Béla Bartók

Béla Bartók [ˈbeːlɒˈbɒrtoːk] (* 25. March 1881 in Nagyszentmiklós in the Banat, at that time Hungary, today Sânnicolau Mare, Romania; † 26. September 1945 in New York) was a Hungarian composer and Musikethnologe (Musikethnologie); one of the most important representatives of the modern trend.

Its nut/mother gave it piano instruction. Starting from 1899 Bartók studied piano and composition in Budapest. From 1908-1934 he is a professor for the piano play at the Budapester reading time university. 1940 it emigrierte inthe USA. 1945 died Bartók at leukaemia.

Apart from numerous concerts it became also admits for its collection of Volksliedern. Béla Bartók undertook extensive journeys by Hungary, Romania, Slowakei, Transsilvanien and the front Orient and collected thereby over10,000 songs, which it phonographierte or fixed directly in writing.

Table of contents

the contract of Trianon

after, spent 6,2 orchestra works

of 6,3 concerts 6,4 chamber music of 6,5 piano works of 6,6 vowel works 6,7 writings 7 literature 8 Web on the left of [work on] childhoodthat 1. World war was partitioned. Already very early Bartóks unusual musical gift fell, v.a. an absolute hearing, up. Both parents were musical, the father a local musician. Above all however the nut/mother promoted Béla in musical regard from earlierChildhood on. Already in all-youngest years Bartók, like also Mozart or other “miracle children”, began with small compositions. Unfortunately fell just as early also Bélas inclination to all kinds of diseases up which it also a life long, up to death come prematurely, accompanyshould. After the death of its father in the year 1888, Bartók as well as its nut/mother and its family pulled first after Vinogradiv, later after Prešporok (press castle, today Bratislava). After the establishment of Czechoslovakia in the year 1918, Bartók were and itsNut/mother on the different sides of the border again.

it began

early work of late to study under István Thoman piano and under János Koessler composition. At the royal music academy of Budapest he learned around 1905 Zoltán Kodályknow, by which it encountered systematic studying of the regional people music and co-operated from now on with it. This activity had a decisive influence on its artistic style. Up to this time Bartók brought the Hungarian people music particularly with thatfinished by “gypsies” in the cities spoken music in connection, like it also for instance in the “Hungarian rhapsodies” of Franz Liszt or the “Hungarian dances” of Johannes Brahms through among other things is and these works became supraregional popular. Soon placed itselfhowever out that it concerns here rather romantic art songs, which are to due mostly also to a composer. Bartók looked for however the original music of the rural population; in own words: “Farmer music”. Already in the year 1903 Bartók had a detailedOrchestra work with the name Kossuth written. This work falls into the phase of an increased national consciousness Bartóks and is Lajos Kossuth, the hero of the Hungarian revolution in the year 1848, dedicated. Here still remarkably the popular, romantic “Hungarian style” is finished,also by Bartók still for “originals” at that time one kept Hungarian. Mentioned “increased national consciousness” Bartóks must be seen here however also in the context of the time. Large parts of the Hungarian population were for a long time überdrüssig the Austrian foreign rule. As widerlichone felt also the “German mode” in wealthy families, where it was “chic” German to speak (also Bartók deplores in a letter) and the excessive orientation of the culture enterprise (v.a. in Budapest) on Austria and Germany. Bartók, like also manyother artist in completely Europe, was regarding the music on the search for a national style. This should from the old person, which applied to still discover it, draws and equally something new to create. To bare “Ungar Tümelei” Bartók was not convenient.By his musikethnologischen research came up it soon, how a little nevertheless regional cultures are to be limited them to nationality and in which mutual influencing control always stood. A late quotation of Bartók reads there also: “My goal is the fraternizationthe peoples. Into this service place I mean whole Kraft. (...) “

had influences on Bartóks

music the music of smelling pool of broadcasting corporations bunch, which he spoke in the year 1902 during the premiere of thus Zarathustra in Budapest met, onefirst large influence on its work regarding orchestra music. The romantic overshot appeared to it however already soon as no longer up-to-date. A lasting impression left the music of Franz Liszt. However the people music exerted special influence. Straight their Schlichtheitand sometimes raue directness fascinated Bartók. Besides it saw in the use of “old” scales (dorisch, mixolydisch, äolisch etc.) and the primitive Pentatonik, like it original people music nearly everywhere exhibits, a creative Anschub toward a new,own harmonious language beyond in such a way established Dur/of Moll system. Apart from the people music e.g. affected the own work. the music of the younger Frenchmen as for instance of Claude Debussy influence-giving. One knows Impressionisti tone qualities e.g. in Bartóks “music for stringed instruments, Schlagzeugand Celesta " as well as in many smaller piano works hear. People music explicitly e.g. is. in the “Tanzsuite” or also in the 1. Caper quartet processes. From the twelve-clay/tone music, thus, Bartók held for the non hierarchical treatment of all possible tones of the abendländischen music system however little.Even if sometimes it composed in so-called bitonaler or bimodaler way, then it wanted to know always tonal centers to constitute however constituted or.

