Autismus (v. gr. αυτός: even) is a profound development disturbance. Among the profound development disturbances rank apart from the autistischen disturbance strictly speaking (earlychildlike Autismus, also ability he syndrome mentioned), the Asperger syndrome, the saving syndrome, the desintegrative Psychose of the infancy as well as furthercomprehensive development disturbances. Of atypical Autismus one speaks, if not all diagnostic criteria are fulfilled or if the disturbance manifests itself only after the third Lebensjahr.

There is the view that it itself with the different profound development disturbances not around different categories,separate around a continuum of different developments acts. In this sense becomes from the autistischem spectrum and/or. the Autismusspektrumstörung (ASS) spoken. This view is supported among other things because in individual cases transitions occur: It e.g. gives. Children, on those the diagnostic criteria of the Aspergersyndromsapplies, their remarkablenesses in in former times childhood however the diagnosis of the ability he syndrome corresponded.

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term was coined/shaped „Autismus

“the term „Autismus “ 1911 by Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler. It called Autismus a basic symptom of the schizophrenia, the Zurückgezogenheit into the internal thought world of humans gotten sick with schizophrenia.

Leo Kanner (Lit.: Kanner 1943) and Hans Asperger (Lit.: Asperger 1944) took up this term - independent - and designated such a disturbance picture of own kind. In contrast to humans with schizophrenia, which actively withdraw themselves into their inside,described Kanner and Asperger in each case humans, who live from birth in a condition of the internal Zurückgezogenheit. Thus the term was subject „to Autismus “a meaning change. Nowadays the term is used „Autismus “for the designation of the disturbance picture described by Kanner and Asperger.

KannersDescription, which closely seized the term „Autismus “and essentially today to the earlychildlike Autismus so mentioned corresponded, attained international acknowledgment and became the basis of the further Autismusforschung. The publications Aspergers however, which seized the term „Autismus “somewhat differently, became firstinternationally hardly rezipiert, on the one hand because of the Second World War and on the other hand, because Asperger on German published. Only into the 1990er years attained the research Aspergers international admittingness among experts. The English Psychologin Lorna Wing (Lit.: Wing 1981)Aspergers continued and defined the cases of Autismus described by Asperger as Asperger syndrome into the 1980er years the research.

the Autismusspektrum

schematic representation of the Autismusspektrums

the usually following forms of Autismus become in clinical practicedifferentiated:

  1. Earlychildlike Autismus (low functioning)
  2. earlychildlike Autismus (high functioning)
  3. these three types together

the Autismusspektrum (English forms Asperger syndrome (AS). autism spectrum). On the side the earlychildlike Autismus (low functioning) stands, which arises with mental handicap. On the other side at the edgeto “normality” the Asperger syndrome is settled, which usually arises with more normal to above average intelligence.

Both the transitions within the spectrum and the transition from the Asperger syndrome to „normality “possibly are flowing. All conditions within this spectrum are thoseCharacteristics reduced social interaction, reduced communication and repetitive behavior patterns together. Depending upon intensity of development persons concerned are arranged within this spectrum.

distinction of the forms within the spectrum

the earlychildlike Autismus (low functioning) differs from the earlychildlike Autismus(high functioning) by the intelligence level. It lies above a IQs of 70 speaks one of high functioning Autismus. In contrast to the earlychildlike Autismus syndrome general development delay and no development arrears of the language is not present with the Asperger. Atypical Autismus is a collecting category forall persons, who do not fulfill the diagnostic characteristics fully. In some countries like the USA there is not the diagnosis “atypical Autismus” at all.

The differences between earlychildlike Autismus and Asperger syndrome are specified in the following table:

earlychildlike Autismus (HFA and LFA) Asperger syndrome (AS)
first remarkablenesses first life months starting from 3. Lebensjahr
view contact rarely, volatilely rarely, volatilely
language in half of the cases absence of a language development; otherwise language development, at the beginning of often Echolalie , retarded exchanging the Pronomina early development of one grammatically and stylistic highlystanding language, often pedantischer language style, problems when understanding metaphors
intelligence partial mental handicap, partial normal intelligence normal to high intelligence, partial high gift
Motorik no remarkablenesses to attribute those to the Autismus are frequently motor disturbances, awkwardness, co-ordination disturbances

a goodthe essay Is There A Difference Between Asperger's of syndromes and High Functioning Autism offers generally comprehensible overview of thing in common and differences of high-functional Autismus and Asperger syndrome? of Tony Attwood.

organization according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV

Autismus becomes in that ICD-10, the classification system for diseases of the World Health Organization, when profound development disturbance with the key partitions F84 specified and as follows:

  • F84.0: Autismus; also calls: Earlychildlike Autismus, Infantile Psychose, Infantiler Autismus, ability he syndrome, Psychose in the infancy
  • F84.1: atypical Autismus; alsodesignated as: Atypical Psychose in the infancy
    • F84.10: Autismus with atypical illness age
    • F84.11: Autismus with atypical symptomatology
    • F84.12: Autismus with atypical illness age and atypical symptomatology
  • F84.5: Asperger syndrome; also calls: Autisti Psychopathie, Schizophrenes syndrome with the child

some the alternative specified aboveDesignations became outdated to find however this very day in the ICD-10.

