|of these articles is occupied with the State of Australia. For a description of the continent of the same name, see Australia (continent).|
| no Wahlspruch|
in former times: Advance Australia („walk in front, Australia “)
|system of government||parliamentary monarchy|
|head of state||queen Elizabeth II.|
|Governor general||major General Michael Jeffery|
|prime minister||John Howard (since 1996)|
|surface||7.692.030 km ² (6.)|
|Number of inhabitants||20.406.800 (52.) (Conditions 25. September 05)|
|Population density||of 2.6 inhabitants per km ² (191.)|
|Gros domestic product/inhabitant||30,623 US-$ (2005)|
|time belt||UTC +8 to +11|
|national anthem||Advance Australia fair|
Australia (English. and lat. Australia, derived from lat. terra australis „southern country “, official name Commonwealth OF Australia, dt. Australia) is the surface-moderately sixth-largest state of the earth. It lies on the Southern Hemisphere northwest from New Zealand and south of Indonesia, Osttimor, west Papua and Papua New Guinea and covers the main land mass of the continent Australia as well as the pre-aged island Tasmanien and some smaller islands. Beyond that belong still the Pacific Norfolkinsel, the Kokosinseln, the Weihnachtsinsel and the Ashmore and Cartier islands in the Indian ocean as well as the Australian Antarctic territory and the subantarktischen islands Macquarieinsel and Heard and McDonald islands as „external areas “to the Commonwealth of Australia.
Australia becomes (mainly in Australia) also as Oz (loud-pictorial ABC from „Australia “) designates. Likewise there are the collective terms down to Under and Australasia, which Australia and New Zealand summarize.
Table of contents
major item: Geografie Australia
the total area of the country covers about 7.7 million square kilometers. The north south expansion amounts to about 3,700 km, the west east expansion approximately 4,000 km. Three large landscapes can geographical be differentiated. The Tafelland of the westAustralian plateau takes about 60 per cent of the continent. Here the large dry regions of the large sand desert, the Gibsonwüste , the large Victoriawüste are appropriate and for the Nullarbor desert.
smaller mountains like the MacDonnell of rank and island mountains like the Uluru tower above the plateau. In the east the sediment basin of the centralAustralian closes counterbores. Here one finds with the Simpsonwüste both the driest region of the country and the largest river system, the Murray - Darling - to basins. The east of the country is coined/shaped of the Great Dividing rank, which extends over 3.200 km von Norden after the south. Also Tasmanien can be regarded as part of this mountain chain. With 2.229 m is in the Snowy Mountains the highest mountain of the continent , the Mount Kosciuszko belonging to the Great Dividing rank. The highest mountain and the only volcano on Australian territory are simultaneous lain with 2.745 m on the uninhabited island of the Heard bend Ben.
list of the cities in Australia climate due to the large north south expansion of the country. The north is tropical, it follows a subtropical area, in the south is moderate the climate. Weather and climate are determined mainly by three phenomena, the tropical low pressure belt, the trade wind zone and the Subpolaren west hoists.
In the summer half-year from November to April strong rainfalls arise in the north due to a heat low. Additionally it comes over the Timorsee to eddy towers. South Australia lies at this time in the subtropical high pressure belt and remains to a large extent dry. In the winter term, May until Octobers, remains against it the north due to a Hochdruckgebiets drying, the south and southwest of the country lies in the west wind zone and is suspended precipitation. Southeast trade winds bring all year round upward gradient rains to the mountains of the east.
The 1. January 2006 was determined in Australia as the hottest yearly beginning since beginning of the recordings in the year 1858. In Sydney at the official station at the Observatory Hill around 16:24 h maximum temperatures by 44,7 degrees Celsius were measured. The January temperature record of 45,3 degrees of 14. January 1939 remained untouched. According to data of the national weather service 2005 are received as the hottest year in Australian history since beginning of recording of the meteorological data in the year 1858. In the first ten months 2005 the values layer by 1,03 degrees Celsius over the 30-Jahres-Mittel. Since 1988 a clear trend is to be determined to higher average temperatures.
Southeast Australia is the most densely populated area in the range of the southern ozone hole.
Flora and fauna
major item: Fauna of Australia
on the Australian continent, which is separate from the remaining world for over 200 million years by oceans, could develop its own large diversity of species with plants and animals. Certification of this isolated development are e.g. the bag mammals (also marsupial mammals; English: marsupials) Australia, which are represented otherwise only in south and North America.
From that approximately 20,000 domestic plant types in Australia are approx. to find exclusive 85% on this continent. For the Australian vegetation the Eukalyptus is typical - and there are acacia trees, of both over 600 kinds. The schnellwüchsige and undemanding Eukalyptusbaum occurs in the most diverse environments, also in hot and dry central Australia. The size varies from shrub height to 90 M. In the southeast of Australia there are expanded forest areas, the closest vegetation is in the tropical rain forests of Nordqueensland. Strong clearing leads to an endangerment of the existence and threatens the diversity of species in the forests. In dry regions of west Australia the Baobab seems - to tree, also bottle tree mentioned, which can store water in its trunk. Far surfaces of the interior are coined/shaped of grass country, the most important Pflanzengesellschaft are the Spinifex here - grass country, which takes about a quarter of the national surface.