Bartóks vocational development

Bartók was an excellent pianist and strove first also a career assuch on, but 1907 he already got an employment from the royal academy as a professor. This made it possible for it to remain in Hungary instead of having to undertake as a pianist a tour by Europe. Into the years 1907/08 falls alsothat 1. Violinkonzert the composition one of the probably most personal works Bartóks. He dedicated it to its large love at that time, that around some younger violinist Stefi Geyer. Still before completion of the work fallow Geyer however the contact to Bartók off, asked howeveraround forwarding of the work. Thus it also the composer met in the dear grief left with the two sentences composed up to then. Only 1958 succeeded the “incomplete” work at the premiere. 1909 married Bartók Márta Ziegler. Its son Béla junior was born 1910.1911 wrote his only opera “duke of blue beard castle” to Bartók, which he dedicated to his Mrs. Márta. This work was its contribution to a competition, which was publicized by the Hungarian commission for beautiful arts, but this knows it back, with thatReason, it is unspielbar. This “reason” speaks for expressed Konservatismus and fear of “new one”. “New” probably was v.a. the unusual dramaturgy: The comparatively short one-act play (play time about 60 min.) is in the reason a forwährender dialogue of only two actors (blue beard and Judith).Also those is noticeable to sing for conditions of the opera, simple kind: It is sometimes songful and the peculiarities of the Hungarian Prosodie is arranged remarkable, i.e. the singing is very rhythmic. Until 1918 the opera not once was not specified, when the government pressurized Bartók to remove the names of the dear savingists Béla Balázs from political motives from the program. Bartók refused and let the premiere in the water fall. The remainder of its life Bartók of the Hungarian stoodGovernment critically opposite.

From its disappointment over the commission for beautiful arts it wrote less in the next two or three years and concentrated strengthened on its tendency to develop a large collection of Hungarian Volkslieder. As result it published 1922/23“The Hungarian Volkslied” (in Hungarian, German and English language). Here it concerns a bare anthology of Hungarian people melodies less and - writes the text, as rather around a strictly scientifically oriented attempt of a systematization of the melodies after types and age. The outbreakthe 1. World war forced it however to adjust further expeditions on the search for Volksliedern. He dedicated himself again increases to composing. From this phase of its artistic work the ballet “the wood-carved prince” (1914-1916) followed and to be second caper quartet (1915-1917).By its “wooden prince” Bartók came to world fame.

Subsequently, Bartók worked on a further ballet, “the marvelous Mandarin”, which exhibits parallels to Igor Stravinsky. Although Bartók already began the work on “marvelous Mandarin” in the year 1918, became the ballet to1926 due to its contents, which acted of prostitution, Räuberei and homicide, not specified. Also in the year 1926 the Cologne mayor at that time Konrad Adenauer, outside pressure following, let further performances in Cologne forbid due to the Sujets.

Bartók left itself1923 of Márta separate and married a piano student named Ditta Pásztory. Bartóks second son Péter was born 1924. For Péters music instruction composed Bartók one six-restrains, after degrees of difficulty gradated collection of piano works, those under the name “Mikrokosmos” this very day from piano pupilsone uses. It should be the last work, which it wrote in Europe.

the 2. World war and its later vocational career

due to the outbreak 2. World war and gradually the worsening political situation in Europe, was Bartók in the year 1940 bent to leave Hungary. Bartók condemned the national socialism on the sharpest. After the Nazis had transferred power to Germany, it refused arising further in Germany and turned from its in Germany resident publisheroff. In addition it forbade 1937 to German and Italian broadcasting stations to send its works further. Its liberals opinions brought it into large difficulties with right-wing extremists to Hungary.

After it had sent its manuscripts for the first time into the USA, it pulled, together with itsMrs. nolens volens into the USA. Péter followed them two years later. Béla Bartók jr. however remained in Hungary.

Bartók felt in the USA not well, and felt it as difficult to write further. Also one could do it inthe USA hardly, and only small interest in its works existed. Bartók and its wife gave concerts and were temporarily busy with a research work over Serbian Volkslieder; their financial situation, just like Bartóks health, was nevertheless in a precariousCondition.

One of its last works was an order work for Sergei Kussewizki. The “concert for orchestras “became the probably most well-known work Bartóks. Yehudi assigned it to compose a Violinsonate. He found again Kraft for composing and beganwith its cool and nearly neo klassizistischen third piano concert, almost nearly at the same time with its viola concert.

In the year 1945 Béla Bartók in New York town center at leukaemia died. Its viola concert remained unfinished and by its pupil Tibor Serly was later completed.

Iton the Ferncliff cemetery in Hartsdale (New York) one buried, but after the fall of political conditions in Hungary 1988 its remnants were transferred to Budapest and to 7. July 1988 with a state funeral buried at the Farkasreti cemetery.

Work on []

Work

of stage works

orchestra works

of concerts

chamber music

  • 1908: 1. Caper quartet
  • 1917:2. Caper quartet
  • 1921: 1. Sonate for violin and piano
  • 1922: 2. Sonate for violin and piano
  • 1927: 3. Caper quartet
  • 1928: 4. Caper quartet
  • 1928: 2 rhapsodies for violin and piano
  • 1931: 44 Duos for twoViolins
  • 1934: 5. Caper quartet
  • 1937: Sonate for 2 pianos and Schlagzeug
  • 1938: Contrasts for violin, clarinet and piano
  • 1939: 6. Caper quartet
  • 1944: Sonate for violin solo

see also: Béla Bartók (chamber music)

Piano works

of vowel works

  • 1898 FF.: Songs with piano
  • 1912: 4 old Hungarian Volkslieder for mixed choir
  • 1930: Cantata profana for double choir, Soli and orchestra
  • 1935: From old times for dreistimmigen mixed choir

writings

  • 1923: The people music of the Romanians of Maramures.
  • 1924: The Hungarian Volkslied.
  • 1935: The melodies of the Romanian Colinde.

literature

  • Elliott Antokoletz: Béla Bartók. Country, New York 1997
  • Péter Bartók: My Father. Bartók record, Homosassa/Fla 2002
  • Citron, Pierre: Bartok. Seuil, Paris 1994
  • Everett helmet: Bela Bartok. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1981
  • CD: Muszikas: “Bartok album”

see also: Szöllösy listing, Portal: East Central Europe/Hungary

Web on the left of

  • {{#if:
| | * Literature of and over Béla Bartók in the catalog of the DDB

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