Ayyubiden

Ayyubiden were a Kurdish dynasty in Egypt of 1171 - 1252.

With the fall of the Fatimiden in Egypt intensified attacks of the cross drivers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem began. Against these the Fatimiden called the Zengiden to the assistance, whom controlled Syria. These troops sent under Sirkuh to Egypt, which could be appointed the Wesir. After his death its nephew Saladin became 1169 Wesir. It eliminated the dynasty of the Shiiteismailitischen Fatimiden (1171) and justified the kurdischstämmige dynasty of the Ayyubiden.

Under Saladin (1171 - 1193) Egypt becamereorganized and the economy by the promotion of agriculture and trade further strengthened, in order to be able to drive the cross drivers out from Jerusalem and Palestine. Until 1181 the rule over Syria, Obermesopotamien, was expanded Yemen and Nubien so that Saladin up to Bagdad the ArabHeartlands governed. After strengthening the rule Saladin defeated the cross drivers to 4. July 1187 in the battle with Hattin with Tiberias crucially and conquered Jerusalem. In the following 3. The cross drivers could partly back-conquer crusade the coastal towns (e.g. Akkon), but could a renewed lossby Jerusalem to be prevented.

Since Saladin before its death divided the realm, it came itself first to struggles for power, with the aluminium-Adil I. (1200 - 1218) against aluminium-Malik (1193 - 1200) to intersperse could. Also aluminium-Adil divided the realm before its death,but successor could be aluminium-Kamil (1218 - 1238) the attack of cross drivers on Egypt to repel and the 5. Crusade (1228 - 1229) under emperors Friedrich II. by negotiations, with which the fastened Jerusalem was retired, to terminate. Briefly before his death could aluminium-Kamil also in Syria intersperse themselves.

After the outbreak of dynastischer struggles for power it succeeded to combine asch Schalih (1240 - 1249) the Ayyubidenreich again, even if north Syria, Obermesopotamien and Yemen were finally lost. Likewise Jerusalem was finally conquered and the cross drivers was driven out.

As during6. Crusade (1249 - 1254) again Egypt was attacked, fell the last Ayyubide Thuran Schah of a conspiracy of the Turkish Mamelucken in the army to the victim as it their influence to limit wanted. Until 1257 now harming crowd ad-Dur led the government as Regentin, whereby itthe Mameluckenführer Aybak married. This rose as aluminium-Malik aluminium-Muizz 1252 to the Sultan, terminated the dynasty of the Ayyubiden in Egypt and justified the Mameluckenreich (1252 - 1517).

Collateral lines of the Ayyubiden still prevailed in Damascus and Aleppo until 1260, in Homs to 1262 and in Hama until 1341. Besides there were also still ayyubidische rulers in Hasankeyf in today's Batman /T ürkei.

Contrary to the Fatimiden and the following Mamelucken the Ayyubiden did not govern a central state. Rather the sons of the ruler and other side branches of the dynasty becamein the administration of the realm takes part. This led however after the death of a ruler again and again to fights for the unit of the total realm.

rulers of the Ayyubiden

rulers in Egypt

rulers in Damascus

Emire in Aleppo

Emire in Hamah

Emire in Homs

Emire in Yemen

rulers in Djezira

  • aluminium-Ashraf 1218-1237

(not completely)

literature

 

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