Typical representatives of the Australian animal world are the marsupial mammals. Well-known representatives are the Kängurus also over 40 kinds, the Koala, the Wombat, the Tasmani devil or bag devil, the bag mouse and the kind of the Kletterbeutler (pos around). In the whole world eggs putting mammals (duck-bills) are singular, which only in Australia and new Guinea occur, in Australia represented by the Schnabeltier (English. Platypus) and the ant hedgehog (English. Echidna). Before the settlement of Australia by humans Plazentatiere were represented only by bats , flight dogs , seals and rodents. By humans imported animals such as dogs, cats, rabbit, camels, foxes, Aga toads etc. represent today however a strong endangerment for the Australian fauna, particularly for smaller domestic mammals, which did not grow the competition and the increased pirated edition. Utilizable animals such as sheep and cattle make the habitat contentious for the native animals, since for their nutrition into quilt and wild-like areas enormous surfaces are particularly needed. The bird world of Australia with the numerous parrots (Wellensittiche, Lories, Kakadus) and the Australian Eisvogel (Kookaburra) is very species-rich. Reptiles are particularly represented with queues , turtles , crocodiles and Echsen. Two thirds of all kinds of queue, which are resident on the Australian continent, are malicious and 25 kinds for humans dangerously, for example the poison queues Taipan and Tigerotter. The moreover one different kinds of spider ( red back spider, Sydney Trichterspinne ) are, of calling sharks and Würfelquallen.
Also the Great Barrier Reef before the northeast coast of Australia , with a length of 2.012 km the largest corral reef of the earth forms a singular habitat. The danger of a lasting disturbance of the ecological equilibrium exists also here by the intensive industrielle fishery in surrounding waters and the tourism.
Australia reacted to the endangerment of fauna and Flora already early with the setting-up of wide protected areas, which cover also parts of the sea. That already 1879 created Royal national park south of Sydney applies for park after the Yellowstone national as the secondaryoldest national park of the world. Approximately 12% of the national surface were explained as protected zones. Eleven areas belong to the world cultural heritage . In addition among other things the Uluru Kata Tjuta belongs national to park with the Uluru (also: Ayers skirt), the Great Barrier Reef and the Blue Mountains.
See also: National park in Australia
the composition of the Australian population reflects the immigration samples of the country again. Approximately 92% of the population are more European, 7% of asiatic descent. 2.4% of the population call themselves as at least partial of indigener descent. Approximately 15% of the white ones are not British or Irish descent. In particular immigrant from ex Yugoslavia, above all Croat (approx. 800.000), in addition, from Greece (approx. 600.000), Italy (approx. 600.000) and Poland (approx. 200.000) form own minorities in Australia. Over 1.3 million Australian have at least a German ancestor. English and/or. Australian English is with approximately 79% of the population to most spoken language, in each case approximately 2% speaks Chinese dialects or Italian.
Since then in the 60's the “white” immigration policy of Australia was gradually waived, strengthens above all immigration from the asiatic countries. In the 90's the population grew annually by immigration by 1,4%. More than one quarter of the population are not born in the country. The Australian birth rate amounts to 1.8 children per woman. The life expectancy amounts to 75 years for men, 81 years for women, 20 years less with Aborigines (WHO, 1999).
Australia is very strongly urbanized, 92% of the population lives in cities, particularly in the large centers at the southeast coast, on Tasmanien and in the region Perth. The center of the country is almost deserted.
the majority of the Australians belongs to Christian religious communities on (source: Census 2001). 26.6% called themselves as Roman catholic, (see catholic church in Australia), 20.7% as Anglikaner (see Anglican Church OF Australia), further 20.7% than members of other Christian churches. To the Buddhismus 1.9% of the population, to the Islam , profess themselves 1.5% to traditional Australian Aborigines religions 0.3%. 15.3% call themselves as areligiös. The appropriate question in the census was not answered of 12,7%.
the indigene population of the Australian continent consists of the Aborigines of the mainland and the Torres Strait Insulanern , which live on the islands of the Torres Strait between Queensland and Papua New Guinea. Before the arrival of the Europeans their number of estimations amounted to according to between 300.000 and 1 million humans. These represented however no uniform people, but belonged multiplicity different cultures also over 200 different languages,
the British crown defined Australia as terra nullius, thus uninhabited country, when them took the country up for itself. Thus the Aborigines lost any rights to its country. Only 1965 received the Aborigines the right to vote on national level. With the establishment of a tent message before that parliament building in Canberra 1972 the dialogue between indigener population and government should be promoted. However only 1992 with the Mabo became - judgement the designation of Australia as terra nullius revises, whereby it became possible for Aborigines and Torres Strait Insulaner to lay under certain conditions claims on country. Despite these improvements in the status the indigene population of Australia differs also today still from the remainder of the population, particularly in the health, criminality and unemployed person statistics.
