|of the titles of this article is ambiguous. For further meanings see Babylon (term clarifying).|
Babylon (babyl. Babili, hebr. Babel בבל) was as capital Babyloniens one of the most important cities that Antique one. It was to about 90 km because of the Euphrates, south of Bagdad in the today's Iraq (province Babil). The ruins of the city are among other things of Robert Koldewey at the beginning 20. Century partly excavated.
Table of contents
The name Babylon is derived from the akkadischen word Bab ili , which means gate of God. This form however already is from the Akkadern and/or. Babyloniern wrongly understood and very probably goes on one understandable today no longer (not akkadische)Prototype, possibly babbillum back. In later time the akkadische name was then graecisiert bab ilim, whereby then today the well-known Babylon developed for us.
first mention finds Babylonat the end of the 3. Millenium v. Chr.. Under the famous king Hammurabi (1792 - 1750 v. Chr.) the city attained for the first time a supremacy in the old person Orient. It conquered nearly the entire today's two-current country and is today forwardseverything due to the Kodex Hammurapi, which admits first detailed law collection. Among the rulers of the again-Babylonian or chaldäischen dynasty it attained the high point of its power.
After the decay Sumers became Babylon in 18. Century v. Chr. under the Amoritern tooa regional center of power, suffered however by a campaign of the Hethiter under Muršili (1531 v. Chr.) a setback. In the consequence the Kassiten to approx. prevailed. 1160 v. Chr. in Babylon, which the Elamiter followed. King Nebukadnezar succeeded then finally thoseRelease of the city from the long foreign rule of the Elamiter and even the conquest of the elamitischen capital Susa, from which many centuries were back-created before robbed statues and God pictures, among other things the statue of the main God Marduk.
Babylon lost alsothe ascent Assyriens at meaning and became in 7. Century twice of the Assyrern destroys. 626 v.Chr. Nabopolassar was proclaimed to the king and defeated the Assyrer, their capital Ninive it 612 v. Chr. with the help of the Meder destroyed. Nebukadnezar II., its son, repelled an invasion of the Egyptians and governed over an area from Palestine to to Persian Gulf. In its reign city and realm ascended to new bloom.
However this bloom time lasted not for a very long time. King Nabonid mounted 550 v. Chr. the throne Babylons. He did not commit the error, any more Marduk, but Sin, the moon God, to regard as a preferential divinity of the Königtums. This led to the fact that the inhabitants Babylonsthe Perserkönig Cyrus II., thatitself to Marduk well-known, with its conquest of the city 539 v. Chr. as Befreier received.Cyrus II. thereby also the people of the Hebräer dismissed from its forced exile. The conquest of the city by the Perser marks the final end of theBabylonian realm.
Alexander the large one conquered the city after the victory with Gaugamela and was welcomed as Befreier. Alexander made Babylon later also the seat of its realm, where he then also to 10. June 323 v. Chr.deceased. In thatTime of the diadochi belonged Babylon to the Seleukidenreich, lost much power under their rule however, when the new capital Seleukia was built and many inhabitants Babylons were resettled there. In the course of the time, probably under parthischer rule, the city becameleave finally finally.
The city became between 1899 and 1917excavated by the German archaeologist Robert Koldewey and investigates. He found a city, whose ruins were beautiful, however hardly the works of art and/or. their remnants saved.
see also oldBabylonian realm, to newBabylonian realm
structure of the city
sound thatantique Greek historian Herodot was Babylon a “enormous city”. It possessed allegedly a wall of 86 kilometers of length with one hundred gates. In addition it is to have given also to three or even vierstöckige buildings. In the temple district was according to his report alsoa tower, from which it means in the old person will, one wanted to reach thereby the sky. He did not mention the hanging gardens.
Koldewey understood already soon after beginning of its excavations that the statements of size were absolutely exaggerated by Herodot, even iftheir extent of 18 kilometers of still impressive appears. Babylon was established to Euphrates on both sides. The city was surrounded by two wall rings, which were still additionally protected in the north by a fortress, also the summer residence of the kingwas.
The actual city was however inside the third double attachment wall with rectangular sketch. The most important of the eight gates, which admitted much Ischtar gate can one today in the citizen of Berlin Pergamonmuseum admire. A process ion road led past through into the city,at the palace of the king to the Marduktempel and the Zikkurat of Etemenanki, better admits than the tower of Babel.
The palace built by Nabopolassar has that of the assyrischen king Sanherib to the model. It possessed a square inner court, three small private areasand two large Sääle, was thus from relatively modest size.Nebukadnezar II. three further identical buildings let establish and to connect them by courses with the original complex; one of them contained the throne hall of the king.
