Augusto Pinochet

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte [pinoˈʧεt] (* 25. November 1915 in Valparaíso) is a Chilean general and politician. Of the 11. September 1973 up to the 11. March 1990 it governed Chile with diktatorischen means, after it considerably at the Putsch approximatelythe president at that time Salvador all end was involved.

Pinochet splits both the Chilean public and the international opinion: In view of the rule Pinochets created on torture and murder one regards him predominantly as one of the most brutal military dictators of Latin America. In particular right-conservative and neoliberale Bewunderer as for instance FranzJosef bunch or Friedrich Hayek disturbed themselves however little at Pinochets violations of human rights. They granted it, it Chile economic and political chaos protected and decided against linking proceeded.

Table of contents

biography to 1973

Pinochet became to 25. November 1915 in Valparaíso born and buildup in modest conditions. After graduation it visited the Chilean Militärakadamie, hit the officer career and became 1936 with 21Years second lieutenant. Pinochet married 1943 Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with which he has several children. In the year 1953 it was promoted to major and acquired a university conclusion in the subject law.

After short training activity at the military academy and a stay in Ecuador he served 1956 as Militärattaché at the Chilean message in Washington, D.C.. Starting from 1965 Pinochet visited training courses of US Army several times; one assumes that its close connections to high-ranking US military and the secret service CIA from this time originate.

Eduardo free appointed it briefly before end of itsTerm of office 1970 to the Brigadier General. Salvador all end transferred it in January 1971 the command over the army garrison into Santiago de Chile and promoted it to division general.

To 23. August 1973, one day after the congress the government ultimatively to the resignation had requested, becamePinochet of the acting president all end to the successor of the withdrawn general of Carlo Prats orders and thus to the commander in chief of the armed forces.

Putsch of 1973

at the 11. Septembers 1973 bombarded fighter planes the president palace Moneda. It came to the fall and death of the democratically selected presidentAll end. Thereupon a military junta took over power and appointed Pinochet the president of Chile.

Differently than most South American states Chile had a long democratic tradition, in which there were no attempts of the seizure of power by the military or other forces. But a large part of the populationexpected at this time an intervention of the military. Allendes economics and foreign policy led implemented economics embargo to one of the USA imposed and militarily. Strikes and notices of the opposition caused serious economic problems. Pinochet did not promise „a nation of the workers, but a nation of the entrepreneurs “to form.

Its taking office proceeded right after Pinochet with large hardness against the past government and its supporters. The military arrested thousands of actual or alleged sympathizers Allendes, who were locked up in the first days in the football stadium by Santiago de Chile. In the camps thatArmy and the Carabineros - this is the Chilean police, which was subordinated to the Ministry of Defense at that time - gave it in these days to violations of human rights, torture and murder. In the caravan of death the military drove a part of the prisoners into the north. They were for many years inCamps in the desert locked up. Between 2.500 and 80.000 humans were killed or disappeared without trace. The exact number cannot be determined today any longer accurately. Into the 1990er years mass graves were discovered. The brutal regime released a mass escape from Chile.

With the pursuit ofChilean oppositionals came it also to encroachments of the Chilean military abroad. Thus in September 1976 former Chilean Ambassador in the USA, Orlando Letelier, by an autobomb was killed. Already two years before general of Carlo Prats, Pinochets predecessor died as an army commander, upthe same way in Buenos Aires. For both notices one makes today the Chilean secret service DINA responsible.

While nearly the entire rule time from Pinochet oppositionals or assumed oppositionals became kidnapped by its regime, tortured and murdered. To the torture victims also children belonged.


a number of neoliberaler restaurant reforms introduced economic consequences parallel to its repressive political measures . It limited the public expenditures and forced the denationalization of the industry. It got Chicago in such a way specified Boys - to economist, those at the university of Chicago (admits by Milton Friedman) had studied - as advisors in the country. The recovery of the Chilean economy was named also the disputed term „miracles by Chile “.

With the economic liberalisation Chile attained remarkable growth numbers, but the social contrasts in the country continued to increase thereby. In May 1983 organized the opposition therefore demonstrations and strikes, which led again to substantial arguments with the safety troops. In September 1986 by the Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (FPMR) an assassination attempt on Pinochet one undertook, with which this carried however only light injuries off.

Chilean dictatorship

Pinochet, as a president of the military junta created of it, took over power after the successful Putsch. Over the national radio and television network he outlawed the political parties, dissolved the congress, limited citizen, people and political rights, and arranged the arrestpolitical high-level personnel of the Unidad popular. Pinochet was appointed at the 17.Dezember 1974 from the remaining cabinet members to the president.