Between 1900 and 1972 in a national program about 35,000 Aborigine children under obligation were removed from their families and spent into national institutions or adopted into white families (the Stolen in such a way specified generation). Originally as program for the well-being of the child planned, this act is considered today as tried Genozid and striking offence against the human rights. Obviously the government wanted to prevent the passing on of the indigenen culture and language. With the increasing attention for injustice in the Australian population during the Mabo process, committed at the Aborigines, it came 1995 to official investigations to the child kidnapping. To 26. April 1997 the results of this investigation in the report became „Bringing Them Home - report OF the national Inquiry into the Separation OF Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families “publishes. For the anniversary of this publication since then that is committed national Sorry Day, to which country-wide reconciliation meetings take place.
Today 410,003 Australians themselves call themselves as indigenen origin (conditions 2001), thus 2.4% of the population. 29% of them live in new South Wales, 27% in Queensland, 14% in Western Australia and 13% in the Northern Territory. In the latter territory they place, South Australia and Victoria to 29% of the total population have only small portions of indigener population. Most Aborigines gave its traditional way of life up mostly, i.e., they live today no more in the original master form like them since thousands of years existed. More than 70% the Aborigines live in cities.
The interests of the indigenen population in relation to the government were represented until 2005 particularly of the ATSIC (Aborigine and Torres Strait Islander Commission). After their dissolution in July 2005 the competence was transferred to the department OF immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs.
major item history of Australia
when the settlement of Australia by humans began, is until today disputed. Traces of it are back dated on up to 120,000 years. The Aborigines lives for at least 50,000 to 60,000 years on the continent and belongs thereby to the oldest cultures of the world.
Despite the isolated situation of the continent the Aborigines stood in contact to other cultures. Up to the flooding of the land bridge to new Guinea before approximately 6,000 years a nearly unhindered cultural exchange between new Guinea and the north of Australia existed. After the islands of the Torres Strait developed again were settled before approximately 1,000 years by melanesische sailors, it came again to interactions with inhabitants of northern Australia. Also Chinese and Indian dealers as well as Indonesian Fischer probably visited the Australian coasts for several centuries. The cultural influence of these visitors becomes clear in many rock and crust painting of the Aborigines. A further certification of these trade relations is the Dingo, which was probably introduced before approximately 6,000 years by Southeast Asiatic sailors.
before the discovery of Australia for 1699 scholars in old Europe the existence of a south continent had maintained. The puzzling „south country becomes frequent " (lat. terra australis) mentions. Marco Polo segelt 1292 of China back after Venice and mentions a country rich at gold and shells south of Java.
In 16. and 17. Probably Portuguese, go French and Spanish sailors the coasts of Australia reach century and ashore. As secured however only the discovery of the Cape York Peninsula is considered by the Dutchman Willem Jansz in the year 1606. 1616 entered Dirk Hartog the Australian west coast. In July 1629 the trading vessel Batavia of the Netherlands east India company at the west coast stranded, but its captain Francisco Pelsaert did not measure a crucial meaning to his discovery out. Only in the year 1642 the Netherlands east India company decided to investigate the continent by a planned expedition. Abel Tasman discovered thereby the today's Tasmanien. A further expedition, which began in the year 1696 under Willem de Vlamingh, cartography ores of parts of the west coast of Australia. Since the landscape works however drying and unfruchtbar, the dutchmen did not show interest to colonize Australia . Tasman coined/shaped 1644 the designation „new Holland “, which was until 1824 used, only then introduced the British the today valid names.
in April or May 1770 reached finally captain James Cook the more fruitful east coast of Australia and took the country formally than British colony new South Wales for the crown in possession. The purpose of its journey was finding the so-called. Terra Australis, which must be present according to in the time a usual theory as counterweight to the land masses in the north of the globe.
Establishment of new colonies
1792 landed a French expedition on Tasmanien, in order to explore the country. Thereupon the British decided to furnish also here as fast as possible a colony. 1803 established it to Risdon Cove at the Derwent River, one year of late kind of main header Town, likewise at the Derwent, and George Town at the Tamar River. 1825 were explained the Van Diemen's country at that time as its own colony.
1824 developed a new penal colony in the delta of the Brisbane River. The separatingness of this situation should increase the security of the colony. After however also free settlers pushed strengthened to the fruitful pasture reasons of the north, the colony released the country 1842 also for settlement. 1859 were then proclaimed Queensland as colony independent of new South Wales.
The colony new South Wales took first the entire eastern part of the continent, only the western third remained further as new Holland of the British unstressed. In order to prevent the danger of a colonizing of west Australia by France, the British created 1826 a settlement, Albany also here. The colony Western Australia was proclaimed 1829 with establishment of Perth. Although no convicts should be originally sent away here, the free settlers 1850 demanded the abolition of this practice, in order to equip the new colony with cheap workers.
South Australia was likewise planned as convict-free colony. In the course of systematic colonizing after plans of Edward Gibbon Wakefield country was sold, proceeds became related to bring free settlers into the colony. 1836 were created Adelaide, appointed in the same year South Australia as province of Great Britain.
Away to the nation
Between 1855 and 1890 the individual colonies received the privilege of the Responsible Government and thus a larger independence from the British Empire. London kept however for the time being control of foreign policy, defense and foreign trade.
