Böhmen

Böhmen in the today's political organization Tschechiens

Böhmen (Latin Bohemia, Czech Čechy) is limited a historical landscape in Central Europe, by its four border mountains:


table of contents

national affiliation

Böhmen covers the western two thirds Tschechiens. In addition today the Czech capital, they belong to Prague (Praha)surrounding Mittelböhmi region (Středočeský kraj) and the regions Liberecký lying around this region in the clockwise direction kraj, Královéhradecký kraj, Pardubický kraj, the west half of the Kraj Vysočina, the Südböhmi region (Jihočeský kraj), the region Pilsen (Plzeňský kraj), that Karlovarský kraj, and the Ústecký kraj.

In the historical connection the designation Böhmen is used often also for the whole of the countries of the Böhmi crown.

Böhmens surface amounts to about 52,060 km ². It borders in the northeast on Poland,in the east to the historical region Mähren, in the south at Austria, in the southwest and the west at Bavaria and in the northwest at Saxonia.

Filters cure princes Heinrich select to vii.-to king. The cure princes, by the coats of arms over their heads recognizable,are, from left to right, the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz and Trier, the Pfalzgraf with Rhine, the duke of Saxonia, the Mark count of Brandenburg and the king of Böhmen.

Böhmen, its names itself of that celtic trunk of the Boier derives (Boiohaemum = home of the Boier, spätlat.: Bohemia), is limited a landscape boiler, except for small exceptions, by the Wasserscheiden of the supply areas of the Moldau (Vltava) and the Elbe (refreshes) (up toBorder with Germany). Into the latters also the Eger ( Ohře) flows, whose source area lies in Franconias (in the Fichtelgebirge). At the edge the country is limited by low mountain ranges, in the northwest of the ore mountains, in the northeast of the giant mountains and the eagle mountains and in the southwest of the Böhmerwald. The border to Mähren in the east forms the Höhenzug of the Vysočina (Böhmisch Mähri height). The combs of the two latter belong to the Central European main water sheath.

Famous are for example those Böhmi kitchen, the böhmische beer and the böhmische blowing music. For the böhmische kitchen flour foods, Knödel, fat meat, little salad and vegetable, are typical for it sweet refeeding. The cultural traditions Böhmens are close with those in Bavaria and Austriarelated - the Viennese kitchen about is inconceivable without böhmische influences.

landscape

the today's borders Böhmens are far over 1000 years old, only the Egerland was added only in the late Middle Ages. Böhmen becomes from three sides throughcovers hilly landscapes, without forming however its own boiler country. It follows by the Fichtelgebirge the Central German terrace landscapes and is vertically aligned just like these. Böhmen is connected with Mähren so closely that one in the areabetween Eger, Elbe and Danube on the one hand and March and Raab on the other hand a common böhmisch mährisches terrace country to pursue can.

The catchment areas of the Danube and the or amount to only 6.4% of the Landesgebietes (3,184 km ²), while the Elbe at 48.772 km ² the principal partbrings. Beside the Elbe are this the Moldau, which flows with Mělník.

The terrace country Böhmens is arranged by the Elbe and the Eger, the Sasau and Beraun and by the deep Meridianfurche of the Moldau. The small, ring umschlossenenLowlandses are the following:

  • Teplitz Komotauer basin in the north
  • Laun Saazer level (to the Eger)
  • Theresienstädter level
  • Melniker level

(the east) Nimburger level

  • Pardubitzer level
  • Budweis Wittingauer low plate

rise here also numerous mountains:

  • Angel houses mountain (713 m)
  • Burberg (591 m)
  • George mountain (455 m)
  • Tockberg(853 m)
  • Trschemschinberg (822 m)
  • Kubany (1,358 m)

the natural border Böhmens to the west forms for the Böhmerwald, which stands by the plateau of forest-eaten with the Fichtelgebirge in connection.

history

see major items: History Böhmens

[] If administrative arrangements

in Böhmen [

work on] work on

old person böhmische circles

of the emperors Karl IV., at the same time king of Böhmen, began in the center 14. Century to divide its kingdom into large administrative units. Such a administrative unit was called in the documents upGerman circle, on Czech kraj and on Latin circulus). There were alone in the region Böhmen depending upon time period 7 to 16 circles. (Mähren and Austrian Schlesien had together about (2 to 6) +2 circles.)