The DSM-IV, the US-American classification of psychological disturbances, specifies Autismus as profound development disturbance under the key 299. Two categories are differentiated:

  • 299.00: autistische disturbance
  • 299.80: Asperger syndrome

Atypical Autismus does not occur in the DSM-IV as diagnosis.

diagnostic criteria of earlychildlike Autismus

in the DSM-IV the earlychildlike Autismus is assigned to the profound development disturbances and described by the following diagnostic criteria:

A. At least six criteria must out (1), (2)and (3) apply, whereby at least two points must come out (1) and one point each out (2) and (3):

(1) qualitative impairment of the social interaction in at least two of the following ranges:

  • pronounced impairment in the use of various nonverbaler behaviors as for exampleView contact, face expression, body attitude and gesturing for the controlling of social interactions,
  • inability, would development-in accordance with-eat relations with of the same age ones to construct,
  • lack, spontaneously joy, to divide interests or successes with others (e.g. Lack, other humans of things, which are for the concerning of importance to show toobring or to it to refer),
  • lack of sozio emotional mutuality;

(2) qualitative impairments of communication in at least one of the following ranges:

  • retarded using or complete being missing of the development of spoken language (without the attempt, the impairment by alternative communication forms such as gesturing or Mimikto compensate)
  • to begin or continue with persons with sufficient language ability clear impairment of the ability, a discussion,
  • stereotyped or repetitiver use of the language or idiosynkratische language,
  • absence of different development-in accordance with-eaten games of roles or social imitation plays;

(3) limited, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors,Interests and activities in at least one of the following ranges:

  • comprehensive occupation with one or more stereotyped and limited interests, whereby contents and intensity abnorm are,
  • remarkably rigid holding not-functional habits on determined or rituals,
  • stereotyped and repetitive motor mannersisms (e.g.Bend or fast movements of hands or fingers or complex movements of the whole body),
  • constant occupation with parts of objects.

B. Beginning before the third Lebensjahr and delays or abnorme operability in at least one of the following ranges:

  • social interaction,
  • languageas social means of communication or
  • symbolic or fantasy play.

C. The disturbance cannot be explained better by the saving disturbance or the Desintegrative disturbance in the infancy.

Beyond that ICD-10 calls such as fears, Phobien, sleep disturbances , Essstörungen , rage outbreaks still nonspecific problems, Aggressions and hurting behavior (Automutilation).

social interaction

a qualitative impairment of the social interaction points itself sometimes already in the first life months by missing establishment of contact to parents, in particular to the nut/mother. Many children with earlychildlike Autismus stretchthe nut/mother the arms not against, in order to be raised. They do not smile back, if they are not smiled at and to take to parents an appropriate view contact up. Opposite a strong subject-relatedness, those stands frequently on a certain kind ofArticles is limited. Their attention is directed toward few things, like taps, Türklinken, joints between Steinplatten or cross-hatched paper, which tighten it magically, so that at them goes to everything else past. Often they find to one in articles for other strange purpose,sort for example the individual parts of a toy railway according to size and color, or its only interest in a Spielzeugauto is it to turn the wheels incessantly.


about each second child with earlychildlike Autismus does not develop Lautsprache. With thatthe language development retards others. The development of the Lautsprache been made often by a long phase of the Echolalie, some of the persons concerned do not come out over this phase. In the infancy the Pronomina are often exchanged (per-nominal reversal). They talk aboutOther one than „I “and of itself than „you “or in the third person. This characteristic improves usually in the course of the development. Besides there are often problems with yes/no answers, saying instead by repetition confirms. There are problems alsowith semantics: Word new creations (Neologismen) arise frequently. Some humans with earlychildlike Autismus stick also to certain formulations (Perseveration). The impairment of the pragmatics is most pronounced: In communication with other humans humans with Autismus haveDifficulties to understand saying beyond the exact word meaning to read between the lines. Their voice sounds often monotonous (missing Prosodie).

The problems in communication express themselves in difficult establishment of contact to the external world and to other humans. Some Autistenseem the external world to hardly notice and communicate themselves to their environment in their completely individual kind. Therefore autistische children in former times also shell children or hedgehog children were called. The visual and auditiven perceptions are often clearly more intensive than with neurologically typical humans,therefore a switching off function in the brain seems to fade out the incessant flood of irritations as self protection. Autisten have an individually differently minted need after body contact. On the one hand take up some contact partly direct with completely strange humans inadequate and, on the other hand one also each contact for it can due to the hypersensitivity of their Tastsinns unpleasantly its.

Before this background understanding communication with a Autisten is heavy. Emotions are often wrongly interpreted or are not even understood. These possible problems must be considered and required with the establishment of contact a largeProjecting ability.

Repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns

changes of their environment, like for example changed over furniture or another way to school, worry and disconcert some autistische humans. Sometimes concerning come also into panic, if itself articles no more at theirusual place or in a certain arrangement find, or a unangekündigter attendance or a spontaneous local change brings it completely from the version. The fact that many humans with Autismus have an intensive perception for details and therefore also small changes to notice,aggravates this problem. It can occur that actions - possibly due to the problems in the presence of irregularities - strongly ritualisiert run off.

is considered to diagnostic criteria

Asperger syndrome the Asperger syndrome as light form of the Autismus and manifests themselves off approx. third tofifth Lebensjahr. For the diagnosis the following criteria are usually used after Gillberg & Gillberg (1989 ):

  • Social impairment (extreme Ichbezogenheit)

(at least two of the following characteristics):

  1. Inability, with of the same age ones to interact
  2. desire lacking, with of the same age ones to interact
  3. understanding lacking for social signals
  4. socially and emotional inadequate behavior
  • limited interests