The Commonwealth of Australia
at the 1. Once from each other the independent colonies were formed January 1901 to the Commonwealth OF Australia. First capital of Australia becomes Melbourne. To 26. September 1907 received the Commonwealth of Australia with the Dominionstatus almost complete independence from the motherland Great Britain.
1911 were created the Australian Capital Territory, in order to take up the new capital Canberra. Melbourne however still remained due to the long-continuous construction work in Canberra until 1927 seat of the government. Also 1863 created Northern the Territory from control South Australia was transferred of the province into the Commonwealth.
From loyalty to Great Britain Australia sent both in first and in the Second World War troops to Europe. Australia had to deplore the highest number at pleasures in the First World War of all allied ones proportionally to the population. The defeat of the Australian and new Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) in the first military employment of the country in the battle of Gallipoli 1915 is considered to many Australians as birth of the nation.
To the British defeat in Asia 1942 and the threatening Japanese invasion shifted the military activities starting from 1942 of Europe on the Australian continent. Australia turned strengthens the USA as new strong allied one too. This became 1951 with the ANZUS - agreement formalizes.
After the Second World War a progressive immigration policy was operated, which led to mass immigration from Europe, after task of the white immigration policy also from Asia and other continents. This led within a short time to strong demographic changes, in addition, to economic upswing.
1986 delivered Great Britain with the Australia act the last authority concerning the Australian condition . 1999 tuned the population in a referendum with a majority of 55 per cent however against the creation of a republic and kept the monarchy thus formal.
With the aggravation of the anti-terror law at the end of of October 2005 on operation of the Australian secret service ASIO and a large-scale raid in the suburbs of Sydney and Melbourne with arrests of 16 Muslims suspect of a forthcoming assassination attempt for prevention to 8. November 2005 says good-bye the government of the liberal home policy.
in the past decades was certain of Australia outside and military politics by a close partnership with the USA. Australia is member of the ANZUS - alliance. Of Australia armed forces (Australian Defence Force - ADF) consist of the navy (Royal Australian Navy - RAN), the army (Australian Army) and the Air Force (Royal Australian air Force - RAAF). All armed services are involved into present discord missions in Osttimor and on the Solomonen. With approximately 50,000 soldiers Australia took part in the years 1962-1972 in the war of the United States against North Vietnam and Vietcong. The participation cost the nation a high blood tariff, it 2,400 soldiers was wounded, 500 fell. In addition the armed forces of Australia are at present involved in the side of the USA and Great Britain in the stabilization of the postwar Iraq. The budget of the armed forces for 2005/2006 amounts to 17.5 billion AUD.
the Commonwealth of Australia are a parliamentary monarchy on democratic-parliamentary basis. The state is organized the individual Federal States föderal, possesses own in each case parliaments with large authority for legislation.
the two-chamber system of the Australian parliament sits down from the house of representatives, to the senate as upper house and a queen Elizabeth II. as a head of state together. The queen will, as in each Commonwealth Realm, by a governor general represented (since 11. August 2003: Major General Michael Jeffery) no power over the parliament exercises however usually. The 150 delegates of the house of representatives are selected every three years in constituencies after the Mehrheitswahlrecht. The deputy seats are distributed accordingly the total population on the Federal States and territories. In the senate each state with twelve senators is represented, the two territories with in each case two. The senators are selected for six years, every three years take place in each case elections for half of the seats of the senate. For all elections on federation and Federal State level an obligation to vote exists. The most strongly represented party places the government, the chairman of this party becomes a prime minister.
A two-chamber parliament, which is usually selected after the Mehrheitswahlrecht, possesses Federal States each state and each territory (with exception of Queensland). The elections on the basis of proportional representation right is used only in Tasmanien. The boss of the federal state government is likewise called prime minister.
The Federal States possess the exclusive legislative competence for education, health, law, police and traffic.
the largest parties are those liberally party, laboratory party, national party and the Greens. Smaller parties like the democrats and Family roofridge are represented, particularly also in Australian parliaments in the senates on federation and regional level. There is only a further country widely registered party - the 2001 again created leftist coalition Socialist Alliance.
since 1996 is liberal John Howard of that party prime minister of the Commonwealth of Australia. It governs together with the small national party (conditions: 2005). With the elections 2004 the government coalition won additionally the majority in the senate. All Federal States and territories are governed however by laboratory.
Despite the participation in the Iraq war, violently disputed in the population , Howard won the elections in October 2004 for the fourth time against the laboratory party led at that time by Mark Latham, which represents a political record. Choice-crucially the continuous economic growth affected itself. Of Australia liberal are socio-politically conservatively adjusted; politicoly-economic they set on liberalisation and privatisation.
Internationally Howard is criticized particularly because of its Pacific Solution as well as its close support to the USA. After US president Bush in the autumn had called 2003 Australia „Americas Sheriff " in Southeast Asia, above all Malaysian politicians hurried to oppose once more an economic integration „of the western Transplants " Australia in Eastern Asia.
the governor general Sir Stephen Ninian explained to 19. April 1984 gold and green to the official national colors of Australia (not to confound with the official colors of the flag of Australia), because up to then did not have Australia own national colors. The organization of the national flag and the official coats of arms of government agencies are ajar against the Insignien of the British king house. In order to demonstrate their self-sufficiency opposite the British queen, the Australians very often use the national colors and this with the association colors and colors of its sport clubs also with international matches.
