Autonomous Pfalz

with autonomous Pfalz is designated the attempts to establish after the First World War in the area of the linksrheinischen Pfalz an autonomous state independent of Bavaria. During the time of French occupation after the First World War strong separatist tendencies developed first with the goal of their own state in the federation of the German Reich, later also for the creation of a state independent leaned against France of the realm.

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Pfälzi Republic of

Eberhard Haass

already in the autumn 1918 created the chemist Eberhard Haass in Landauthe federation free Pfalz “. Haass was supported by the French general Gérard. In May 1919 Haass requested the head of the provincial government of the Pfalz, Theodor of winter stone, to take over the guidance of the separatist movement. Since this refused itself, it was expelled from the crew authorities the Pfalz. Thereupon Haass at the 1 called. June 1919 „the Pfälzi republic “ out and tried, however in vain, to occupy the district administration in Speyer. The time for the Putsch was extremely unfavorably selected, because for the same day one of the crew authorities approved demonstration for the whereabouts was set with Bavaria in Speyer, in which more than 10,000 humans participated. Haass with the recall general Gérards a little later lost its most important supporter, „the federation free Pfalz “ thereby had failed.

to fight

and the connection to the pfälzischen administration hold, the Bavarian government the central office for pfälzische affairs and the main auxiliary place for the Pfalz , which had their seat both first in Mannheim and later in Heidelberg , created reactions Bayerns around the separatism and so that scarcely were settled outside of the French crew area. Both mechanisms took over also a part of the tasks of the legitimate pfälzischen government, task of core was however the defense of the pfälzischen separatism by pressing and propaganda publications, by the establishment of contact to pfälzischen personalities and mechanisms and also by collection of intelligence information. At the same time at the Bavarian government of the posts of a state commissioner for the Pfalz one created. First office holder was from winter stone.

autonomous Pfalz


the French occupation of the Ruhr district after the second Londoner conference (1921) and the economic problems resulted from it (in particular the inflation) stood at the beginning of the second phase of the pfälzischen separatism.

Johannes Hoffmann

in October 1923 were it first some pfälzische Social Democrats under Johannes Hoffmann, which - general supports de Metz by the commander of French crew power, - wanted to create an independent pfälzischen state in the federation of the German Reich, to it at the resistance of authorities and parties - refused themselves above all of Hoffmann Social Democrats to a shoulder conclusion - failed.

Franz Josef Heinz (Heinz Orbis)

in contrast to it pursued Franz Josef Heinz (Heinz Orbis) substantially more radical goals: the creation of a state independent leaned against France of the realm. With the help of its „Pfälzi Corps' “he attained 6 between that. and 10. October 1923 control of the pfälzischen cities Kaiserslautern, new city to the Haardt and Landau. After the surrender of the pfälzischen government and the Kreistages Heinz called to 12. November 1923 in Speyer the autonomous Pfalz in the federation of the Rheini republic out. In the next weeks to the separatists ever more pfälzische cities, so for instance Edenkoben were assigned at the night 18. November.

To 9. January 1924 Heinz and its closest Gefolgsleute in the Speyerer hotel Wittelsbacher yard were murdered by member of the federation Wiking under Edgar Julius young. This meant the end of the separatists, which were popular never in the population because of their strong penetration with criminal ones and due to financial problems and the fact that the civil servants did not extract the obedience from the Bavarian government, never under its actual control it could get the administration.

storm on the Pirmasenser office for district

the point of conclusion for the autonomous Pfalz became with - favoured of the French troops by initial Nichteingreifen - the storm on the Pirmasenser office for district to 12. February 1924 set. All sixteen in - before the conquest in fire put - the office for district present separatists, which had answered the demand of a crowd after re-establishment of the Pressefreiheit with shots and hand grenades, fell with the conquest of the house or afterwards were lynched, among the aggressors gave it six dead ones and twelve severely woundeds person.

end „of the autonomous Pfalz “

political was already before to a large extent clarified the end „of the autonomous Pfalz “. The relationship between the German Reich and France had itself at the beginning of of 1924 with the conclusion of the MICUM agreements improved, at the same time set the British government clearly in January 1924 France by the delegation of a commission of inquiry into the Pfalz under pressure. On the report of this commission Great Britain reached the installation of a committee of inquiry of the inter+allied Rhine land commission, of 14. to 16. February with the circle committee of the Pfalz the Speyerer agreement negotiated. In the present agreement the departure of the separatists and the transition of the administration to (Bavarian) the circle government were regulated.


  • Gerhard of graves, Matthias Spindler: Gun republic on the Rhine. The Pfalz and their separatists. Pfälzi publishing house, Landau/Pfalz 1992, ISBN 3-87629-164-X
  • Gerhard of graves, Matthias Spindler: The Pfalzbefreier: People anger and government authority in the armed fight against the pfälzischen separatism 1923/24. Per Message, Ludwigshafen/Rhine 2005, ISBN 3-934845-24-X
  • Günter Zerfass (Hrsg.): The Pfalz under French crew from 1918 to 1930: kalendarische representation of the events of the invasion in November 1918 up to evacuation at the 1. July 1930. Bublies, Koblenz 1996, ISBN 3-926584-35-1

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