Baden-Wuerttemberg

Baden-Wuerttemberg
national flag Landeswappen
Landesflagge Großes Landeswappen
(detail) (detail)
base data
capital: Stuttgart
surface: 35.751, 65 km ² (3.)
Inhabitants: 10.718.327 (3.) (31. March 2005)
Population density: 300 inhabitants for each km ² (6.)
System of government: republican, democratic and
social constitutional state
debts: 3.682 € per inhabitant (at the end of of 2005)
debts entirely: 37.55 billion € (2004)
ISO 3166-2: DE-BW
official Website: www.baden-wuerttemberg.de
politics
Prime Minister: Günther Oettinger (CDU)
governing parties: CDU -FDP/DVP - coalition (indicated as that down allocation of seats, momentarily still exploratory discussions do not run for formation of a government)
allocation of seats in the federal state parliament
(139 seats, which will only assemble federal state parliament in this composition in June 2006):
CDU 69
SPD 38
B90/Grüne 17
FDP/DVP 15
last choice: 26. March 2006
next choice: 2011
parliamentary agency
voices in the Upper House of Parliament: 6
map
Baden-Württemberg in Deutschland

Baden-Wuerttemberg is a Land of the Federal Republic of the Federal Republic of Germany. It covers the South West German area between the Bodensee in the south and the Mainwithin the north, the Rhine in the west as well as the Bavarian border in the east. Neighbouring Lands of the Federal Republic are Rhineland-Palatinate, Hessen and Bavaria, in the south are neighbours Swiss of cantons Basel city, Basel country, Aargau, work living, Thurgau and Zurich.In the west the Elsass lies in France beyond the Rhine.

Within the German Lands of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg in third place stands, both which the number of inhabitants concerns (after North Rhine-Westphalia and Bayern) and after the surface (to Bavaria and Lower Saxony). Into economic range Baden-Wuerttemberg is on the third rank of the German Lands of the Federal Republic< ref>http://www.vgrdl.de/Arbeitskreis_VGR/tab001.asp#tab02]< /ref>.

Table of contents

history

prehistory

between 70 and 150 after Christ conquered the Romans the largest part of the area, on which today Baden-Wuerttemberg is. The Romans were driven out starting from 260 after Christ by the Alemannen. After their subjecting by that Frankish realm between 496 and 746 existed in the today's Landesgebiet the duchies Franconias and Swabia. The decay of both duchies up to 13. Century led to extreme territorial splintering into hundreds of small counties, realm cities, religious areas or particularsritterschaftlichen villages. The Mediatisierung due to the Napoleoni wars started a process, at whose end only three territories stood: Württemberg, bathing and Hohenzollern; besides the city Wimpfen was a hessian Exklave. 1806 became Württemberg kingdom(of Napoleons' grace) and bathing Grand Duchy, however only until 1918 as both territories republican Federal States within the German Reich (Weimar Republic) became. 1933 was replaced the independent federal state governments by National Socialist gau leaders and realm governors.

the way toSouthwest state

situation until 1945
situation 1945-1952

after the Second World War the northern parts of bathing and Württemberg with bath Wimpfen to the American zone of occupation , the southern parts as well as Hohenzollern came to the French. The allocation took place along the Kreisgrenzen, whereby toconsciously of American zone all the circles were struck, by which the motorway Karlsruhe Munich (today's A 8) ran. The military governments of the zones of occupation created 1945/46 the countries Württemberg bathing in the American as well as Württemberg Hohenzollern and bathing (in such a way called, although itonly covered the southern part of the country) in the French zone. These countries became in the course of the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany to 23. May 1949 to Lands of the Federal Republic.