(at least one of the following characteristics):

  1. Exclusion of other activities
  2. repetitives obeying of the activity
  3. more routine than meaning
  • Repetitive routines

(at least one of the following characteristics):

  1. for itself, regarding certain aspects of life
  2. for others
  • Talking and language characteristics

(at least three of the following characteristics):

  1. retarded development
  2. (seen superficial) perfect linguistic expression
  3. formal, pedantische language
  4. strange Prosodie, strange being correct characteristics
  5. impaired understanding including misinterpretations of literal/implied meanings
  • Nonverbale of communication problems

(at least one of the following characteristics)

  1. limited gesturing
  2. clumsy or linkische body language
  3. limited Mimik
  4. inadequate expression
  5. strangely rigid view
  • motor clumsyness
achievement lacking on investigation of the neurological development

although many behaviors the social net of the concerning, in particular the next acquaintance, and the family strongly take up, are it not only negative aspects, as qualify. There are numerous reports over the simultaneous occurrence of above average intelligence or also from - for as normally valid humans incomprehensible - island gifts. Easier cases of AS become colloquial in Englishalso as „Little professor Syndrome “, „Geek of syndromes “or „Nerd of syndromes “designates.

From Aspergia the e offers a good overview of the symptoms of the Asperger syndrome. V. published brochure as becomes the Asperger syndrome apparent? (Lit.: Tibi 2005).

social interaction

the probably most serious problem for humans with AS is the impaired social interaction behavior. Two ranges are impaired: on the one hand the ability to manufacture informal relations with other humans and on the other hand nonverbale communication.

Childrenand usually the desire is missing to young people to manufacture relations with of the same age ones. This desire develops in the Adoleszenz, usually is normally only missing then however the ability in addition.

The impairments within the range of nonverbalen communication concern both an understanding more nonverbalerMessages of other humans and sending own nonverbaler signals.

As particularly problematic the social interaction proves, since humans with Asperger syndrome have outward no obvious signs of a handicap. So even humans can, itself otherwise by tolerancedistinguish opposite their handicapped fellow men, who feel difficulties of humans with Asperger syndrome as conscious provocation. If for instance a person concerned reacts to a question addressed to it only with silence, this is often interpreted as stubbornness and impoliteness.

In the everyday lifethe difficult social interaction becomes variously apparent. Humans with AS can take up or keep badly eye contact with other humans. They avoid body contact, as for instance hand vibrating. They are uncertain, if it concerns to hold conversations with others particularly ifit around a rather inconsequential Smalltalk acts. Social rules, which control others intuitively, understand humans with AS not intuitively, but must them only laboriously acquire itself. Therefore humans with AS have often none or hardly friends. At schoolabout they rather are into tracing for itself, because they can begin with usual handling of other pupils among themselves only little. In instruction they are usually substantially better in the written than in the verbal range. In the trainingand in the occupation the technical range makes usually no difficulties, only the Smalltalk with colleagues or the contact with customers for them. Also telephoning can prepare problems. In the study verbal examinations or lectures can represent large hurdles. There on thatJob market probably within all ranges team ability and contact counts just as much as technical suitability, has humans with AS problems to find at all a suitable place. Many are independent, however they can hardly become generally accepted for problems with customers, about ifa customer does not pay. In a workshop for handicapped humans meanwhile they would be completely under-demanded. Most humans with AS can keep a front upright by high play art outward, so that their problems at first sight not directlyare visible, however with personal contact shine through, approximately in an interview. Humans with AS are considered outward as extremely shy, however that is not the actual problem. Shy humans understand the social rules, dare however not,to use it. Humans with AS would dare it use, do not understand them however and cannot them therefore not use. The Empathie is reduced with humans with AS. Humans with AS can imagine themselves badly into other humans and of themTendencies or feelings from outside signs read off. At all they can read only heavily between the lines and understand non-literal meanings about expressions or idioms. They offend, because they do not understand the nonverbalen signals obvious for other humans. Also can they into dangerous situations turn out, since they outside signs, which point on a forthcoming danger - approximately by force authors -, to not correctly interpret know.

stereotyped behavior patterns and special interests

Repetitive and stereotyped behavior patterns show humans with AS intheir life organization and in their interests. The life of humans with AS is certain by pronounced routines. If they are disturbed in these, they can be substantially impaired. In their interests humans with AS are partly limited to an area, upthat usually an enormous specialized knowledge have it. The extent is unusual, with which they dedicate themselves to their interest area; for other areas than the own are usually only difficult they to inspire. Since humans with AS can think usually well logically,often lie their interest areas in the mathematical-scientific range, in addition, other areas are possible.

atypical Autismus

of atypical Autismus differs from the earlychildlike Autismus by the fact that children get sick after the third Lebensjahr (atypical illness age) or not all symptoms exhibit(atypical symptomatology). If atypical Autismus as well as substantial intelligence reduction arises, sometimes also of „intelligence reduction with autistischen courses “one speaks.

island gift

the interests of Autisten are usually limited to certain areas, however some of them possess on thatArea of their special interest unusual abilities, for example in the mental arithmetic, drawing, in the music or in the memory. One speaks then of an island gift, and which they have, one calls Savants. They cannot dress alone, butknow complete directories as well as encyclopedias by heart like for example Kim Peek, since the film “Rain one “the most well-known under the Savants. About ten per cent of autistischen humans have an island gift.

differential diagnosis

Autisti behaviors knowarise also with other syndromes and diseases. Autismus must be distinguished from these.

