in assembly places with a Bühnenhaus is the stage the area with scene surfaces, behind the stage opening (portal); among the stage rank the Vorbühne (before the portal), the main stage as well as the rear and side stages including the associated in each case upper and Unterbühnen.
Free light stages are not considered and accommodate excluding seasonally performances, which are to attract as large a public as possible. In contrast to the moving stages of medieval tradition they are firm at a place.
Besides there is also so-called in the theatre. Sample stages, which use actors and singers for their preparing musical szenischen samples within the house.
To table of contents
in the antique Greece the central Spielfläche as orchestra (ὀρχήστρα) one designated. A narrow podium (skene, σηκνή , formed the rear conclusion eigtl. Tent) with a rear wall (lat. scenae frons), which often represented a house or a temple front. The spectators sat (half) in a circle in rising seat rows therefore. This sketch was coining/shaping for all further buildings of theatres for the Renaissance.
The baroque age let the scenae be omitted frons and used instead perspectively graduated, usually painted window blinds. Thus the stage area was extended both optically and material. The original auditorium in a circle put on changes itself to a horseshoe form. The orchestra took place with opera performances before the taped stage, at which place of the antique orchestra, which is called today parquet. The today usual orchestra ditch, which extracts the musicians views of the spectators, originated in only toward end 19. Century.
After the baroque window blind stage one experimented with the looking box stage, which was to offer the impression of a closed area. The window blinds increasingly plastic one built. An invisible “fourth wall” was postulated to the auditorium. The looking box stage is to today the principle of most larger buildings of theatres.
In 20. Century was regarded this illusionistic stage form as outdated, it began different experiments, in order to include the auditorium into the szenische conception. Thus new space concepts for the theatre (three-dimensional stage) developed.
The progressive rate of the seat rows from the antique one has itself in 18. and 19. Century going by extends that different ranks (galleries) facilitate to most distant spectators the view on the happening. Many theatres possess two to four ranks. Besides there are still the Logen, which served the society of the public particularly for the representation and offered often better view of the remaining auditorium than on the stage. The ruler at a residence theatre received the central Loge in the 1. Rank, which guaranteed the best view on the stage and the best visibility at the same time by the remaining public.
After the Second World War rose again the tendency too uniformly rising, muschelförmigen auditoriums with fewer ranks and balconies.
for the fast change of decorations is usually twice as high a Bühnenhaus (stage tower) like the visible height of the stage area. This makes a pulling possible of whole window blind parts, curtains or folders away upward. The stage parts hang on so-called. Linkages, which take nearly the entire width of the stage. The rope across roles in the Schnürboden in the floor structure of the Bühnenhauses on the side are led, with a counterweight counter and manually or by engines, today also frequently by computers are steered, moved. Special courses:
- Point courses consist of only one rope and are meant for moving smaller parts. In combination one needs it, in order to move parts, the hanging up in different stage depth needs.
- Skylights are extended linkages, at which numerous headlights and fluorescent tubes are firmly installed, which contribute to the Grundlicht of the stage substantially.
- Panorama courses are courses, which carry an u-shaped the entire stage re-clamping linkage, which carries a background (panorama).
for the fast transport of an entire scenery serve in many theatres firmly inserted cars, which often take the entire surface of the main stage. With them a complete scenery can be gone away to the rear or to the side. A special construction is made possible the revolving stage, a round swivelling stage surface, whose tricks likewise snaps, often optically delightful changes. These revolving stages are often for their part on a car, so that they can drive on the Hinterbühne, in order to make the employment possible of the Untermaschinerie. Sometimes in modern productions consciously within the scene with it one plays, so that the participants run moving in opposite directions for the direction of rotation of the stage, while in the background the three-dimensional built window blinds and further participants can be. The irritation of the eye is here desired side effect, e.g. with fair scenes one uses (e.g. La Bohème). With slower rotating speed the possibility for the representation of a journey opens (e.g. Anatevka, orig. Fiddler on the roof).
also under the stage soil is present a substantial area, in order to let window blind parts or actors arise from downside. A sinking is a stroke mechanism attached under a flap, which makes the sudden emerging possible of smaller stage parts or from humans. Many theatres have however also large stroke podiums, with which whole sceneries can emerge and disappear. Also so mehrstöckige, mobile sceneries are possible. Newer theatres have the possibility of shifting whole stage areas downward to the side and which makes possible, up to 8 of whole sceneries to shift (z. B. the Opéra Bastille in Paris).
for the entire technical operational sequence during the performances are meanwhile several stage technicians at a theatre employed. The Bühnenmeister answers for all stage-technical procedures, the Inspizient provides for the temporal operational sequence of the procedures.
The moreover one there are different tasks, which are often exercised by different craftsmen. At smaller theatres this differentiation is partly waived, and all stage technicians take part in all tasks arising with changes.
- Tying master and Dekorateure - responsible for the movements of the Schnürbodens and the curtains
- theatre machinists - responsible for all daring and podium movements
- stage technicians, who move window blinds. They are usually carpenters or fitters.
- so-called. Möbler, Dekorateure, furniture and smaller stage parts move
- Requisiteure, responsibly for smaller parts (Requisiten), in addition, for nebulas, snow, weapons or pyrotechnics.
- the lighting department, the one own unit forms (sees theatre lighting)