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany held the three countries in article 118to on making an agreement over the reorganisation of their areas. If such a regulation did not come, a regulation was prescribed by a Federal law. As alternatives either a combination to a southwest state or the re-establishment cameBathing and Württembergs (including Hohenzollerns) in question, whereby the governments of Württemberg bathing and Württemberg Hohenzollerns for first occurred, bathing for the latter. An agreement of the governments over a popular vote failed because of the question of the tuning mode. Thereupon to 4. May 1951 dischargedFederal law saw an organization of the tuning area into four zones forwards (Nordwürttemberg, north bathing, Südwürttemberg Hohenzollern, south bathing). The combination of the countries should be considered as accepted, if a majority in the entire tuning area as well as in three of the four zones resulted. There a majority inthe two württembergischen zones as well as in north bathing to already foresee (one had - a unique procedure - sample tunings accomplished for this), favored this regulation was the combination proponents. (South) the government of Baden exerted a constitutional challenge against the law, which remained however unsuccessful.

Forwardsthe popular vote, to 9. December 1951 took place, an embittered fight between proponents and opponents of the planned „southwest state “was led. The prominent representatives of the pro side were the Prime Minister Württemberg Bathe Reinhold Maier and the president Württemberg Hohenzollerns Gebhard Mueller, Anführer thatSouthwest state opponent was a president of bathing Leo Wohleb. During the tuning the voters in both parts of Württembergs with 93% for the fusion, in north bathing with 57% votierten, while in south bathing only 38% for it were. The formation of a southwest state was therebydecided. If one would have counted the result in total bathing, then a majority of 52% would have resulted against it.

establishment of the country

the Land of the Federal Republic Baden-Wuerttemberg became due to the popular vote to 25. April 1952 based. Reinhold Maier (FDP/DVP) formed asfirst Prime Minister a coalition from SPD, FDP/DVP and BHE and excluded the CDU as a strongest parliamentary group. This called itself both the displeasure of the two southern regions, south bathing and Südwürttemberg Hohenzollern, this in the new government not or only insufficiently representedfelt, and the Gebhard Mueller, the new CDU leader of the parliamentary group, who felt the nonparticipation of the CDU as personal affront against itself, out.

The election to the Bundestag of 6. September 1953, which explains at the same time from Reinhold Maier as the Plebiszit over its politicswas, brought the CDU in the country the absolute majority.Reinhold Maier drew the conclusions and withdrew as an Prime Minister. Its successor became Gebhard Mueller, who educated an all party government from CDU, SPD, FDP/DVP and BHE, which existed until 1958had. Successor of Mueller became briefly George Kiesinger as a third Prime Minister of the country.

The name of the country was the subject of a longer controversy. In the transition law of 15. May 1952 name mentioned Baden-Wuerttemberg was intended first only übergangsweise, sat down however in the long runthrough, since no other name was accepted by all sides. To 19. November 1953 into force stepped national condition was decided by the condition-giving state meeting and was not confirmed by a popular vote.

1956 came the Federal Constitutional Court to the view that thatTuning mode not sufficiently considered 1951 the vote of Baden, and ordered a new edition of the popular vote in the region bathing. It stated with the fact that by the tuning mode the people will of Baden “overacted” is and in terms of figures stronger population in terms of figures weakercould outvote. Afterwards the necessary tuning was kidnapped again and again. It required of a further decision of the Federal Constitutional Court in the year 1969, into the this the tuning for at the latest 30. June 1970 arranged. This became to 7. June 1970 accomplished, resulted inthen however an agreement from 81,9% to the new Land of the Federal Republic. To the additional agreement surely not insignificant normative Kraft of the actual one had contributed.

coats of arms and flag

major item: Coat of arms of Baden-Wuerttemberg, flag of Baden-Wuerttemberg

the coat of arms shows three walking lionson golden reason. This is the coat of arms of the Staufer and dukes of Swabia. Over large Landeswappen are the six coats of arms of the historical landscapes, from which or from their parts Baden-Wuerttemberg was formed. There is this: Front Austria(red-white-red divided signs), Kurpfalz (rising lion), Württemberg (three deer seaweeds), bathing (red diagonal bar), Hohenzollern (white geviert) and Franconia (three silver points on red reason). The coats of arms of bathing and Württembergs are somewhat more largely represented. Supporters are the of Baden seize and thatwürttembergische deer. On small Landeswappen rests instead a sheet crown.