Substantial distinction criterion to the schizophrenia are the occurrence of hallucinations and illusion, which do not occur with Autismus.

Of autistischem behavior during psychological hospitalism, child abusing and safe-keeping draw differentiatesitself Autismus by the fact that it arises primarily, thus from birth. The typical behaviors are not released with Autisten by wrong education, love lacking, abusing or safe-keeping draw. During psychological hospitalism, child abusing and safe-keeping draw the autistische behavior disappears to that with improvementoutside circumstances again, whereas Autismus is not welfarable.

During the schizoiden personality disturbance no intelligence reduction arises contrary to atypical and earlychildlike Autismus. A demarcation to the high-functional Autismus and Asperger syndrome can be in individual cases difficult. Here the anamnesis is important.In addition neuropsychological test procedures provide clarity.

With humans with compulsive acts (obsessiv kompulsive disturbance) is normally pronounced the social and able to communicateness. Contrary to humans with compulsive acts Autisten do not experience their routines as against their will forced upon, but they create them security andthey feel with them well.

During the connection disturbance the language ability - differently than with the atypical and earlychildlike Autismus - is intact. A demarcation to the high-functional Autismus and Asperger syndrome can be in individual cases difficult. The anamnesis comes here an importantRole too. Neuropsychological tests are a further basis of a clear differentiation.

The Fragile X-syndrome is released by a genetic defect, which can be proven with appropriate analysis methods clearly and differentiated from the Autismus.

With anorexia nervosa rigide eating habits and social isolation can aufreten, which remind of high-functional Autismus or Asperger syndrome. Substantial distinguisher to the Autismus is that with anorexia nervosa both symptoms arise only temporally limited and disappear after recovery of the cause again.

Komorbide disturbances

as well as Autismus can do different komorbideArise to disturbances. Komorbide disturbances can be:

possible causes of Autismus

one assume today Autismus has genetic causes. Still tointo the sixties of the last century represented thesis, Autismus develop due to the emotional cold weather of the nut/mother (former term of the so-called „refrigerator nut/mother “), by dearless education, allowance lacking or psychological traumata is considered today as disproved.

Genetic factors

with family studies it was stated that there is a family amassment of Autismus. Genetic factors are very probable therefore as a cause for Autismus. Twin investigations made of Europe and the USA show that a eineiiges autistisches twin child with very much largerProbability (zirka 95.7%) a autistischen twin has, as a zweieiiges twin child. From this it could be concluded first that the cause of genetic kind is. Since however not all eineiigen autistischen twin children have a autistischen twin, no generally accepted explanation on genetic leaves itselfBasis find. But after the past realizations from these family and twin investigations is assumed the emergence of the illness to a combination of different specific genes (surely more than two), which during the brain development probably in particular is active is due.

brain damages

different studies resulted in that some humans with Autismus have brain damages. However here the findings are non-uniform and it are also not clear whether the brain damage causes Autismus, whether the Autismus leads to brain changes or whetherthe brain damage only a Korrelat of the event is, by which the Autismus was caused. In particular a malfunction of the left brain half, abnorme changes of the master brain in combination with attention deficit as well as disturbances in the sensory attraction processing were determined. However exists in thisRange still further research need. There are also references on the fact that the mirror neurons are not sufficiently functional with humans with Autismus [1].

biochemical characteristics

in investigations of humans with Autismus were determined characteristics within the biochemical range. Partlyexhibit they increased Dopamine -, adrenalin -, Noradrenalin - and Serotoninspiegel . However the findings are non-uniform in this range and permit no generally accepted conclusions. There is report after those a caseinfreie and glow-free Diät to an improvementthe symptoms contributed.

Accompanied by Berne pool of broadcasting corporations Rimland, PhD (Dustin Hoffman for the film Rain one advised) one worked against in Californien metabolic deviations with autistischen children by the gift of CO enzymes. One assumes that a genetic Prädisposition a crucialRole for the Manifestation of the Autismus has. In addition extreme stress situations come (e.g. Birth stress), which are then regarded quasi as a releasing moment. With remarkably many Autisten disturbances in the metabolism could be proven, which could be affected by CO enzymes. In co-operation alsoa Gastroenterologen (Andrew Wakefield, MD) one came on the idea to set up a special Diät (for everyone individually) which runs out usually on one cheese in and glow-free nutrition. A possible explanation for autistische nature changes is a permeable intestine (intestine permeability). Here that playsReference to Zöliakie a role, thus that the intestine is permeable, (too large) molecules do not come in a chemical composition into the blood like it normally are usual. In the further amplifier off changing it comes to exceeding reactions of the metabolism, similarly howwith allergies. By-products of it are Kaseomorphine and Peptide, which arrive there over the blood in the brain and show a similar effect as drugs.

feeling blindness (mindblindness theory)

Leo Kanner assumed children with Autismus of deficitsin the affektiven contact exhibit, thus their ability to recognize on the basis the body language of other humans their feelings is reduced. This becomes on cognitive deficits (feeling blindness, English.mindblindness) led back. Humans with Autismus have to understand difficulties that humans have different feelings.In addition it was stated that Autisten notice objects and humans in the same brain region contrary to neurologically typical humans.

empathising systemising theory (IT)

the British Autismusfor Simon baron Cohen assumes that Autisten causes, by a high Testosteronspiegel in the nut/mother body,an extremely minted male brain have. In a study with 58 pregnant women women were characterised children, who were exposed in the nut/mother body to a increased Testosteronspiegel, opposite normal children by a smaller, but qualitatively higher vocabulary and a rarer view contact. At the agefrom four years these children were developed socially less. Thereupon developed baron Cohen empathising systemising theory (IT), those means that itself the brain of children, who were exposed in the nut/mother body to a increased Testosteronspiegel toward to an improved ability, sampleto see and systems analyze, developed. This theory also extreme paints called brain theory, since these abilities are usually attributed to male brains.

underconnectivity theory

underconnectivity theory the cause of Autismus in a lack seesin the co-ordination under the different brain ranges. In fMRI - photographs it was stated that with Autisten connections between brain regions are missing. This theory explains, why with Autisten intelligence is unevenly pronounced.

