Awaren

of these articles is occupied with the historical rider people. For the today's people in the Caucasus see Awaren (Caucasus).

The Awaren (also Avaren) had been not yet sufficiently investigated an centralasiatic rider people, for its ethnical and linguistic originis. It controlled approximately 218 years in the early Middle Ages long of Central Europe history.

Is considered

Web on the left of [works on

] origin

of the Awaren

Awaren head the Awaren usually as per-ton-Mongolian and/or per-ton-Turkish master group, whereby oneclear ethnical-linguistic allocation is not possible. According to the Chinese historical book Liang shu were „were temporary “Vasallen and/or member of the per-ton-Mongolian Rouran. Partly in Chinese writings in addition, of a indogermanischen relationship of the Awaren one speaks. Names delivered ustheir Khagane are anyhow predominantly old-Turkish origin. Further also a finno ugrische origin of the Awaren is considered.

Possibly the Awaren - exactly the same as the Hunnen - practiced the deformation of the head (Makrokephalie), serving for the Zierde.

Work on []

History

after Chinese chronicles are those was a branch of the indoeuropäischen emigrated from the Tarimbecken to Afghanistan Yüe tschi to have been original. Soon after a defeat against the northern Wei they dipped dynasty 463 as new group at the black seaup, „and Hunni was “(possibly. a reference to remainders of the rider people of the Hunnen) called. The Awaren was in the future also a prominent branch of the Hephthaliten and had its domicile probably at the Aral Sea. With them actsit itself thus around a mixing people, who had ancestors both in the steppes of central Asia and in Europe.

After 555 the Awaren under the pressure of the Göktürken pulled to the west and became 558 Föderaten of the Byzantine realm. Around 560if they defeated the Hunno Bulgaren at the black sea, however they continued to pull pursuing Göktürken because of that. Together with the Langobarden they destroyed 567 the realm of the Gepiden, which were in the later filter defiency guarantee.

Center 6. Century had they thoseRule over Pannonien and established themselves particularly in the Karpatenbecken. Already early a common settlement as well as the Slawen took place , like among other things Grave finds from Hennersdorf/Vienna show. They mixed themselves in addition, with in the Hungarian lowlandses the remained Black Hunnen, which were still most similar in its language, culture and way of life.

End 6. Century reached their sphere of influence from the Baltic Sea to the Volga. Under their ruler Bajan represented it a great power, which afford itcould to demand from the Byzantine realm tribute. Together with the Slawen subjected by them the Awaren between 551 and 627 several times Konstantinopel and Thessaloniki besieged, last with the help of the Persian Sassaniden.

Up to the end 8. Century controlledthey completely Pannonien as well as the today's Kärnten (Karantanien), Slovenia and Croatia, saw themselves however to increasing attacks of Bulgaren, Croats and other Slawen suspended. The Awaren gave cause for the establishment eastern border Mark (Ostarrichi), because it Karl the large one around 800 arranged to furnish for the protection of the realm borders a Awarenmark ( later marchia orientalis mentioned). The alleged war desire and Aggresivität of the Awaren at present of the Karl's large one are to be occupied by the sources not clearly. New researchassumes the time of the war courses was terminated around 800 long. The treasures of the Awaren described by a hard would therefore come out long past times. Should if this thesis, which is supported by archaeological findings, apply, then Karl would havea relatively peaceful people of established farmers attack and almost extinguished. But also the fact speaks that a hard in its reports vita karoli magni of the slight resistance with Karl Awarenzügen.

In the campaigns between 791 and 803 that struckFrankish king (and starting from 800 emperors) Karl I. the Awaren destroying. The Awaren lost now the contact with the remaining steppe peoples and became slowly established.

The people of the Awaren came up partially in some südslawischen peoples. For this it givespossibly genetic vouchers. Thus molecular-genetic investigations showed at Y-Chromosomen in the Croatian population for humans of the island Hvar characteristics, which refer to an centralasiatic descent.

In the name Banat hides itself awarische prince title “BAN” to that, originally from the Persian one coming, (afterBajan Khagan, the famous army leader), that turned into later than Banus to the Croats.

There not related to the Awaren discussed in this paragraph the Caucasus people of the same name is in the Russian partial republic Dagestan, that as Awaren and/or. more precisely than new Awaren one designates.

Possibly the name of the Awaren is in the name of the Bajuwaren (Boii Avarii).

literature

  • Pohl, walter: The Awaren, a steppe people in Central Europe 567-822 n.Chr. Munich 2002. - ISBN 3-406-48969-9,(Publication to the earlymedieval Awaren from the view one of the most outstanding historians in this area. Standard work!)
  • Lovorka Bara, Marijana Perii, Irena Martinovi Klari, Siiri Rootsi, Branka Janiijevi, Toomas Kivisild, Jüri Parik, Igor Rudan, smelling pool of broadcasting corporations Villems and Pavao Rudan: Y chromosomalheritage OF Croatian population and its Iceland isolates, European journal OF human Genetics (2003) 11, 535-542. (Medical study to gene comparisons, judged by specialists rather critically)
  • Sinor, Denis: The Cambridge History OF Early internal Asia.Cambridge 1990. (Publication to reiternomadischen peoples inMittel-und inside Asia, recommendable)
  • Szentpéteri, József (Hrsg.): Archaeological monuments of the Awarenzeit in Central Europe. Varia archaeologica Hungarica 13. Budapest 2002. - ISBN 9-63739-178-9, ISBN 9-63739-179-7 (encyclopedia-well-behaved, kryptisch short compilation rope that archaeological awarenzeitlicher earlymedieval discovery sites, usually grave fields, importantly as bibliography)
  • Breuer, Eric: Byzanz at the Danube. An introduction to chronology and find material to the archaeology in the early Middle Ages in middle Danube the area. Tettnang, 2005. - ISBN 3-88812-198-1 (new standard chronology to the awarischen archaeology, standard work)
  • the Awaren at the edge of the Byzantine world. Studies to diplomacy, tradeand transfer of technology in the early Middle Ages. Innsbruck 2000. - ISBN 3-70300-349-9 (anthology with short essays of different authors too geographically, formenkundlichen connections, in particular Byzantine influence; very worth reading!)
  • Rider peoples from the east. Hunnen + Awaren. Burgenländi national exhibition 1996, lock half turn.Iron city 1996. (Ausstellungskat. witha round envelope to all archaeological ranges of topics, particularly for laymen as entrance recommendable)
  • Web left: Studies for the archaeology of the Awaren (1984 FF.) and numerous further publications of Falko Daim

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)