1977 was selected in a country-wide tuning Advance Australia fair for the official national anthem of Australia. 1984 at it changes were already made, because the British adjustment of the original version went to many citizens too far. The composition decreases/goes back on Peter Dodds McCormick . The first performance took place in the year 1878 .
To short time also Waltzing Mathilda, which on a text of banjo Paterson was based , beside Advance Australia fair applied as national anthem, however with the tuning to the second place was referred. Waltzing Matilda enjoys of large popularity nevertheless and applies to many Australians as secret national anthem.
List of the Australian heads of state
|1837 - 1901||Viktoria I.||Hanover / Saxonia Coburg Gotha||1819 - 1901|
|1901 - 1910||Eduard VII.||Saxonia Coburg Gotha||1841 - 1910|
|1910 - 1936||George V.||Saxonia Coburg Gotha/ Windsor||1864 - 1936|
|1936||Eduard VIII.||Windsor||1894 - 1972|
|1936 - 1952||George VI.||Windsor||1895 - 1952|
|1952 -||Elizabeth II.||Windsor||1926 -|
each Federal State has - beside own parliament and government - a governor as a direct representative of the monarch.
major item traffic in Australia
of Australia traffic is coined/shaped by the large distances in the interior and the high population density along the narrow strip of the east and south coast. Related to the number of inhabitants the country orders over a great many kilometers at roads and ways, exhibits a high motorizing degree and possesses a close network of air routes.
Australia belongs to the countries with the closest network of air routes at all. There are about 400 public and privately administered airfields. Most important airline is the 1920 created QANTAS. An important spider for the international air traffic is the Kingsford Smith air haven in Sydney. The domestic air traffic is dereguliert , i.e. since 1990. Flugpreise are determined without participation on the part of the government by the free competition.
particularly in the closely settled southeast of the country plays also the traffic an important role. The first road of Australia was built 1789 to 1791 from Sydney to Parramatta. The today's road system amounts to approximately 913,000 km, of it is fastened about 353,000 km, i.e. asphalted or concreted. A large part of the goods traffic in the Outback is transported over the Road in such a way specified Trains - those are long trucks - combinations with several trailers up to 53,5 m length and up to approximately 140 tons total weight. In Australia left-hand traffic prevails.
1854 operated the first steam railway between the city center and the port Melbournes. Numerous private societies operated the railway lines of the country in the future. This led to the fact that at the time of the federation formation (1901), three track widths from each other deviating were present, which led to large problems. Only since approx. 1970 are possible the passage from Sydney to Perth without system-dependent transferring. Except some nostalgic tourist distances today no steam engines are in the use.
The national Eisenbahnnetz amounts to approx. 34000 km, the private railway system (above all iron ore transport in the Pilbara region, coal and sugar tubing courses in Queensland) amounts to approx. 5500 km.
Compared to the traffic, the person and goods transport on the rails play in the meantime a subordinated role. There are nevertheless new building projects, so for example recently the railway line finished placed of Alice jumps after Darwin, admits under the name The Ghan. The Transaustrali railway from Sydney to Perth is for the freight - and the tourism of importance. Australia plans besides the use of high-speed courses.
In the population centres Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, in which half of the population lives, exist well removed rapid-transit railway - nets. The streetcar net in Melbourne belongs to the longest world.
Australia is a guided national economy, which was increasingly dereguliert and denationalized in the last years . Into the 1980er years began the laboratory party under prime minister Bob Hawke and Minister of Finance Paul Keating to modernize of Australia economics. After a heavy restaurant break-down - Keating called it „the recession, which we must have “- Australia recovered rapid and exhibits since the 1990er years one of the highest economic growth rates under the OECD - states. Unemployment decreased/went back saliently and the competitive ability of Australian enterprises rose. The liberals under John Howard recorded economic policy since 1996 to the liberal. Critics say that this goes debited to the employees and socially weak ones. Many employees would be now more badly than before without job.
the large surface of the country in connection with the small domestic market predestines Australia to the export country for primary products. Important export goods are therefore agricultural products and Bodenschätze. This fact makes the country sensitive in addition, in relation to strong fluctuations of the world prices of these goods.
The large-scale enterprises in Australia coin/shape the export balance. The 100 largest enterprises of the country have 2001 for approximately 50 billion A$ being and service exports furnished and supply thereby a third of the entire export of the country approximately. In the year 2001 the Australian export lay with approximately 154 billion A$ and constitutes thereby over 20 per cent GROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT . Australia forms a foreign trade zone with its neighboring country New Zealand under the designation Closer Economic relation since 1983.
AgricultureGROS DOMESTIC PRODUCT are gained here. About 80% of agricultural production are exported.
Large surfaces of the country serve as pastureland for over 100 million sheep and more than 25 million cattle. Australia is prominently in the production of wool, 29 per cent of the world production comes from here.