Monotropismus theory

Monotropismus describes the attention tunnel as thosea central cause of the cognitive strengths and weaknesses of autistischer humans. Therefore autistische humans can concentrate tendentious strongly on an interest or an attraction, are however tendentious badly in the multitasking, like it for the understanding itself potenziell fast change more socialSituation is necessary. Attention tunnels are the reason, why humans do not learn from experiences and to generalize, in addition, because they can regard somewhat so intensively that they do not hear, if one addresses them. This theory of Dinah Murray, Mike Lesserand Wendy Lawson was published in May 2005 by the British Autismus organization national Autistic Society in the journal Autism. A German translation of the article is here published. Wendy Lawson writes in its books concerning “Monotropismus”, Donna Williams concerning “mono TRACKs”.

damage by wrong inoculation/vaccines

it emerges again and again rumors, Autismus can by inoculation approximately against Mumps, masers or Röteln be caused. The opinions over it are however extremely split, how one can see at the following quotation: „These reports miss to any scientific basis, e.g. the frequency does not differ from Autismus with inoculated and ungeimpften children. “ (Lit.: Poustka 2004, S. 60).


of earlychildlike Autismus arises with a frequency of 0,5 per cent,whereby the relationship from boys to girls is with 4:1.

To the frequency of atypical Autismus there are no systematic studies.

Over the frequency of the Asperger syndrome there are only rough estimations, whereby itself the numbers in the last years with increasingAdmitting heating degrees of the syndrome increased. Before 1980 bearing usually - often until today - were not recognized. In extreme cases are concerned according to estimations up to 1,5 per cent of the population. Asperger syndrome arises with clearly more men than women,whereby the data of the numerical ratio from 4:1 to 8:1 vary. That may be because of the fact that the Asperger syndrome expresses itself with Mrs. partial more inconspicuously. Possibly women know stronger reference to communication and less playing interaction by more social behavior patterns, imitation and looking plaything,the negative aspects better adjust, by less remarkable characteristics or distortions with remarkablenesses less in feature step or simply a better long-term prognosis have, there them better in the situation are to be learned, how one deals with other humans. Altogether is still some at research and clearing-up work necessarily, in order to be able to determine more appropriate numbers.

red line: Number of the Autismus Neudiagnosen, school years 1992 to 2003 in the USA

the number of the Autismus cases seems to rise in the past decades constantly. One speculates by thatside the fact that for example environmental poisons promoted Autismus or that vaccine additives would play a basic role - nevertheless the thesis recognized among the medical profession and epidemiologists is that

  • earlier first day at school of the children increases the chance that Autismus is discovered; likewise showsthe more frequent attendance of kindergartens
  • parents today more attentively observe themselves whether their children develop normally; in former times one brought a child only then to the physician, if it learned the definition
  • of the Autismus to speak remarkably late were actually widened, thusthat more behavior-remarkable children than autistisch apply
  • in the past Autismus much rather under “childlike schizophrenia “or ADS were arranged

for long-term process

the long-term process of a disturbance from the Autismusspektrum hang of the individual development of the Autismus withindividual patients off. The cause of the Autismus cannot be treated. Possible only a supporting treatment is in individual symptom ranges.

The autistischen syndromes belong after the severely disabled right to the group of the psychological handicaps. After the reference points for the medical consultant activity insocial remuneration right and after the severely disabled right the degree of the handicap amounts to with the light form (e.g. Type Asperger, HFA) 50 to 80, otherwise 100.

With the earlychildlike and atypical Autismus an improvement of the symptom picture remains usually in close borders. About 10-15Per cent of humans with earlychildlike Autismus reach at the adult age an independent Lebensführung. The remainder usually needs an intensive, lifelong support and a protected accommodation.

About the long-term process with the Asperger syndrome there are still no studies. Hans Asperger wentfrom a positive long-term process. (Lit.: Asperger 1944, S. 132f.) usually learn humans with Asperger syndrome in the course of their development to compensate their problems - dependent on the degree of their intellectual abilities more or less well -. ThatAustralian Autismusexperte Tony Attwood compares the development process of humans with Asperger syndrome with the production of a Puzzels. With the time they get the individual parts of the Puzzels together and recognize the whole picture. So they know the puzzle (or mysteries) of theSocial behavior solve. (Lit.: Attwood 2005, S. 224.) Finally humans with Asperger syndrome can reach a status, in which their disturbance in everyday handling is not noticeable any longer.

