a motorway is a trunk road, which serves exclusively the high-speed traffic with motor vehicles. It consists of two carriageways with (in Germany for some decades)at least in each case two driving strips, usually with additional standing tire. Both roadways are separated by a becoming green tire, in which protective planks from steel or a concrete layer wall are established often, from each other.
In the federal highway law (Germany) they are as follows defined:
- Federal motorways are federal highways, thoseonly intended for the high-speed traffic with motor vehicles and so put on it is that they are equipped with special connection points freely by elevatorsame crossings and for and departure. They are to have separate roadways for the simplex communication.
Contrary to force routes are Motorways always height-free. The transition of a motorway to another takes place via bridges and underpasses (motorway interchange) or branchings (motorway interchange, in Austria “knot”, and/or. Motorway bypass), transitions to the remaining road system (motorway) connection points are called. Depending uponOne speaks process of the route in some cases of ring motorways or urban motorways. Tunnel and bridges in the course of the motorways, as well as most road bridges over the motorways are parts of the motorways.
At most motorways motorway restaurants and motorway parking lots are arranged,those the en and disposal needs of long-distance traffic and the fact that on motorways a stopping permitted isr, do not carry calculation. These plants are parts of the motorways.
The construction costses in on the average difficult area amount to in Germany approximately six million euro perKilometer (conditions 2005).
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European developing and
If the motorways are in Germany for the 1970er years usually continuous at least 4-streifig (2 driving strips per driving direction), then there are in other European countries still zweistreifige motorways withoutOverhauling possibility. In Turkey all motorways are at least sechsstreifig.
the designation motorway was coined/shaped for the first time by Robert Otzen in the year 1929. Otzenchairman of the motorway project was HaFraBa (motorway project Hamburg - Frankfurt/Main - Basel). Up to then one spoke of only motor road. The first motorway of the world was the AVUS, which was opened 1921. The first longer motorway of the world1923 in Italy were opened (Milan - Como).
The term motorway emerges for the first time 1932. A technical periodical to the HaFraBa had renamed itself at that time in analogy to the railway in motorway.
With the term motorway was however stillno certain standard connected. This developed in Germany only with the building of the realm motorways. The first motorway in Germany, which connected two cities, was opened 1932 between Cologne and Bonn; the crossing-free distance was 20 km long. Today carriesit the designation A 555. However became only to 23. Septembers 1933 with the large-scale development of the realm motorways begun, as part of the provision of work of Adolf Hitler, against the wide-spread opinion did not serve them however the war preparation.The planning of these motorways had begun however for a long time before Hitler's seizure of power, why it does not correspond to the facts that the motorways are to be owed above all to its efforts. Ironically became the building of motorways of the NSDAP before the seizure of power in Reichstag prevents.
not all states use the motorway symbol. Occasionally there is also no distinction between motorway, force route and these structurally similar roads as in Germany and in many other states of Europe.Due to uniform marking and definition lacking the indication of the world-wide existing motorway kilometers is not possible.
Not only due to the minimum speed holding, turns, backing up on the motorway is generally forbidden, as well as the up and driving off on to characterized places. Exceptions to the retaining prohibitionform the motorway parking lots and motorway restaurants.
|killing per 1 billion Fz·km 1|
|year 2003||other one||Motorway||motorway||Maximum|
|country||motorway||roads||AADT||(Verkehr%)||speed limit in the year 2003 (kmh)|
|Germany||3.8||12.4||48 710||31%||130 recommended speed|
|Japan||4.0||11.9||26 152||9%||The 100|
|Sweden||2.5||,9.9||24 183||21%||110 (120 on E6 in the year 2005)|
|united Kingdom of||2.0||,9.3||85 536||23%||the 110|
source: Internationally Road Traffic andAccident DATA cousin (IRTAD), selected risk sizes in the year 2003 and selected base factors in the year 2003 Federal Institution for roads. Traffic = killing per 1 billion Fz·km/killing; AADT = traffic/net length.
1 basis for the traffic dead numbers is the 30-Tage-Erfassungszeitraum.The indicated numbers are only with consideration of the recording methods determining for the countries comparably, thus Korrektur-Faktoren to be used. The period between accident and dead of the person is very important, since it is relevant for it whether it in the statisticsone seizes or not. These periods vary from country to country.
see also major item duty
in many countries must one for the motorway use a use fee pay. This can time-dependently in form of a Vignette as in that Switzerland or in Austria or stretch-dependently by paying at duty posts as in Italy, France, Spain, Portugal and some mountain distances in Austria happen.
In Austria 1 applies to truck since that. January 2004 a duty, over the one which can be carried GO-boxes and along the motorway installed infrared - system one accounts for. Around a duty escape constantly driving bans for truck on parallel running roads will prevent imposed.
In Germany only 1 applies since that. January 2005 a truck duty, either onAutomat over there suit-even travel routes in advance or over inserted duty devices (on on-board units:OBU, OBU2 is satellite-based automated raised ). There was tried to go around this duty over federal highways become since that 1. January 2006 gradually also avoiding straining e.g. overparallel running federal highways duty requiring. The collection takes place over madly Collect.
Further some traffic projects were realized privately, which do not lie directly in the motorway net, but to it attach: The Warnowtunnel in the extension of A 19 in Rostock and that Gentleman tunnel at A 226 in Luebeck. There duty is raised and considered on the basis these projects to introduce a duty for some new building distances. This considers z. Time. (2005) the senate the port transverse clip planned of Hamburg for, a motorway, throughthe port running the motorways A 1 and A 7 to connect is.
In the course of the energy conservation becomes howeveralso adjusted into some these countries the lighting gradually.
apart from the meaning for the troop transport some motorway sections can be converted also within a short time into military airfields (motorway emergency landing field).
- list of the motorways in Belgium
- list of the motorways in Bulgaria
- list of the motorways in Germany
- list of the motorways in France
- list of the motorways in Greece
- list of the motorways in Great Britain
- list of the motorways in Italy
- list of the motorwaysin Croatia
- motorways in the Netherlands
- list of the motorways and motorways in Austria
- list of the motorways in Poland
- list of the motorways in Romania
- list of the motorways in Sweden
- list of the motorways in Switzerland
- list of the motorways in Serbia
- listthe motorways in Spain
- list of the motorways in Tschechien
- list of the motorways in Turkey
- list of the motorways in Hungary
- list of US-American Highways
- motor road (motorway-similar motorway)
- motorway tunnel
- motorway bridge
- topic list road construction
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