The three lions from that Landeswappen emerge in modified form also in the so-called bathe Württemberg Signet, which can be used by everyone permission-free. The use of the national coat of arms however is subject to approvaland in principle only the authorities permits.

The national flag is black gold; the national service flag carries additionally small Landeswappen.

Großes Landeswappen Kleines Landeswappen Baden-Württemberg-Signet Landesflagge Landesdienstflagge mit großem Wappen ohne Schildhalter Landesdienstflagge mit kleinem Wappen
Large Landeswappen small Landeswappen bathe Württemberg Signet national flag national service flag with large coat of arms without supporter national service flag with small coat of arms

Geografie

Physische Landkarte von Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Wuerttemberg lies inSouthwest of Germany. In the east it borders on Bavaria, in the north on Bavaria and Hessen. Its south and west border are formed by Rhine and Bodensee (with small exceptions such as work living), whereby Switzerland the southern, France and Rhineland-Palatinate the western neighbours are. After surface and number of inhabitants the country in third place stands under the German Lands of the Federal Republic.

With exception about 20 km of the broad strip of the Rhine level the country is hilly to hilly. The southwest of the country becomesfrom the long and up to 60 km broad Black Forest dominates 160 km, whose field mountain with 1.493 m is the highest mountain in the German low mountain ranges. The Swabian Alb stretches itself from the south of the country in northeast direction to approximately onthe Bavarian border with Nördlingen. Further larger landscape forms are the desert forest in the north, the Kraichgau in the northwest, Hohenloher level and Swabian-Frankish forest in the northeast, the Neckarbecken around Stuttgart as well as upper swabia in the southeast.

Due to the hilly topography played and playthe rivers and its valleys a substantial role for settlement, traffic and history of the country. Beside the Rhine in the first place Neckar and Danube are to be called. The Neckar rises at the edge of the black forest with Villingen Schwenningen and flows through the centerthe country, until it flows in the northwest with Mannheim into the Rhine. The there Rhine level is with 85 m over NN the lowest point of the country. The Rhine forms completely the western national border - at the same time also in its whole lengththe west border of bathing - south from Mannheim to Karlsruhe to Rhineland-Palatinate, of it to France and to Switzerland. The Danube feeds itself from two Black Forest source rivers and flows into approximately eastnortheast, whereby it the Swabian Alb to the south and upper swabia northwardlimited and behind Ulm in the Bavarian changes. Under the remaining rivers the longest “twin rivers” are digesters and hunt, which flow through the northeast of the country. Completely in the northeast the Landesgebiet borders on the Main.

The geographical center of Baden-WuerttembergTübingen lies in the city, in which small forest Elysium, in whose proximity also Botani gardens are. 3 tons a heavy conical stone from that Franconia law symbolizes this point. It has an inclination of 11,5°, this is those Earth inclination represent.

administrative arrangement

Baden-Wuerttemberg is since 1. January 1973 divided in 4 governmental districts, 12 regions (with ever a regional association) as well as 35 districts and 9 urban areas.

For administrative arrangement before the circle reform 1973 see the twoArticle administrative arrangement of bathing and administrative arrangement Württembergs. Furthermore to there last the districts mentioned still the two former Prussian districts Hechingen and sigma rings belonged.

governmental districts and regions

the region Danube Iller covers also adjacent areas in Bavaria. ThoseRegion Rhine Neckar covers also adjacent areas in Hessen and Rhineland-Palatinate.

city and districts

in the country exist the following nine urban areas:
BATH Baden-Baden
FR Freiburg in mash gau
the hp Heidelberg
HN Heilbronn
KA Karlsruhe
mA Mannheim
PF Pforzheim
S Stuttgart
UL Ulm

the 35 districts are:

UL Alb Danube circle
UC beaver oh
FN Bodensee circle
BB Böblingen
FR mash gau high Black Forest
CW Calw
EM Emmendingen
PF Enzkreis
IT Esslingen
FDS joy city
GP Göppingen
HDH Heidenheim
HN Heilbronn
KÜN Hohenlohekreis
KA Karlsruhe
KN Konstanz
Lörrach
LB Ludwigsburg
TBB Main deaf circle
MOS Neckar Odenwald circle
OG Ortenaukreis
AA Ostalbkreis
RA restcorrode
check valve Ravensburg
WN rem Murr circle
blank Reutlingen
hp Rhine-Neckar-region
RW Rottweil
SHA Swabian resound
to VS Black Forest Baar circle
VICTORY sigma rings
DO Tübingen
DOES Tuttlingen
CR forest hat
BL Zollernalbkreis
Landkreiskarte: Baden-Württemberg

to District Konstanz belongs also the Exklave le singing on the high Rhine (BUS), which is enclosed completely by Swiss canton work living.

The districts united 1956 to the district day Baden-Wuerttemberg.

cities and municipalities

the country Baden-Wuerttemberg is divided into altogether1,110 cities and municipalities (under it 9 urban areas, 89 large district towns and 213 other circle-belonging of cities), an inhabited municipality-free area (property district Münsingen) and an uninhabited municipality-free area (Rhinau (municipality-free area)) (Conditions: 1. September 2005).

Those10 largest cities of Baden-Wuerttemberg are Stuttgart, Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Freiburg in mash gau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Ulm, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Esslingen at the Neckar. Alle Städte mit mehr als 20.000 Einwohnern sind im besonderen Artikel To find list of the largest cities of Baden-Wuerttemberg. (See also list of the places in Baden-Wuerttemberg.)

politics

Sitzverteilung im Landtag
federal state parliament building in Stuttgart

see also: Politics of Baden-Wuerttemberg, condition of the country Baden-Wuerttemberg, portal: Baden-Wuerttemberg

the Prime Minister is a boss of the federal state governmentof Baden-Wuerttemberg, which consists of Ministers and undersecretaries of state and honorary Councils of State. The Prime Ministers since 1952:

Baden-Wuerttemberg is traditionally conservatively coined/shaped, in addition, the FDP (here FDP/DVP) is traditionally strong in Baden-Wuerttemberg. Since beginning of the 1980er years is Baden-Wuerttemberg also a center of the Greens, who were created in Karlsruhe and whose results always lay in the country over the Federal average. During the Prime Ministerup to 1952/1953 by the CDU, was in the government partly also the FDP/DVP and/or the SPD (large coalition) was always placed involved. While the 1990er years were the republicans in the federal state parliament represent, before between 1968 and 1972 also those NPD. Due to the Austrittes state parliament delegates of the Ulrich bricklayer from the SPD to 27. June 2005 and its entrance into the WASG at the 1. July was represented also this in the federal state parliament, to bricklayer its mandate to 17. October 2005 laid down,in order to draw for the left wing party Party of Democratic Socialism into the Bundestag. As center of the left wing party the industrielle region can be seen around Mannheim.

economics

Baden-Wuerttemberg is center of the automobile industry (DaimlerChrysler, Porsche, Robert Bosch GmbH, AUDI)with locations in Stuttgart, Sindelfingen, Neckarsulm, Mannheim, restcorrode, Gaggenau and Ulm. Also the Maschinenbauindustrie resides with many enterprises in Baden-Wuerttemberg (e.g. Play the trump card, Heidelberger printing machines, FESTO, VOITH, dear gentleman). In Black Forest was in former times the precision mechanics, in particular the watch-and-clock-making industry as well as later the entertainment electronics, very importantly (young Hans, Kienzle, SABA, dual), likewise the textile industry, which was mainly on the Swabian Alb resident and also today still is (Hugo Boss, Trigema, Steiff). The two parts of the mineral oil refinery upper Rhine in Karlsruhe form together the largest mineral oil refinery in Germany. In barrier village the largest European software enterprise (SAP AG) is resident.