It exists a set of books concerning autistische humans. The psychologists olive bag and Torey L. Hayden published books concerning their patients with Autismus and their life way. At books, which were written by Autisten themselves, are in particular the works of the US-American Tierwissenschaftlerin Temple Grandin, the Australian authoress and artist Donna Williams, the US-American Erziehungswissenschaftlerin Liane H. Willey and the German writer Axel Brauns admit.

school, training, occupation

which form of the Beschulung for humans with Autismus is suitable, hangs of intelligence, language development and development of the Autismus with the particularoff. If intelligence and language development are normally pronounced, children with Autismus can visit a rule school. Otherwise the attendance of a learning assistance or a special school can be considered.

Regarding training and occupation the individual level of development of the particular must be likewise considered. Are Intelligence and language development normally minted, a regular study or a regular professional training can be completed. Otherwise for instance an activity in a workshop for handicapped humans can be considered. In each case it is for the integration and thatSelf value feeling of autistischer humans very importantly to be able to attend to an activity.

Problematic the entrance can become in the regular working life, since many Autisten cannot fulfill the high social requirements of the today's working sphere. Understanding superiors and colleague are for humans with Autismusessential. Regulated operational sequences and visible social contacts are in addition important.

Which occupation is suitable, depends on the interests and abilities of the particular. Activities within the ranges computer science, administration and library nature can be suitably, likewise archives, sorting, packing or cleaning.

therapy beginnings

on the basis of the individual development profile of the patient an holistic treatment plan are set up, in which the kind of the treatment of individual symptoms and the individual types of treatment are specified are co-ordinated. With children becomes the entire surrounding field (parents, families, kindergarten, school)into the treatment plan included.

A selection of working methods is to be presented in the following briefly. Lit offers a good overview of working methods.: Poustka 2004, S. 52-61. Lit contains resuming information.: White 2002.

behavior therapy

the behavior therapy is into the Autismustherapie the best scientifically secured therapy form. A goal is it to diminish on the one hand disturbing and inadequate behaviors like excessive Stereotypien or (car) aggressive behavior and to develop on the other hand social and kommunikative abilities. In principle with the fact it is proceeded in such a way that desired behaviorconstantly and recognizably one recompences (positive reinforcement). Behavior therapies can be aligned to individual symptoms either holistic or.

The Applied Behavior analysis (ABA) is an holistic aligned therapy form, which was developed into the 1960er von Ivar Lovaas. This therapy formis aligned to the support from early on. First on the basis systematics determined which abilities and functions the child already possesses and which not. Constructing special programs are provided on that, which enable the child to learn the missing functions. Parents becomeinto the therapy included. The procedures of ABA are essentially based on methods of operanten conditioning. Main parts are motivation with correct behavior and deletion with wrong behavior. Learning attempts and - take place as well as desired behavior be strengthened as directly as possible, whereby primaryAmplifier (e.g. Food) and secondary amplifiers (e.g. Toy) to be used, in order to recompence desired behavior. Into the 1980er years ABA was weiterentwicklet by Jack Michael , Mark of Sundberg and James Partington, by also the switching of linguistic abilities (verbal Behavior) one included. There are at present in the Federal Republic of Germany only two institutes, which offer this therapy.

A further holistic therapy program is TEACCH (Treatment and Education OF Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children), itself bothto children and to adults with Autismus addresses. TEACCH is aligned to maximize the quality of life of humans with Autismus and train it to get along in the everyday life.

social authority training

adult Autisten with well minted linguistic andintellectual abilities can train social and kommunikative abilities for example in groups of patients. With social authority training are humans with comparable remarkablenesses together, in order to improve under expert guidance their social authority.

Ergotherapie, Physiotherapie, Logopädie

the Ergotherapie covers relating to crafts, formativeas well as spielerische exercises. Practicing life-practical activities represents an elementary range. A as large Selbstständigkeit and a freedom of action in the everyday life as possible are to be made possible by improvement , re-establishment or compensation of the impaired abilities for the patient.

Motor deficits can be diminished by Physiotherapie.

Language remarkablenesses in volume, clay/tone situation, speed and modulation can be normalized by Logopädie.

medicamentous treatment

the medicamentous treatment can be a component in the total treatment plan. For example with hyperactivity, rage outbreaks, hurting behavior and depressions medicines can provide improvement.However the cause nor the core symptoms of the Autismus can be treated by medicines neither. Isolated from some physicians to the gift of Ritalin one guesses/advises, however here the opinions (like so often) are split, it give statements of with Autismus trustedPhysicians which mean that Ritalin the symptoms of Autismus strengthen can, because it makes the “sensory filter” very permeable with Autismus still more permeable. This characteristic is on it justified that Ritalin is a medicine, that actually given during the attention deficit disturbance (ADHS)will, in order to increase the availability of Dopamine at the synaptic gap. Ritalin would lead according to statement of the physicians with some autistischen children to a further “Überstimmulation”, from which the child anyway already suffers however under Autismus. A medicamentous treatmentwith Autismus is to be made thus only with extreme caution.

supplementing measures

possible one supplementing methods are for instance music therapy, art therapy, Massagetherapie, riding therapy or Delfintherapie. They can increase the quality of life, by them positively on tendency, balance andContact ability influence.

other measures

further one well-known measures are holding therapy, supported communication and DAILY running therapy. These measures „are either extremely disputed and improbable in the context of the treatment of the Autismus or their acceptance and promises became by scientific investigationsessentially disproves. “(Lit.: Poustka 2004, S.