Pinochet, a Bewunderer of the dictator Francisco Franco (at its funeral it 1975 participated), maintained the suppression by force of the political opposition during its entire reign. The fallen cabinet memberslike public enemies were pursued. It used arrest, torture, murder or banishing of political opponents as means of its politics. Thus a state concept coined/shaped by the terrorism formed. The “commission for truth and reconciliation” (also under the name “commission Rettig” admits) mentioned 2,095 dead ones in its recordingsand 1,102 disappeared prisoners, other reports counted hundreds more. Hundredthousands of Chilenen left the country, in order to escape from the regime. To information of the “national office of the Rückkehrer” from the year 1994 of it over 700.000 persons to Chile did not return.

the condition of1980

1978 were confirmed the government Pinochet during a popular vote, which did not fulfill the criteria of a democratic choice however in opinion of foreign observers, in the office. Under the conditions of the military dictatorship the opponents Pinochets did not come to word, and the Wahlzettel are to have been so thin,that a secret choice was impossible. 75 per cent of the delivered voices supported the government.

1980 placed the government Pinochet a new condition (Carta fundamentally) to the tuning, which was adopted with two-thirds majority under similar conditions by the people. Pinochet could now with cover of the conditionuntil and had at the same time substantial authority remains getting 1989 in the office awarded.

return to the democracy

according to the condition of 1980 was accomplished in October 1988 a popular vote over the fact whether Pinochet might be the only candidate with the Präsidentenwahlen of 1989. Outweighedhowever „no “- the voices, on which it came one year later to free elections. Pinochet became at the 11. March 1990 replaced from Patricio Aylwin as a president. But in accordance with the condition custom-made of it it remained senator on lifetime and in addition a boss of the armed forces.

detentionto Great Britain 1998 to 2000

at the end of of September 1998 traveled Pinochet as senator and a member of the defence committee to Great Britain. One week before had been informed the British State Department of it. Pinochet could be treated in Great Britain its ill backs and met with the British ex Prime Minister minister Margaret Thatcher, it and others because of his support in the Falkland War was in a friendly manner connected.

The Spanish examining magistrate Báltasar Garzón had already determined state terrorism and torture since longer against Pinochet because of genocide , since also Spanish citizens among the victims of the military dictatorship were. During Pinochets stayin London Spain placed therefore a distribution desiring, due to its Pinochet to 16. October was arrested by the British police in London.

The arrest released unrests in Chile. The country was deeply split into Pinochet opponents and - trailers. President Eduardo freely Ruiz Tagle demanded the releasePinochets to bring allegedly in order it before a Chilean court.

Also Switzerland had placed request for distribution. The Spanish request had priority, but if Spain had withdrawn it, Pinochet would have been possibly delivered because of disappearing Swiss Alexi Jaccard to Switzerland. Alexi Jaccard- presumed on behalf Pinochets - in Argentina one arrested and „disappeared there “.

Its detention in England spent Pinochet under house arrest. It was allowed to receive attendance for an unlimited period; among other things it let a priest from Chile fly to Christmas.

The judgement identification became by a longpolitical rope pulling between England, Spain, Chile and further countries retards. Beside Switzerland also France and Belgium had placed distribution requests.

In November 1998 it came to a first judgement, according to which Pinochet would have lost the immunity. This judgement was waived because of possible embarrassment of a judge. ThisAmnesty international, which appeared as Nebenklägerin against Pinochet, had connections to the human right organization. In a second negotiation in March 1999 the court decided that Pinochet did not possess a diplomatic immunity. However he might not be sued for acts before 1988, there Great Britain only 1988 thatAnti-torture convention had joined. In addition many charges of the Spanish law were rejected.

In April 1999 the British Minister of the Interior Jack Straw decided that Pinochet at Spain could be delivered. The Chilean government asked London thereupon to release Pinochet for humanitarian reasons. The government in Santiago led thathigh age and the bad state of health Pinochets as arguments on. Also the government of the USA demanded the release Pinochets, allegedly from fear of further exposures over entangling the United States into the violations of human rights under Pinochets rule. Likewise the Vatikan for a release sat downthe catholic Pinochet.

After examination of its state of health Pinochet a heavy illness was certified. It became on instruction of Jack Straw to 2. March 2000 released and returned immediately to Chile. There it was received relatively healthy working from inspired trailers. At present standsit in Chile again under house arrest.

processing of the violations of human rights

the Causa Pinochet

groups of human rights and the members of the victims of the regime organized Pinochets from London protests and reminding guards after the return, however there were also solidarity demonstrations with several hundred participants.Two days later the industrial tribunal in Santiago, upon the request of the determination judge extracted from Juan Guzmán Tapia with 13:9 voices, Pinochet its immunity. The investigation concerned „the death caravan in such a way specified “, the murder at 75 regime opponents in October 1973. A special-purpose force of the army under the command of the general Arellano strong, which Pinochets delegated, had humans murdered. There in this case 18 bodies were not found yet fall it not under the amnesty law of 1978.

At the 1. December 2000 introduced Guzmán the procedure. To 5. January 2001 published the military oneReport, in which the fate of the “disappearing” (however only of 200 of more than 1100) is examined: Allegedly the 18 bodies 17 over the sea were thrown off, which cannot be occupied however. Military require nevertheless the attitude for the amnesty law.

