of the attention a large role.
the attention is closely connected with our consciousness, because attention allowance to an attraction or a thought is only the necessary condition for the fact that us this becomes conscious. The brain nevertheless processes also the attractions, on which we notour attention arrange. This processing takes place however unconsciously .
While the attention allowance of our brain runs off perfectly automatically on the one hand, we can exert nevertheless additional conscious influence on it (process controlled). This concentrated attention is subject however to strong inter-individual differences in the duration, intensityand width of of the consciously steered attention (concentration (psychology)).
Regular conscious steering of the attention on individual parts of the body or the body altogether, generally leads to a better blood circulation, a stabilization of the immune system and to an improved state of health.
We arrange oursAttention regularly to a completely determined thing, then this becomes with the time a habit. Therefore it is appropriate to control the directions of our attention regularly.
attention as perception focus
determined events in the phänomenalen experience area cause oneFocusing of the perception on individual objects of the perception range. Mostly this attention focusing takes place, if no clear reaction sample on an attraction existed and conscious processing becomes necessary. As the perception concerns itself with a reduced perception range, at the same time the demarcation results approximatelyother attention triggers of lower priority.
The attention will be always concerned with the topic of highest priority. The priority is set by the intensity of the deviation from a central position:
- Size and attraction intensity (hot, hungry full)
- movement (deviate the movement of an object fromother objects, approaching objects, etc.)
- coloredness (focusing on contrasts, intended color combinations)
- contrast for the environment
- sharp and regular delimitation
- remarkable symmetry
- a position in excellent place of the visual field, e.g. left above
in the advertisement these connections are used, around optimalTo arrange impressive collecting mains, z. B. Posters, advertisements or folders.
range of the attention
the range of the attention is determined by the number of homogeneous articles, those with a view, i.e. in approximately 200 milliseconds to be noticed can. WithAdults are less that 6 to 12, on the average 8 objects, with children. The attention extent hangs also off of:
- the kind which can be noticed of the articles
- of the admittingness of the articles
- of the lighting intensity on the articles
- the contrast, under that thoseArticles are recognizable
- of the subjective attitude of the observer to the types of the articles
it are almost impossible to judge at the same time an optical and a tactile attraction as R. Pauli (1924) showed. That supports also as tightnessconsciousness designated acceptance that the attention can turn only in each case to one contents. Multiple achievements are obviously based on a fast change of the allowance from a task to another. That is arduous and leads rapidly to the fatigue. This fatiguethe attention and the rapid change of different attention types (of auditiv too visually etc.) also the so-called Pfänderspiele takes advantage of , which in addition, a good training the same means.
evaluation of attention types
with very weak attractions, e.g. withquiet ticking of a distant wrist-watch, periodic fluctuations of the attention are provable. V. Urbantschisch (1875) determined a phase length from 5 to 8 seconds. Individual characteristics of the attentive behavior led to the distinction of attention types:
- the fixing attention is limitedon a detail, has a close extent, is on one side rigid and analytic,
- the fluctuating attention has a far extent, is versatile, sliding, holistic and synthetic
since E. One differentiates Neumann (1913) with preference of certain sense areas
models for the explanation of the attention
for the explanation of the attention were set up numerous theories. The attempts at explanation by Gottfried William Leibniz (1704), William Wundt (1873) proceed from the assumption, the attention are in internal will process and serves for to selective separating of consciousness contents and Apperzeption of conceptions. The theories of G.E. Mueller (1924), H. Hennig (1925) and R. Rohrbacher (1953) accept physiological mechanisms in the central nervous system, thosea specific Erregbarkeitssteigerung of certain ranges of the Hinrinde and clearing effects cause.
The shape psychologists negate the attention as independent process. P. J. Galpernin (1968) regarded the attention as a special form of the psychological activity, i.e. as control activity, those the executionmental actions steers.
More modern models go from different filter systems of thePerception system out, which intervene in different places of the perception process and which select information. Thus the attention is focused automatically with strong personal relevance (Cocktailpartyphänomen: if the own name on a loud party is called by a person, this pulls those automaticallyAttention on itself). Something similar applies to the so-called Pop out effect: On a surface with homogeneous geometrical figures (z. B. Lines) different one figure (circle) falls immediately in the eye. This effect is bs to a certain complexity and similarity of the geometricalFigures trainable, and gives to etc. this effect not only in similar way on colors (textile skilled workers can differentiate up to 300 red tones), tones, but also on semantic level (Cocktailpartyphänomen is an example). Likewise is the focusing on certain characteristic detailsand the attention focusing only within a certain perception range (behind me, right corner of the monitor) in investigations confirms. Always is not conscious to us, which steers the attention. Unconsciously taken up information can a steering effect have and the attention steer. One can into consciousnessable and - incapable information partition. First can let so some “expert knowledge” become frequently by purposeful analysis discovered and the common property/knowledge. An example of use is the Produktplacement in the advertisement. Bewustseinsunfähige information admission, for example ultrakurzzeitige insertion of certain signals, are ingeneral legally forbade, since they can have unconscious manipulative effects. So it could be for example proven that the under-lowest insertion of a well-known beverage mark can cause thirst.
arousing from attention
because the possible attention is limited to the extent,at the same time however reaching the attention of one or several persons for many represents, is a social value an important goal. It becomes possible in very different way, for example by occurrence in press, broadcast or television. Very fast scandals reacha large public attention. Change arouses fast attention as remaining, already the announcement can attention excite. That is used for example by politicians in the “summer theatre”, in addition, by artists, who use scandals, in order to arouse attention. Of some attention becomeseven as new currency regards.
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