Rebellion of the Vendée

symbol of the resistance: The Sacré Cœur with the foreign exchange „for God and the king “was sewn on on the clothes of the insurgent ones.

The term rebellion of the Vendée (frz. guerre de Vendée) designates the armed fight of the royalistisch catholic gesinnten Landbevölkerung of the Vendée and neighbouring Départements against the republican revolution troops in the years 1793 to 1796.

On the basis of that south the Loire convenient area between meadow and Nantes, where the collection with encroachments took its beginning on republican troops at the beginning of March 1793, grew first from Nichtadligen like thatHunt guardians Stofflet and the wagoner Cathelineau, later resistance soon to a mass movement, aforementioned by not emigrierten noble ones like Charette, d'Elbée and La Rochejaquelin, near. After first successes of the royalist troops the convention in the autumn 1793 arranged the destruction of the Vendée, whereupon thatRebellion to end of the yearly was bloodily struck down. In the first half of the yearly 1794 the devastation of the Vendée followed by the so-called „höllischen columns “(frz.colonnes infernales) of the republic. The Guerillakampf resumed by Charette and Stofflet ended only with their capture and executionin the year 1796 and a policy of the relaxation by general Hoche.

The balance of the approximately three-year rebellion was devastating for the Départements concerned. Some municipalities lost between 25 and 35% of their population. Engraving despite a relatively rapid reconstruction was the damage like that that Napoleon Bonaparte still in the year 1808 remunerations for the Départements Vendée, Loire Atlantique and Deux Sèvres issued.

Table of contents

history

conditions

the fertile soil for the collection formed the religious, social and economic discontent of the farmers resident in the northwest of France. The strongly rurally coined/shaped coastal line of the Vendée covered the larger part of the old Poitou and a part of Anjou and Brittany and belongedto those regions of France, in which the catholic faith verwurzelt particularly deeply was. Pursuits of the oath-refusing priests, thus all that cleric, who refused the oath demanded by the national assembly on the condition and thus on the civil condition of the Klerus, had in the region particularlylarge indignation caused. In addition it came that that at the end of of 1789 of the national assembly decided sales properties of the expropriated Klerus as warranty for the Assignaten, called „national goods of “- paper money above all the wealthy inhabitants of the towns of the Vendée had been useful. The farmers as tenantsthe field from lack of capital mostly empty had gone out and developed a strong hate on the middle class of the cities, which had acquired the former church goods.

Thus it had given these already before the outbreak of the collection of rebellion plans, had been however never converted. In the process of the yearly1793 began itself to intensify the situation further. The course of the Assignaten had sunk by always new emissions on a quarter of the nominal value. In addition the degradation of the military situation of France had forced the convention to the obligation mobilization of 300.000 recruits, after itself as reaction to thoseExecution of Ludwig XVI. the first coalition to the fight against the revolutionary France had formed. Against this measure „of the Levée EN mass “the farmers protested to 2. March 1793 - a market day - in Cholet, as it to first encroachments against republican troopscame.

„the Vendéerkrieg “

haven-guesses/advises Charettes of Paulin Guérin, 1819 (cutout)
haven-guesses/advises to Henri de la Rochejaquelins of Pierre Narcisse Guérin, 1815

as to 10. March 1793 the large recruit digging to take place should, rose at different places of the Vendée the resistance. In pc. - Florentthe insurgent wagoner, Cathelineau selected, in Niederpoitou (Marais) the former naval officer Charette to their leader.

Soon royalistisch catholic groups were united in all areas, which fought the isolated republican corps lucky. The leaders of the revolt replaced the war exercise lacking by its exact knowledge of theCountry. When the aristocracy followed the rebellion, the farmers in it, particularly in men such as Henri de la Rochejaquelin, attained efficient leaders.

La Rochejaquelin erfocht to 25. May 1793 a shining victory with Fontenay le Comte and conquered to 10. June Saumur. Meanwhileif the promised support was missing on the part of England to open and in order more sources of help the army of the Vendéer, to whose commander Cathelineau was chosen, undertook to 29. June 1793 an attack on Nantes, however unfortunately failed and nearly the dissolution of the Insurgentenheers toConsequence had; after Cathelineaus death (11. July) stepped the baron d'Elbée at its point. Meanwhile the convention decided to pull two large armies together with La Rochelle under Rossignol and with Brest under Canclaux and to loop so the coast.

