Motorway

Autobahn bei Chur, Schweiz
motorway with Chur, Switzerland
Eine Fahrt auf der Autobahn
a travel on the motorway
motorway construction: Building of far of the A7 with feet

a motorway is a trunk road, which serves exclusively the high-speed traffic with motor vehicles. It consists of two carriageways with (in Germany for some decades)at least in each case two driving strips, usually with additional standing tire. Both roadways are separated by a becoming green tire, in which protective planks from steel or a concrete layer wall are established often, from each other.

In the federal highway law (Germany) they are as follows defined:

Federal motorways are federal highways, thoseonly intended for the high-speed traffic with motor vehicles and so put on it is that they are equipped with special connection points freely by elevatorsame crossings and for and departure. They are to have separate roadways for the simplex communication.

Contrary to force routes are Motorways always height-free. The transition of a motorway to another takes place via bridges and underpasses (motorway interchange) or branchings (motorway interchange, in Austria “knot”, and/or. Motorway bypass), transitions to the remaining road system (motorway) connection points are called. Depending uponOne speaks process of the route in some cases of ring motorways or urban motorways. Tunnel and bridges in the course of the motorways, as well as most road bridges over the motorways are parts of the motorways.

At most motorways motorway restaurants and motorway parking lots are arranged,those the en and disposal needs of long-distance traffic and the fact that on motorways a stopping permitted isr, do not carry calculation. These plants are parts of the motorways.

The construction costses in on the average difficult area amount to in Germany approximately six million euro perKilometer (conditions 2005).

To table of contents

European developing and

see also major items to the motorway net special in Germany, Motorways form Austria, Switzerland

,
Croatia European route in most European countries their own road kind, in some countries (for example Sweden) them among the other freeways (for example European routes) are ranked. In the meantime exist in all EuropeanStates - except Malta, Iceland and the dwarf states - motorway sections.

If the motorways are in Germany for the 1970er years usually continuous at least 4-streifig (2 driving strips per driving direction), then there are in other European countries still zweistreifige motorways withoutOverhauling possibility. In Turkey all motorways are at least sechsstreifig.

history

the today's A3 into the 1930er years, here at the exit Duisburg south (today: Duisburg Wedau)

the designation motorway was coined/shaped for the first time by Robert Otzen in the year 1929. Otzenchairman of the motorway project was HaFraBa (motorway project Hamburg - Frankfurt/Main - Basel). Up to then one spoke of only motor road. The first motorway of the world was the AVUS, which was opened 1921. The first longer motorway of the world1923 in Italy were opened (Milan - Como).

The term motorway emerges for the first time 1932. A technical periodical to the HaFraBa had renamed itself at that time in analogy to the railway in motorway.

With the term motorway was however stillno certain standard connected. This developed in Germany only with the building of the realm motorways. The first motorway in Germany, which connected two cities, was opened 1932 between Cologne and Bonn; the crossing-free distance was 20 km long. Today carriesit the designation A 555. However became only to 23. Septembers 1933 with the large-scale development of the realm motorways begun, as part of the provision of work of Adolf Hitler, against the wide-spread opinion did not serve them however the war preparation.The planning of these motorways had begun however for a long time before Hitler's seizure of power, why it does not correspond to the facts that the motorways are to be owed above all to its efforts. Ironically became the building of motorways of the NSDAP before the seizure of power in Reichstag prevents.

(German) sign to the a2
building site on A 9, Germany

the responsibility for the building was incumbent on the general inspector for German roads Dr. Fritz Todt, the landscape architect Professor. Alwin Seiffert and the architect Professor. Paul Bonatz.

marking

(D, A)
(CH)

not all states use the motorway symbol. Occasionally there is also no distinction between motorway, force route and these structurally similar roads as in Germany and in many other states of Europe.Due to uniform marking and definition lacking the indication of the world-wide existing motorway kilometers is not possible.

speed

of speed limit in Germany
in most European countries applies on motorways a speed limit between 110 and 130 km/h, as well as a design-conditionedMinimum speed between 45 and 80 km/h for vehicles, which would like to use the motorway. Only in Germany no fundamental speed limit on motorways applies; this means that speed limits are to be marked expressly by sign-posting. In all other respects is the speed the flow of traffic andto adapt and it can be appropriate for road conditions (for example snow or fog) also lower.