The lawyersexplained, Pinochet was process unable. To 18. January certified a physician team „subkortikale, container-conditioned dementia “- in Chile (differently than in Great Britain) to too little for a procedure inability. To 29. January raised Guzmán accusation. This released a solidarity wave under generals and RN - and UDI - politicians.To 12. March became released Pinochet against a bail of 2.000.000 pesos (about 3,500 euro). In July 2001 a court did not explain Pinochet for negotiationable. This meant the final end of legal pursuit Pinochets, as well as the end of the political career as a senator on lifetime. To15. September 2005 was confirmed the abolition of the immunity by Pinochet by the highest court.

commission over torture

to 30. November 2004 published the national Chilean Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura (about: National commission for political arrest and torture)their report on the atrocities of the Pinochet regime. In the report proven that due to the suspicion „left “to be simple, the secret police kidnaps it was tortured and killed humans. It is proven likewise that tortures were not used systematically and under any circumstances exceptions were: all armed servicesthe army and all safety organs - police and secret services - were involved. Likewise the report states that the torture methods in the course of the time were constantly developed further.

operation CONDOR

to 14. December 2004 raised the responsible examining magistrate in Santiago de Chile, Juan Guzmán, accusation because of kidnapping of nine persons (in the context of the operation CONDOR) and murder with one of the victimvictim victims and because of the murder of 119 regime opponents in the year 1975.

Pinochets aspect

the Pinochet donation spread at the end of of 1998 an explanation general Pinochets,it never wished death to someone, and he feels pain for each Chilenen, which lost its life in these years. He justifies his Militärputsch against Salvador all end with the fact that the population knocked on the barracks gates. By any means a sample democracy was not destroyed. RatherChile was protected to come into the dependence of the Soviet Union. It saved the country from a civil war. Those, which had been responsible for all evils at that time and which would up-swing would have preached marxism, today to its judges.

After his arrest saidPinochet: „History teaches us that dictators never find a good end. “

corruption and tax evasion

2005 became known that British aviation and weapon company British Aerospace (BAe) altogether 1.1 million Pound (round 1.5 million euro) in the period between December 2004 andOctober 2005 at Pinochet to have paid is. In response Pinochet weapon businesses mediated. The money was paid with fourteen transfers at Pinochet assigned companies - Takser Investment , Cornwall Overseas corporation and Eastview Finance -. After it admits became that Pinochet covers millions US Dollar abroadhad put on, sank its reputation also in conservative circles. Momentarily processes because of tax evasion and investigations run to the corruption suspicion.

quotations to the case Pinochet

  • for the one Pinochet will always be a brutal dictator, the others celebrates it than rescuer of the native country. It becomeshundred years last, until we become Chilenen us over its role united. (Isabel all end, niece Salvador Allendes, in the mirror 44/1998)
  • on both sides the blood cooks. The friends of my father are furious and ready to go on the road. ... Victim gaveit on both sides. We had here an underground war. But my father let kill nobody. (Lucía Pinochet Hiriart, daughter Augusto Pinochets, in the mirror 47/1998)
  • the conception that as a brutal dictator could stress as Pinochet diplomatic immunity, is for most humans inthis country probably quite to the Kotzen. (Peter Mandelson, British Minister, 18. October 1998)
  • With all respect, of you honours, I recognize the jurisdiction of no other court than in my country on, if it concerns to defend me against the Spanish lies.(Augusto Pinochet toBelmarsh of municipal authorities Court, 11. November 1998)
  • The international right means that certain behavior including torture and taking of hostages can be accepted by nobody. That completely particularly applies to heads of state just like for other humans or to it. (Lord judge Nicholls, 25. November 1998)
  • That the consul Antisemit is is a bright lie. ... It always enjoyed the highest respect of the Jewish municipality. (David flint, one the Honoratioren of the Jewish municipality in Chile. In London it showed in addition photos of attendance Pinochets in synagogs and at Jewish organizations, “mirror” 4/1999)
  • …General Augusto Pinochet, which saved and into normality led back our country from communism. ... The people called the armed forces. ... It was a civil war with victims on both sides.(Donation manager Perez of the Fundacion Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, the 1997 to 80. Birthdayby general Pinochet was created., South German newspaper 19. February 1999)
  • I am degraded. I am a Gentleman, which has an honour. (Augusto Pinochet, 16. April 1999)
  • General Pinochet is naturally marked to the scapegoat, because the international left revenge wants to take. (Margaret Thatcher, 6. July 1999)
  • A former head of state cannot state that committing an internationally outlawed crime belongs to its tasks, which are protected by the immunity. (Lord judge Browne Wilkinson, 24. March 1999)
  • On an unknown day in July 1989 you let Edmundo Meza torture, by being hung up,it electrical impacts were shifted, a hose to its after was introduced and he in a condition of acute indisposition was held… (A British judge at the Bow Street of municipal authorities Court to one of 35 classification reasons, 8. October 1999)
  • After our opinion it is at no timementally in the situation to participate and know in a procedure, for which it goes. (British specialists, January 2000)

see also

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