Only six per cent of the national surface to the cultivation by food and fodder plants are used. Cultivation of wheat has of it with 45 per cent the largest portion. Apart from the climatically more favoured areas of the southeast most cultivation areas depend on irrigation. Beside wheat with an annual production of over 20 million tons the sugar tubing cultivation with more than 30 million tons plays a large role.
Of Australia wine industry a volume of exports of more than 2.3 billion has AUD. Important cultivation areas are the Barossa Valley in South Australia, Hunter Valley in new South Wales and Victorian Sunraysia in Victoria. To most cultivated grape/cluster sorts are Chardonnay, Shiraz and Cabernet the Sauvignon.
in the history of Australia was the promotion of Bodenschätzen beside the meat and Wollproduktion most important industry. Although in the meantime the manufacturing industry as well as services dominate the economy, the production of coal , iron ore , gold , diamond, uranium, and other minerals is further of great importance. With 282 tons originate twelve per cent of the gold on the world market from Australia. 2002 produced Australian mines 343 million tons of coal as well as 116 million tons iron ore.
for the seventies rises the tourist arising of the country strongly. 2003 visited 4.35 million tourist Australia. Principal purposes of the foreign visitors are national beside Sydney above all the singular natural landscapes like the Great Barrier Reef , Uluru and the Kakadu park.
The generation of current in Australia 80% with coal-fired power stations ensured , the remaining 20% will reach mainly by gas and hydro-electric power plants covered energy production. Due to the high promotion quantities of fossil fuels the country is almost independent of imported goods of these Bodenschätze. There are not atomic power plants in Australia.
Between 1992 and 2000 the portion
of beginning was strongly of the colonial power coined/shaped the culture of the Australian continent. With the developing of its own national identity also a defined national culture of Australia developed. Today it is coined/shaped mixed by the influences of different groups of immigrants, in all ranges with the styles of the indigenen culture of the Aborigines.
oldest certifications of illustrating art in Australia are rock aggravations of the Aborigines, which are partly antedated up to 30,000 years. Thus this represents the oldest culture tradition of the world. With the transition of the original crust painting with natural pigments to work with acryl to canvas the international attention and the reputation of the Aboriginal kind rose since the early seventies of the last century strongly.
Today's work of Australian artists is affected increasingly by art forms of the asiatic neighboring countries. Contemporary art uses beyond that various media, in order to represent above all current topics, like environmental problems or social changes.
major item: Australian literature
the development of its own Australian literature begins only in the middle 19. Century. The poems and Balladen of the early authors, like Henry Lawson or A.B. “Above all the life in the Australian shrubs treats banjo” Paterson. The focus was also later directed inhabitants particularly toward the Australian continent and its.
With the admission of international and social topics after the Second World War the literature of the country was also internationally more strongly considered. Patrick White received as an only Australian the literature Nobelpreis , Australian carriers of the Booker Prize to 1973 is Peter Carey and Thomas Keneally. Most important national honor of the literature scene is the Miles Franklin Award.
see also: Australian writer film
1896 in Sydney the first cinema of the country was already opened. The 1906 of the Australian welfare army turned film Soldiers OF the CROSSes is considered as the first „more genuinly “film of the world. Beginning 20. Century was there one already boom-end film industry. Until into the thirties over 250 silent movies were produced. With the assumption of the selling by British and US-American companies it came however to the crisis of the Australian film production. Nevertheless also further production companies were created, which turned Tonfilme in the thirties particularly to Australian topics. Well-known directors of this time are Ken G. Resound and to Charles Chauvel. Chauvel turned also the first Australian color film, Jedda, a drama particularly occupied with Aborigines.
1969 decided the Australian government a reinforcement of the film promotion. In the following years then films with Australian topic could celebrate international successes. The WAD max - row of George Miller developed in this time, Breaker Morant of Bruce Beresford and Gallipoli of Peter Weir, who leads direction in the meantime also successfully in Hollywood. 1985 became Crocodile Dundee of Paul Hogan surprise success. Internationally well-known actors are Mel Gibson, NIC oils Kidman and Russell Crowe.
Since 1999 the Fox of Studios in Sydney was opened, the production of many Hollywood films is shifted to Australia. Here among other things mission became: Impossible 2 turned as well as the second and third episode the star Wars - series.
classical ensembles with international reputation are the symphony orchestras Sydneys, Melbournes and Tasmaniens as well as the Australian youth orchestra and the Australian chamber orchestra. As a father the composer Alfred Hill is considered to its own Australian art music. The composers Peter Sculthorpe and Geoffroy Parsons transfer influences of the Aborigines and the asiatic neighboring countries to their works also.
Country - music in the US-American style is particularly in rural areas of the southeast likes. The zehntägige Country music festival taking place annually in Tamworth is the central event of this music scene.
A representative of the Australian jazz is Graeme Bell. Internationally admitted of star of the Pop - industry are the Bee Gees, INXS, AC/DC, Midnight oil, Kylie Minogue, Silverchair, The Dissociatives, delta Goodrem and nod Cave. The commercially most successful Australian artist was Slim Dusty. Volume with Aborigine background such as Yothu Yindi or archie Roach try a fusion of traditional indigener music with skirt - elements.