[note: The Prussian administrative tradition is followingthe German term for a today's Czech kraj mostly district or region!]

The number (7 to 16) of the old böhmischen circles and thus also their size changed several times. This Kreiseinteilung applied until 1862, played however already brieflyafter the revolution of 1848 practically no more role for the administration.

political districts and court districts

starting from 1850 were replaced in all areas of the monarchy except Hungary the old large circles by political districts (the executive), ofthose everyone of one or more court districts (the Judikative) consisted. In the Austrian Lands of the Federal Republic this organization until today exists. Normally was a political district (Czech: politický okres) smaller than a former old circle, and a court district (Czech: soudní okres) is smaller than a political district. There were alone in the region Böhmen about 104 political districts and to it about 229 court districts. (Mähren and Austrian Schlesien had together 32+9 political districts.)

[note: The Prussian administrative tradition is following the German term fora Czech okres mostly circle!]

This district organization applied to Böhmen (apart from smaller changes) until 1938, thus also still after for the end of the State of Böhmen, in (first) the Czechoslovakian republic (1918 to 1938).

city and districtsbeside political districts and court districts

due to residents of Munich of the agreement 29. September 1938 was slammed shut the predominantly German-language part of Böhmens as realm gau Sudetenland the German Reich and divided (as in Germany) in city and districts; governmental districts were superordinate. Thatremaining part of Böhmens (in the again created protectorate Böhmen and Mähren) remained further divided in political districts and court districts, whereby however ever over a group by political districts still another upper land advice district was introduced.
In the Sudetenland there was entire realm gau 5Urban areas and 52 districts. (In the entire protectorate Böhmen and Mähren were there 67+30 political districts.)

this administrative arrangement applied up to the end of the Second World War (1945).


Böhmi culture

Böhmen was always a European region, in the religious andethnical contrasts met one on the other. This produced conflicts, in addition, hands reciprocal effects, in which the partial cultures fertilized each other. The böhmische culture is coined/shaped in their varieties by cooperating and Aufeinanderprallen of German, Czech and Jewish influences. So was for example Pragueunder the Luxemburgern considerably in the development of the international art of the Parlerzeit takes part. Writer such as Adalbert founder, Franz Kafka, Franz Werfel, Friedrich gate mountain, Jaroslav Hašek and Karel Čapek or composer such as Antonín Dvořák, Leoš Janáček and Bedřich Smetana draw in their works from this wealth. The German-language Prager day sheet was considered as one of the best newspapers of its time.

The influence of the böhmischen culture in particular on Austria was not only limited to art and literature. Also inEveryday life lives enriched böhmische creations the Austrian culture, approximately in the kitchen (Powidltatschkerln), which lives until today of the richness böhmischer cook art. Also the very rare horse race of the golden Kinsky horses, the 1838 in Chlumec of Oktavian countKinsky from the aristocracy family Kinsky was justified, to have in Böhmen their origin.

literature

history

  • Bosl, K. (Hg.): Manual of the history of the böhmischen countries, 4 Bde. Stuttgart 1966-1974.
  • Hoensch, J. K.: History Böhmens. Of thatslavischen colonization up to the present. Munich 1997
  • Collegium Carolinum (Hg.): Local encyclopedia of the böhmischen countries. Munich/Vienna 1983. ISBN 3-486-51761-9.
  • Meyers encyclopedia of 1888

art monuments

  • pounds, Emanuel: Böhmen and Mähren, Munich/Berlin 1986 (art monuments in Czechoslovakia,Hg. v. Reinhardt Hootz)
  • Zdenek Prochazka - January Oulik: HISTORICKE NAHROBNIKY TACHOVSKA - the HISTORICAL TOMBS of the TACHAUER REGION, given change in the publishing house “Cesky of les” Domazlice 1995: - ISBN 80-901122-69

language

see also

Web on the left of

 

  > German to English > de.wikipedia.org (Machine translated into English)