The temple of the Marduk alsothe name Esagila Babylons was in the holy district. The building was similarly as a fortress with square outlined developed. To entering the temple the priests came into the area, in which the holy statue Marduks was. Inthe Heiligtum however also many other Gods were admired, which should serve all Marduk. Beside the temple before the tower already addressed rose.
after the Iraq war arranged US-American in April 2003a base around Babylon, in order to protect the antique city against robbers and Vandalen.Polish troops pushed some months later in addition and took over at the 3. September 2003 the storage management. The base accommodated up to 2.000 soldiers. Within the framework of theStructure of the camp surfaces for park and helicopter landing pads were free-vacated and up-poured with crushed stone. The moreover one contactor ditches were built and filled sand bags with sand from the excavation places. According to a report of the curator of the British museum John Curtis from the year2003 and 2005 the ruin city was however substantially damaged. Among other things the kites of the Ischtar gate are with the attempt unknown quantities to out-break stones in pulled. Besides the 2,600 years are old attachment reading ores road by driving on with heavyMilitary vehicles destroyed.
Babylon in the old person will
the Hebrew name for the antique Babylon is Babel. The building of the pyramid-shaped temple tower of Babylon (see also building of towers to Babel) becomes in Old will of the Bible mentions. To the punishment for the measuringness of the owners, the sky and/or. God reach to want, God humans confused and them different languages gave. Of it the phrase comes „Babylonian language tangle “. The building of towers to Babel hasto do with Babylon however nothing. The name of the there tower was Etemenanki.
The rulers of Babel led wars against the people Israel and kidnapped large parts of the people into the Babylonian shank. The book Daniel of the Biblereported on it. Conquest and final destruction Babylons about 200 years before by Jesaja one forecast.
Babylon in the Christianity
in the new will becomes the name Babylon and/or. the attribute Babylonian twelve times mentions. This happens on the one hand inReviews of the history of Israel, on the other hand in the prophetischen speeches over the future of the world. Babylon designates here the terrestrial against-Christian center of power contrary to the city of God, the himmlischen Jerusalem. In revealing the Johannes their becomesDestruction in the last courts of God ahead said. In 1. Petrus 5.13 greets the apostolische writer its municipality from Babylon. Some arms assume that Babylon is used here as an alias for Rome. Others however do not refer to thatexactly and the designation Babylon take ascertainable time of the purge of the city literally. They believe that Paulus, when Apostel for the nations, and not Petrus were in Rome.
In the Christian symbolism coined/shaped by revealing the Johannes Babylon appliesas God-hostile power and stronghold of sin and Dekadenz. Martin Luther interpreted for it hated papacy as Hure Babylons.
In the religion of the Rastafaris coined/shaped by äthiopisch orthodox influences the term becomes “Babylon” apart from the Biblical interpretations additionally alsoas synonym for the place their shank in the capitalistic and imperialistic system of the industrial nations of the western world (“shitstem” mentioned), whereby the Rastafaris strives for the return of Babylon to the praised country Zion (Africa).
Mostly songs, which have to do with Babylon, build will on the meaning of the city in the old person as a place of the exile and the enslavement. Occasionally songs in addition, the neutestamentliche meaning of the city take up as center of the bad one.
George Friedrich trade has 1745 in its Oratorium Belshazzar (German: Belsazar) the conquest of the city by Kyros and the release of the Jews from the “Babylonian shank” perpetuates. Giuseppe Verdi toned 1842 in Nabucco likewise an episode from the JewishExile in Babylon.
The shank and the later return of the people Israel into its homeland became for the Christian slaves in the USA 19. Century to equalsneeze its shank and hope for release. Admits is the Vertonung of theSong By the waters OF Babylon of Don McLean, a Nachdichtung 137. Psalms. The Song By the Rivers OF Babylon of Boney M. treated likewise the text 137. Psalms. The German Vertonung the legend of Babylon from Bruce Low does not go however around the building of towers to Babel and has to anything with the city Babylon to do. The Song “Babylon system”, composed by the Jamaican Reggaemusiker Bob Marley and published on the album Survival, acts of the western“vampirischen “system, which suppresses and before the unit holds back mankind. Also in the song “full Kraft ahead” of” sons of Mannheim “will in the last Strophe”… I can exist only if Babylon falls… “the newTestamentary meaning Babylons, as seat of the bad one again taken up.
The use of the term as critical analogy to the capitalistic system can be found even in further “Hip Hop “songs, like for example in a further song of”Sons of Mannheim “with the title “Babylon system” as well as a song of the group Main Concept with the title “Raus from Babylon”. The “absolute Beginner “has on its early album “Flashnizism” also a song with the title “1-0 forBabylon " publishes. Also RWSby and Raggae musician “D-Fleming “mentions Frankfurt in its song “Babylon”, he must “finally raus from Babylon”.
sons and daughters of the city
- Berossos, Babylonian historian
- Thamir Abbas Ghadban, IraqiTo politician
- Talib Schabib, Iraqi politician
- Joan Oates: Babylon. City and realm in the focus of the old person Orient. Gondrom publishing house, bind-laugh 1990. ISBN 3-8112-0727-X
- Nelson DeMille: To landing on water Babylon. Goldmann publishing house 1990. ISBN 3-442-09647-2
- on the search after the past. Publishing house the best, Stuttgart 1982 and 1988 ISBN 3-87070-183-8
- the last secrets of our world. Publishing house the best, Stuttgart 1977 and 1989 ISBN 3-87070-333-4
Web on the left of
|Commons: Babylon - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wikiquote: Babylon - quotations|
coordinates: 32° 28 ′ N 44° 24 ′ O