59) The holding therapy was developed 1984 of the US-American Kinderpsychologin Martha what and transferred by Jirina Prekop into German. Starting point with this therapy is the acceptance that the Autismus an emotionalDisturbance is, which is caused by negative influences in the frühsten childhood, so that the child concerned Urvertrauen could not construct. With that very disputed holding therapy is by holding the child the resistance against proximity and body contact broken and so thatUrvertrauen to be later developed. Precariously with the holding therapy „not only those is sometimes extremely dramatically and nearly violent seeming proceeding, but also those the concept more or less underlying thesis that the early Urvertrauen could not be acquired by the child.This is interpreted frequently by parents in the sense of a personal debt at the Sosein of its autistischen child “(Lit.: Remschmidt 2002, S. 80).

During supported communication one becomes from a lautsprachlich communication-impaired person with certain physical assistance of an auxiliary personCommunication assistance (letter board, communication board, computer keyboard among other things) headed for. From individual heading for of letters and punctuation marks a text results. Auxiliary persons are introduced to seminars into supported communication. Criticism at the method of supported communication catches fire from the fact that are not excludedit can that the auxiliary person affects the patient unconsciously and unintentionally, so that finally the auxiliary person and not the patient are author of the text.

The DAILY running therapy was used for the first time 1964 in Japan. From the basic hypothesis it is proceeded that a high fear levelwith humans with Autismus by physical effort to be eliminated can. Physical effort leads to a increased payment of Endorphinen, schmerzlindernd and/or. pain-suppressing (analgetisch) work.

The moreover one there are different biologically justified therapy methods. These „are howeverevidently useless, e.g. the treatment with the intestine hormone Sekretin, with high doses of Vitaminen and minerals or special parliamentary allowance. These measures is to be advised against with reproduction. “(Lit.: Poustka 2004, S. 59)

Auties and Aspies


Developments of Autismus cover a broad spectrum. It is understandable that some humans with a high development of the Autismus wish themselves a healing (not all of them do this). Many adults with more easily development of the Autismus learned, with theirto get along autistischen characteristics. They wish themselves often no healing of their Autismus, but the acceptance by their fellow men. Also they see to Autismus not as something from them separation, but as integrals a component of their personality.

The Australian artist and Kanner Autistin Donna Williamsto this connection Auties introduced the term, which generally refers either particularly to humans with Kanner Autismus or to all humans with a Autismusspektrumstörung. From the US-American Erziehungswissenschaftlerin and Asperger Autistin Liane Holliday Willey the name Aspies for humans comeswith Asperger syndrome. The psychologists Tony Attwood and Carol Gray arrange the discovery of „Aspie” the view of positive characteristics of humans with Asperger syndrome in their essay. The terms Auties and Aspies were transferred by many self-help organizations of humans in the Autismus spectrum.

In order to lend to the desire of many Autisten for acceptance by its fellow men expression, they celebrate since 2005 annually to 18. June the Autistic Pride Day.


there were different conceptions at different times over the emergenceof Autismus. In tsarist Russia about one believed that autistische children had come as particularly religious humans to the world and that these would have decided voluntarily for a life beyond all conventions. From delivered reports one knows that Autisten inRags by the Russian winter ran, without protecting itself against cold weather. They spoke rarely, their behavior appeared strange and them ignored law, order and social rules. One called it therefore „holy fools “and believed that in their behaviorgöttliche messages are coded. (Lit.: Frith 1992, S. 49-51)

acquaintance Autisten

  • smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Borcherds - mathematics professor at the University OF California, Berkeley, which won 1998 the falling DS medal (source: Simon baron Cohen, “from first day on differently”). Smelling pool of broadcasting corporationsBorcherds was 38, when he could be examined on Autismus and Asperger syndrome was diagnosed.
  • Axel Brauns - German writer, Asperger syndrome
  • Dr. Temple Grandin, Tierpsychologin - US-American Spezialistin for the draft of plants for commercial animal husbandry and Dozentin forAnimal sciences. She was diagnosed as a child with earlychildlike Autismus and RH-diagnosed later with the Asperger syndrome.
  • Craig Nicholls - singers, guitarist and Texter the Australian skirt volume The Vines, Asperger syndrome
  • Birger Sellin - German writer, earlychildlike Autismus; LFA
  • Donna Williams -Australian authoress and artist, earlychildlike Autismus; HFA