Dance and theatre
the Australian opera with seat in Sydney bring about 300 conceptions annually on the stage. The Koloratursopranistin Joan Suez ago country is considered as a most well-known member of the ensemble. The national ballet - ensemble is that 1961 created Australian ballet in Melbourne. On tours by Australia annually about 185 performances classical and modern Balletts are offered. The ballet is considered to the best world as one. Important Choreographen is Robert Helpmann and Graeme Murphy. Murphy created also the Sydney thanks company, which is prominent in the area of modern dance in Australia.
The Bangarra thanks Theatre and the Aboriginal and Islander thanks Theatre merge traditional dances of the indigenen population and the modern dance.
Classical theatre, in addition, modern productions, are specified of the Sydney Theatre company. The prominent theatre author of Australia is David Williamson, which reproaches among other things the mirror to the Australian middle class in its pieces. In the five halls 1973 opened Sydney Opera House beside concerts and operas also plays and films is demonstrated.
the oldest museum of Australia is that 1827 at the Hyde park in Sydney established Australian museum. It contains extensive nature-historical collections, in addition, collections for the history and culture of the indigenen population. A further nature-historical museum of importance is created the museum Victoria, 1854 in Melbourne, with 12 million copies a comprehensive collection.
Australian art from the colonial beginnings to contemporary artists accommodates the kind Gallery OF new South Wales, built around 1880 in Sydney. Also European and asiatic works rank among the objects of this museum. The Yiribana Gallery attached here is the world-wide largest collection of indigener Australian art.
of Australia media are at the strongest monopolized of the world. Superrealms Rupert Murdoch (NewsCorp) and Kerry packman the TV-market, Murdoch and the fair fax Group the printed media divide (thus both duo poles). The Australian and The Australian Financial Review are the two national newspapers, other daily papers with high edition are The Sydney Morning Herald and The Age (Melbourne). Australian Consolidate press is the largest magazine publishing house of the country. Australia has one of the highest edition numbers for printed media of the world per head. For the Pressefreiheit is responsible the Australian press Council.
The two national broadcasting corporations are the Australian Broadcasting corporation (ABC) and the Special Broadcasting service (SBS). These offer a television program which can be received country-wide in each case beside several radio programs. Additional 53 commercial TV-transmitters are to be received, from it three on national level, Channel 7, 9 and ten.
major item: Sport in Australia
sport is promoted an important part of the Australian culture, by a climate, which favours outdoor activities. 23.5% over fifteen-year Australians are regularly in the organized sport active.
Among the most popular kinds of sport rank three variants Rugby: Rugby League, Rugby union and Australian Rules football. Australian Rules is only a kind of sport spread in Australia, which is played on an oval field. International experiences know the players only in the once a year taking place internationally Rules - tournament to collect, here is played a mixture from Australian Rules and Gaelic football. In addition national and internationally successful the teams are in Cricket and Netball, in addition, in the wheel - and swimming sport outstanding achievements are furnished. Since 1905 one of the four tennis take place - Grand Slam tournaments in Australia: the Australian open in Melbourne.
Australia participated in all modern olympic plays and all Commonwealth Games, was 1956 and 2000 hosts of the olympic summer games and so far three times hosts of the Commonwealth Games (1938, 1962 and 1982). 2006 will take place the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne.
Also television transmissions of sport events are much like, the olympic summer games as well as final plays of local and international football tournaments achieve highest ratingses.
In the last years the football in Australia at enthusiasm wins, not only by the achievements of the national team. Well-known Australian sportsmen are the Sprinterin Cathy Freeman and the float Ian Thorpe.
national holiday is the 26. January (Australia Day), based on that 26. January 1788, the arrival Captain Arthur Phillips and „the roofridge fleet ". With the Deportierung of English convicts the settlement of Australia began by Europeans.
A further important holiday is the ANZAC Day to 25. April. It is the anniversary of the first military action of Australian and troops of New Zealand in the First World War, the landing on Gallipoli 1915.
Also the Melbourne Cup Day is with the population much likes. It takes place on first Tuesday in November and is in the Federal State Victoria an official holiday. The horse running was delivered by the Victoria Turf club the first time 1861.
major item: Australian kitchen
traditional follows the Australian kitchen English eating habits. With the increasing immigration of non-British subpopulations however one of the most varied kitchens of the world developed. Above all courts of the Southeast Asiatic neighbours, in addition, the Greeks, Italians and Lebaneses affected the Australians. Sea fruits represent an important part of the food, with family trips and - activities is the Barbecue must.
The perhaps most well-known typically Australian food is Vegemite, a yeast excerpt, which is usually used as bread upstroke.
of general is considered to Australia as country with very high quality of life, yet some social problems exist. Since the intensified immigration front and Southeast Asiatic Migranten with the end of the White Australia - politics in the 60's came it several times to racistic excesses like the Cronulla Riots in December 2005. In addition comes to today insufficiently solved conflict with the Australian natives, the Aborigines, which were extinguished during colonizing nearly. Nowadays they live to a large extent under social Marginalisierung.