In Baden-Wuerttemberg there are two nuclear power stations, that Nuclear power station Philipps castle and the nuclear power station Neckarwestheim. A third nuclear power station in Obrigheim was shut down 2005.

traffic

rail traffic

the railway system of the German course in the country covers 3,400 kilometers of distance, on those 6,400 kilometers of tracksshifted and 9,500 switches are inserted. Approximately 1,400 railroad overpasses are present. On this net daily 6,500 travels of courses take place, at it the 310,000 kilometers put back< ref>http://www.db.de/site/bahn/de/unternehmen/presse/presseinformationen/bw/bw20060322e.html< /ref>.

Further distances are operated by other railway infrastructure enterprises; the most important are those Württembergi railway company, the Hohenzolleri national course and the Karlsruher Albtal traffic society.

navigation

two of the bedeutendendsten inland ports of Europe are in Mannheim and Karlsruhe; Karlsruhe is the largest oil inland port of Europe.

media

Baden-Wuerttemberg has onerelatively various medium landscape. Within the newspaper range there are large regional newspapers like Stuttgart newspaper, newspaper of Baden, newest ones of Baden to messages and south west press as well as smaller newspapers, of which many refer however the coat of a supraregional newspaper. Public broadcast becomes from the southwest broadcastoperated, which maintains also ochestras, which belong to the prominent in Europe: the SWR Sinfonieorchester Baden-Baden and Freiburg, the radio symphony orchestra Stuttgart, the SWR vowel ensemble Stuttgart as well as the SWR bend volume Stuttgart. German Federal Armed Forces Family.tv are a private national program. Beyond thatthere are several regional TV-transmitters:Rhine Neckar television, R.TV, TV south bathing, RTF.1 Neckar Alb, euro 3. The digital television station BWeins shows the debates of the federal state parliament.

culture

in Baden-Wuerttemberg since 1978 the homeland days Baden-Wuerttemberg are organized.In the south of Baden-Wuerttemberg the Swabian alemannische Fastnacht is celebrated.

religion

in the center of Baden-Wuerttemberg, the northern part of the former duchy Württemberg, is the population predominantly Evangelist, likewise in the Kurpfalz. The remaining areas are by the majorityRoman-catholic.

For Baden-Wuerttemberg altogether results (conditions 2004):

see also: Ore diocese Freiburg and diocese gang castle Stuttgart, Evangelist regional church in bathing and in Württemberg

language

sticker of a Werbekampagne of the country Baden-Wuerttemberg

in Baden-Wuerttemberg numerous dialects are spoken. In north bathing and the Frankish parts Nordwürttembergs (Hohenlohe) prevails the Frankish dialect forwards, inNorthbathe also “Brigantendeutsch” mentioned. In the rest of Württemberg one speaks different colouring of the Swabian one, in south bathing of the down - and Hochalemanni.

Generally speaking „Ländle “prevails a very self-confident dialect culture: even in the large cities becomes the respective dialect ofall social classes and age groups spoken - already Hegel and Heidegger their linguistic roots remained faithful. Most popular music transmitters have Mundartkomiker in the program, and works as from Thaddäus the Troll or Harald Hurst as well as television broadcasts such as Hannes and thatMayors enjoy of large popularity.

buildings and objects of interest

to the most important buildings in Baden-Wuerttemberg belong Münster in Ulm (highest church tower of the world) and Freiburg, in addition, the old parts of town of Heidelberg and Freiburg. In addition come stillsome locks such as z. B. in Mannheim, Karlsruhe or Ludwigsburg.

see also

Wikipedia portal to Baden-Wuerttemberg

Web on the left of

Wikinews: Baden-Wuerttemberg - current messages
Commons: Baden-Wuerttemberg - pictures, videos and/or audio files
Wiktionary: Baden-Wuerttemberg -Word origin, synonyms and translations

sources

<references/>


 

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