see also



  • Hans Asperger: „The Autisti Psychopathen “in the infancy. In: Archives for psychiatry and nervous diseases 117 (1944), 73-136. (on-line available)
  • Tony Attwood: Asperger syndrome. As you and their child all chances use. The successful practice manual for parents and therapists.Trias, Stuttgart2005, ISBN 3-8304-3219-4
  • Uta Frith: Autismus. A cognition-psychological puzzle. Spectrum, Heidelberg and others 1992. ISBN of 3-860-25058-2
  • oils Sylvester Jørgensen: Asperger: Syndrome between Autismus and normality. Diagnostics and healing chances. Beltz, Weinheim Basel 2002, ISBN 3-407-22112-6
  • Leo Kanner: Autistic Disturbances OF AffectiveContact. In: Nervous Child 2 (1943), 217-250. (on-line available)
  • DIANE M. Kennedy: The ADHD Autism Connection: A step Towards More Accurate Diagnosis and Effective Treatment. WaterBrook press 2002, ISBN 1-578-56498-0
  • Joan Matthews, James Williams: I particularly am! Autismusand Asperger. The self-help book for children and their parents. Trias, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-89373-668-9
  • Fritz Poustka and. A.: Councellor autistische disturbances. Information for concerning, parents, teachers and educators. Hogrefe, Goettingen and. A., 2004, ISBN 3-801-71633-3
  • Poustka, F. /Bölte, S./Feineis Matthews, S. /Schmötzer, G.:Autisti disturbances, row: Manual child and Jugendpsychotherapie - volume 5 2004, XI/178 S. , ISBN: 3-8017-1632-5, appeared in the Hogrewe publishing house
  • regional association middle Franconia assistance for the autistische child (Hrsg.): Asperger Autisten to understand learn.Internet2004. URL: <>.
  • Helmut Remschmidt: Autismus. Manifestations, causes, assistance. C. H. Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-44747-3
  • Daniel Tibi: How does Asperger thesyndrome become apparent? A short information. Hrsg. v. Aspergia e. V. Kiel 2005.
  • Siegfried walter:Autismus -Appearance, causes and possibilities of treatment, Hrsg: Eric of thing/Heinz Lothar Worm, Persen 2001, ISBN 3-893-58809-4
  • Michaela white: Autismus: Therapies in the comparison. A manual for therapists and parents. Marhold, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-89166-997-6
  • Ingrid Wickelgren: Autistic Brains Out OF Synch? In: Science volume 308 (24. June 2005), S. 1856-1858 (overview of the conditions of the neurological research)
  • Lorna Wing: Asperger's of syndromes: A clinical account. In: Psychol Med. 11 (1981) 115-129 (Abstract on-line available)

empiric reports

  • Axel Brauns: Multicolored shade and bats. Life in another world. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-455-09353-1
  • Gunilla Gerland: Correct humans its. Autismus, the life from the other side. Verl. Free spirit life, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-7725-1667-X
  • Temple Grandin: Throughthe gläserne door. Life report of a Autistin. Dt. Paperback Verl., Munich 1994, ISBN 3-423-30393-X
  • Temple Grandin: I am the anthropologies on Mars. My life as Autistin. Droemer Knaur, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-426-77288-4 (German expenditure of Thinking in Pictures: And OTHER of reportfrom My would run with Autism, ISBN 0-679-77289-8)
  • Temple Grandin, Catherine Johnson: I see the world like a glad animal. As I can bring humans and animals as Autistin each other more near. Ullstein, Munich 2005, ISBN of 3-5500-7622-3
  • jasmines Lee O'Neill: Autismus from the inside. Message from a hidden world. Huber, Berne Goettingen Toronto/Seattle 2001, ISBN 3-456-83536-1
  • Christine price man: ... and that each day Christmas wär': Desires and thoughts of a young woman with Asperger syndrome. Weidler, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-896-93446-5
  • Katja Rohde: I hedgehog child. Messages from a autistischen world. Nymphenburger, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-485-00826-5
  • Susanne shepherds: Stars, apples and round glass. My life with Autismus. Verl. Free spirit life, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-7725-1679-3
  • Birger Sellin: I deserter of a well-behaved Autistenrasse. New messages onthe people of the upper world. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-462-02457-4
  • Birger Sellin: I want to be no more Inmich. Messages from a Autisti dungeon. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-462-02463-9
  • Patricia Stacey: The boy, who loved the windows. ThoseRescue of a autistischen child. Beltz, Weinheim Basel 2004 - ISBN 3-407-85795-0
  • Franz evil field: I can be carried by wild Fantasien. Selfhaven-guesses/advises a autistischen Spastikers. Frieling, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-8280-0503-9
  • Liane Holliday Willey: I am Autistin - however I show itnot. Life with the Asperger syndrome. Herder, Freiburg in mash gau the Basel Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-451-05300-4
  • Donna Williams: I could disappear, if you affect me. Memories of a autistische childhood. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1992 (and further editions), ISBN 3-455-08440-0
  • Donna Williams: If you love me, you stay away from me. A Autistin overcomes its fear of other humans. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1994, ISBN 3-455-08601-2

child and youth literature

  • Laurie Lears, Karen cut: On the way with January. Life alsoa autistischen brother. KiK publishing house, mountain at the Irchel 2000, ISBN 3-906-58137-3
  • Dirk Bracke: I am not from stone. Rex publishing house, Luzern 1998, ISBN 3-725-20678-3
  • Kolet Janssen: My brother is an gale. Anrich, Weinheim 1997, ISBN 3-891-06304-0
  • (English) Marks of Haddon: The Curious IncidentOF the Dog in the Night Time, ISBN 0-099-45025-9
  • Marks of Haddon: Superproperty days or the strange world of the Christopher Boone, Goldmann, ISBN 3-442-46093-X (German version of The Curious Incident OF the Dog in the Night Time)
  • Tito R. Mukhopadhyay: The day, on which I mean voice found. A autistischer boy told, Rowohlt paperback publishing house, ISBN 3-499-61933-4

film and TV


  • Pascale Gmür, Otmar forge: My thinking language. Humans, who cannot talk, findWords. Documentary film for supported communication. 2005. 57 minutes.
  • Expedition in the brain; (DVD, German/English, approx. 156 minutes) three-part science documentation over Savants and Autisten with Savant abilities; Description. Arte and radio Bremen. TR-Verlagsunion, 2006, ISBN 3-8058-3772-0
  • WDR Quarks&Co: “Autismus -if thinking makes lonely "; Transmission date: 25.04.2006, 21,00 o'clock;Begleitinformationen

of motion picture films and series

in the following a list of films and series, in which Autismus occurs, with appropriate indication of the Autisten role in parentheses.

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