Well-known artists with purchase to Australia
- AC/DC (group of hard skirts)
- to Malcolm Douglas (Tierfilmer)
- Paul Hogan (actor)
- Men RK Work (group of music)
- Steve Irwin (entertainer)
see also: Well-known Australian would list
administration and financing of the Australian education system by the state and the individual Federal States and territories is together regulated. Between the states there are thereby only small differences.
after the one year's attendance of the preparatory school (preparatory year), at the age of approximately six years, follows the six to seven-year-old primary school (primary school). The resuming schools (secondary school) lead after further five to six years to the conclusion. A compulsory schooling exists in most Federal States up to 15. , in Tasmanien up to 16. Lebensjahr. The majority of the pupils, 72.3%, completes however the full 13 years school career (conditions 1999).
There are special advancement programs for pupils of remote areas, which are trained by Fernunterricht. Most well-known example is the Alice jumps School OF the air. In order to raise the state of training pool of broadcasting corporations of the indigenen population, 1989 national the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander was discharged education Policy (AEP). 2000 was formulated again standards and a plan of action for more effective training of the Aborigines.
as the first university of Australia 1850 the University OF Sydney was created. At present Australia has 38 national and 2 private universities, at which approximately 600,000 humans study. At the national universities most study places for inland students are promoted by the government. The entrance to these places depends mainly on the qualification of the students. These do not pay their study fees in advance, over a national program (HECS HELP) credits are granted. A study at private universities is possible only with payment of study fees. Foreign students can notice „overseas student in such a way specified program (OSP) “, however the obligation generally exists for the payment of study fees for foreign students („emergency Australian citizens or Australian permanently residence”).
With the active education politics of the Australian universities meanwhile of an Australian education continent one speaks. The education sector is in the meantime of Australia main source of income in billion height - still before the tourism sector. Studying the Southeast Asiatic Oberschichten in particular accept the Australian educational provisions gladly. The system for the university studies essentially corresponds to the British.
See also: To universities in Australia
|Wikinews: Australia - current messages|
|Wiktionary: Australia - word origin, synonyms and translations|
|Commons: Australia - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- Russell Ward: Australia - A Short History. Ure Smith, Sydney 1979. ISBN 0-72540-473-6
- Albrecht Hagemann: Small history of Australia. C.H. Beck, Munich 2004. ISBN 3-40651-101-5
- Robert Hughes: Australia. Settling the fifth continent. Droemer Knaur, Munich 1992. ISBN 3-42604-866-3
- K. Viedebantt: 30mal Australia. Piper, Munich & Zurich 1987. ISBN 3-492-15126-4
- Johannes H. Voigt: Australia. C.H. Beck, Munich 2000. ISBN 3-40644-783-X
Web on the left of
- further ones left to the topic „Australia “ in the open directory Project
- Website of the Australian government (English)
- land and travel information of the Foreign Office
- detailed Australia portal
- web page of Tourism Australia
- Australia in CIA - The World Factbook (English)
- of main documents for the history of Australia (English)
- photography of Australia (English)
14 oceanic UN member states:
Australia | Fiji | Kiribati | Marshall Islands | Mikronesien | Nauru | New Zealand | Palau | Papua New Guinea | Salomonen | Samoa | Tonga | Tuvalu | Vanuatu
other undisputed States of/special cases:
Cookinseln | Niue
other disputed states:
Hutt River Province
other areas (z. B. Colonies):
American Samoa | Bakerinsel | Tie-clip by clay/tone island | French Polynesien | Guam | Heard and McDonald islands | Hawaii | Howlandinsel | Jarvisinsel | John clay/tone island | Kingmanriff | Kokosinseln | Midwayinseln | Neukaledonien | Northern Marianen | Norfolkinsel | Osterinsel | Palmyra | Pitcairninseln | Tokelau | Wake | Whale-read and Futuna
Antigua and Barbuda | Australia | The Bahamas | Bangladesh | Barbados | Belize | Botswana | Brunei | Dominica | Fiji | The Gambia | Ghana | Grenada | Guyana | India | Jamaica | Cameroon | Canada | Kenya | Kiribati | Lesotho | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Malta | Mauritius | Mozambique | Namibia | Nauru | New Zealand | Nigeria | Pakistan | Papua New Guinea | Salomonen | Zambia | Samoa | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Singapore | Sri Lanka | Pc. Cement and Nevis | Pc. Lucia | Pc. Vincent and the Grenadinen | South Africa | Swaziland | Tanzania | Tonga | Trinidad and Tobago | Tuvalu | Uganda | Vanuatu | United kingdom | Cyprus
Australia | Belgium | Denmark | Germany | Finland | France | Greece | Ireland | Iceland | Italy | Japan | Canada | Luxembourg | Mexico | New Zealand | The Netherlands | Norway | Austria | Poland | Portugal | Sweden | Switzerland | South Korea | Slowakei | Spain | Tschechien | Turkey | Hungary | United States | United Kingdom of
Federal States: New South Wales |
South Australia |
Territories: Australian Capital Territory | Northern Territory
External areas: Ashmore and Cartier islands | Australian Antarctic territory | Heard and McDonald islands | Kokosinseln | Korallenmeerinseln | Norfolkinsel | Macquarieinsel | Weihnachtsinsel
coordinates: 11°-44° S, 113°-154°O
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