Also it sent the famous garrison ofMainz among efficient leaders, like Kléber and Marceau, into the Vendée. At the same time it that destroys the forests and Weiler of the Vendée by fires, dekretierte the Mobilien, the cattle, the women and children moved and in the inside from France exhausted, the goods of the Insurgenten konfisziert andin the neighbouring provinces the Landmilizen quantities will should. Nevertheless the Insurgenten, partially due to the Zwiespalts and the inability of the republican leaders and people representatives, maintained the predominance and triumphed with Chantonay and Torfou (5. and 19. September), were subject however with Cholet (17. October), whered'Elbee fell. In order to remedy the lack of food, caused by the measures of the convention to ignite in Brittany the rebellion and the expected British auxiliary corps come to meet, the main army of the Vendéer, 30,000 men translated strongly, on the northern bank of the Loire and was connectedwith the Chouans (S. D.), saw itself however in its expectations completely deception, since neither the Englishmen, still the population appeared to him in larger number followed.

Certificate of indebtedness as reconciliation for the supply of supplies to the Royalisten (here with the signature of Stofflet,issued in the name of the French king).

On the retreat the Vendéer triumphed with DOL (21. November), lost however in the engagements with Le Mans (12. December) 15,000 men; another heap of army became with Savenay to 23. December 1793 destroys, only a small part underLa Rochejaquelin and the Förster Stofflet escaped after the homeland. The convention troops penetrated now into the Vendée themselves, where Charette still maintained ground, and looked for by a cruel war of extermination (the prisoners were all niedergemetzelt) the country to desert; but „the höllischen columns would have “of theUpper general Turreau hardly the resistance defeated, would particularly be them not, since La Rochejaquelins death (4. March 1794), the disagreement under the Royalisten themselves come to assistance.

In May Turreau was recalled. Its successors, in particular Hoche, hit a milder system, and to 2. December 1794a proclamation offered peace and pardon to the Vendéern. To 15. February 1795 locked on that Charette to La Jaunaye a contract, to 20. May Stofflet and several andre leaders joined, and after that the Vendéer the republic recognize and but amnesty, remuneration, releasereceived from the war service and church liberty should. When in June 1795 a British fleet set the French emigrant army with Quiberon to the country, Charette in a communist manifesto of the republic explained on the new war.

the end

of shooting Charettes to 29. March 1796 in Nantes

the disagreement of the Insurgentenführer, the fall of the emigrant expedition on Quiberon and the measures Hoches did not let the describing elevation arise however. Charette and Stofflet were imprisoned taken and shot in the spring 1796. A complete subjecting of the Vendée came however only into January and February 1800to conditions, after more than 150,000 humans had died. During the hundred days 1815 the Vendéer seized again to the weapons, however by the general Lamarque under Sapinaud and Suzannet was struck. After the July revolution a part of the aristocracy of the Vendée rose in favor of the oldDynasty, and in April 1832 went the duchess of Berri into the country, in order to give the intended Insurrektion reproduction. Indeed fallow at different points the riot out, the watchfulness of the government and the capture of the duchess absorbed it however soon.

literature

literary processing

  • Victor Hugo: The year 1793, from the French transferred by Alfred wolf stone, revises and supplements of talked nonsense beautiful ones and Mireille Vildebrand, with an epilog of Eberhard Wesemann, Leipzig [among other things] 1989, ISBN 3-378-00295-6 (frz. Original title: Quatre vingt treize)

modern trend representations

  • Reynald second ago: Le génocide franco français: la Vendée Vengé, 4. corrected edition, of Paris 1992 ISBN 2-13-045260-4 - also in English translation available under the title A French genocide: the Vendée, Notre Dame 2003, ISBN 0-268-02865-6
  • Marie Breguet: L'avant guerre deVendée: les questions religieuses à l'Assemblée Législative (octobre 1791 - septembre 1792), Paris 2004, ISBN 2-7403-1091-9
  • Guy Marie Lenne: Les réfugiés guerres de Vendée: 1793-1796, La Crèche 2003, ISBN 2-8456-1100-5

older representations

  • Émile Gabory: La Révolution et la Vendée d'aprèsthe document inédits, 3 Bde., Paris 1925-1928
  • Eugène Bonnemère: Les of guerres de la Vendée, Paris 1884
  • Jacques Augustin Marie Crétineau Joly: Histoire de la Vendée militaire, 4 Bde., 5. Aufl., Paris 1865
  • Saint Albin Berville/Jean François Barrière (Hrsg.): Collection of the Mémoires relatifsà la Révolution française, therein: Jean Julien Michel Savary: Guerre of the Vendéens et the Chouans contre la République française, ou Annales départemens de l'Ouest counterpart of the ces guerres…, 6 Bde., Paris 1824-1827
  • Alphonse de Beauchamp: Histoire de la guerre de la Vendée et the Chouans, 4 Bde., Paris 1807

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