Not only due to the minimum speed holding, turns, backing up on the motorway is generally forbidden, as well as the up and driving off on to characterized places. Exceptions to the retaining prohibitionform the motorway parking lots and motorway restaurants.

security

killing per 1 billion Fz·km 1
year 2003 other one Motorway motorway Maximum
country motorway roads AADT (Verkehr%) speed limit in the year 2003 (kmh)
Denmark 3.0 11.9 29 454 25% 130
Finland 1.4 ,8.3 22 780 10% 120
France 4.0 12.8 31 979 21% 130
Germany 3.8 12.4 48 710 31% 130 recommended speed
Ireland 7.4 11.0 26 730 4% 120
Japan 4.0 11.9 26 152 9% The 100
Netherlands 2.1 11.7 66 734 41% 120
Austria 5.9 13.4 30 077 23% 130
Slowakei 8.1 18.7 15 643 19% 130
Sweden 2.5 ,9.9 24 183 21% 110 (120 on E6 in the year 2005)
Switzerland 2.8 11.8 43 641 33% 120
Tschechien 9.9 34.3 25 714 11% 130
united Kingdom of 2.0 ,9.3 85 536 23% the 110
USA 5.2 10.7 39 634 24% 120

source: Internationally Road Traffic andAccident DATA cousin (IRTAD), selected risk sizes in the year 2003 and selected base factors in the year 2003 Federal Institution for roads. Traffic = killing per 1 billion Fz·km/killing; AADT = traffic/net length.

1 basis for the traffic dead numbers is the 30-Tage-Erfassungszeitraum.The indicated numbers are only with consideration of the recording methods determining for the countries comparably, thus Korrektur-Faktoren to be used. The period between accident and dead of the person is very important, since it is relevant for it whether it in the statisticsone seizes or not. These periods vary from country to country.

to duty

see also major item duty

in many countries must one for the motorway use a use fee pay. This can time-dependently in form of a Vignette as in that Switzerland or in Austria or stretch-dependently by paying at duty posts as in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and some mountain distances in Austria happen.

In Austria 1 applies to truck since that. January 2004 a duty, over the one which can be carried GO-boxes and along the motorway installed infrared - system one accounts for. Around a duty escape constantly driving bans for truck on parallel running roads will prevent imposed.

In Germany only 1 applies since that. January 2005 a truck duty, either onAutomat over there suit-even travel routes in advance or over inserted duty devices (on on-board units:OBU, OBU2 is satellite-based automated raised ). There was tried to go around this duty over federal highways become since that 1. January 2006 gradually also avoiding straining e.g. overparallel running federal highways duty requiring. The collection takes place over madly Collect.

Further some traffic projects were realized privately, which do not lie directly in the motorway net, but to it attach: The Warnowtunnel in the extension of A 19 in Rostock and that Gentleman tunnel at A 226 in Luebeck. There duty is raised and considered on the basis these projects to introduce a duty for some new building distances. This considers z. Time. (2005) the senate the port transverse clip planned of Hamburg for, a motorway, throughthe port running the motorways A 1 and A 7 to connect is.

lighting

motorway exit in Germany
as a rule motorways are lit up at night only in the course of some sections in the city, with delicate in and exits as well as with crossings. The moreover motorway tunnels become, as lights up other road tunnel usually. There are however some countries such as Belgium, Luxembourg, united Arab emirates or Turkey, where most motorways are lit up at night.

In the course of the energy conservation becomes howeveralso adjusted into some these countries the lighting gradually.

military meaning

apart from the meaning for the troop transport some motorway sections can be converted also within a short time into military airfields (motorway emergency landing field).

See also

Web on the left of

Commons: Motorway - pictures, videos and/orAudio files
Wiktionary: Motorway - word origin, synonyms and translations
 

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