Automation

automation is:

  1. the transmission of work of humans on automats, usually by technical progress, realized by machines.
  2. the summary of recurring sequences of functions in the electronic data processing to macros or new program functions, for example in thatText processing, in the treatment of pictures or in geographical information systems. Exactly the same with the unsupervised installation the configuration process is automated.

See also: To programming, EDP

table of contents

history

windmills on Mykonos

the beginnings of automation are nearly as probably old as mankind:

Loom around 1568

where always humans recognized that it could use energies of nature such as water power or workhorses, invented itappropriate devices and technologies (plow, wheel, water wheel, mill), in order to facilitate themselves and make more productive the work. The loom existed already in the Neolithikum, windmills already is with the Sumerern (3500 before Chr.).

Retaining the knowledge of the antique ones and the transfer of knowledge from the Arab area (mathematics) made a new bloom possible of the sciences in the Renaissance like physics. With progress in the mechanics and new propulsion technologies howthe steam engine (18. Century) drew the age of the industrialization up.

Now could Kraft of the machine, later the engine be used, in order to achieve work. Animal and human Kraft became replaceable. Mass production in factories became possible.

The first chess automat of 1769 proved however - still - as swindle.

The discovery of the electricity and the inventions of electro-technology (19. Century) made the decentralization of production, it became possible, for energy possible over far distances toodispatch. First attempts were undertaken, electricity for measuring to use taxes and rules.

Inschrift auf dem Weberhaus in Augsburg
Workers mechanical looms destroyed inscription on

the weber house in Augsburg with the so-called weber rebellion, them the work removals (Maschinenstürmer).

The Taylorismus successfully tries, a rational andefficient production way to establish (assembly-line production), and changed the working sphere and the role of work. The efficiency of the work always continues to rise. Also for the private household now household appliances are available , the before times laborious manual work like automatically to settle are.

In 20. Century is then set microelectronics and the computer a technical movement by electronics, on, those finally for digitization (digital revolution), to robots, fully automatic production roads or techniques like the pattern recognition in that artificial intelligence leads.

many goods are manufactured today in deserted factories, the role of humans thereby are ever more rather characterized by Design and marketing of the product or conception and monitoring of the production engineering than by production relating to crafts of artifacts.

Humans appear in a world, in which many of its past tasks and abilities can be taken over and exercised by machines, it must realise that he is partly replaceable and deliberates themselves upon that, which himof the machine differentiates (see also knowledge company).


quotation

if each tools on go-eat, or also ahead-suspecting, which could perform it coming work, like Daedalus's works of art itself automatically the moved or dreifüsse of the Hephästos outto eignem drive to the holy work went, if so the Weberschiffe wove automatically, then would require neither for the foreman the assistants nor for the gentlemen of the slaves. - Aristoteles, politics, 1253b

literature

  • pure hard long man: Paperback of automation, Hanser technical book publishing house, 2003
  • Jeremy Rifkin: The end of the work and its future, Campus publishing house, 2004

see circuit

Integrierter Schaltkreis
technology,

Web on the left of


automation with humans

a central characteristic of all well controlled complex talents of humans is thoselarge automation of the which are the basis subfunctions. That is clarified by the example of the acquisition of the read ability: So that a reader can dedicate itself fully to the actual sense of reading, i.e. the meaning withdrawal, all underlying tasks, which create for it the conditions, must as it wererun off in the background, without conscious data processing capacity must be directed in the form of attention toward it.

On lowest level, for example decoding Graphemen stands for the Low level functions in the visual range. If already this stage of the read perception not, absorbs it is automated the attention, so that the capacities for the actual task of reading, which meaning withdrawal, any longer are not sufficient. This loss in efficiency affects naturally the speed of operation, with which a text is crossed, and becomesat least in an acceptance of the read liquid make noticeable.

Two American scientists named Shiffrin and cutters already published 1977 the accompanying well understandable confrontation of controlled and automated data processing. This model serves after Warnke® also as explanation for the fact thatPupils with Dyslexie development arrears exhibit determined automations, which are agefairly developed with other pupils. They must fall back thus during their data processing more frequently than crediting to cognitive, conscious operational sequence.

 

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