|of these articles treats the Iraqi city Bagdad. For cities of the same name see Bagdad (term clarifying).|
Bagdad (Persian for gift of God, Arab بغداد Baghdād; sometimes also Baghdad written) is the capital Iraq and with 5.672.516 inhabitants(Conditions 1. January 2005) one of the largest cities in the Near East.
Table of contents
Bagdad lies for instance in the national center Iraq. The city extends at the central run of the Tigris, which is navigable to Bagdad. The local center is 34 m over NN on the geographical coordinates
Coordinates: 33° 20 ' N, 44° 23 ' O 33° 20 ' N, 44° 23 ' O. In Bagdad also some commercial routes leading by the fruitful Halbmond gather.
Bagdad (persisch=Gottgegeben-im senses of: God gift)in the year 762 of the abbasidischen Kalifen aluminium-Mansur as new capital of the Islamic realm one based (name: Madīnat as-Salām مدينةالسلام = city of the peace). It developed only few kilometers east for the old capital of the Sassanidenreiches, Ktesiphon. Withinthe Kalifenpalast (Bāb aluminium-dhahab or aluminium-Kubbat aluminium-Kadra ) and the main mosque at the western Tigrisufer developed for four years.
Due to the favorably selected situation at the junction of numerous trade routes and the fruitful cultivation areas in its proximity to the Tigris (Didschla) the again-created flourishedCity fast. When aluminium-Mansurs son aluminium-Mahdi mounted the throne, Bagdad had already a surface of 15 square kilometers. As an Arab historian reports, Bagdad possessed at present the Kalifen aluminium-Ma'mun 65,000 public baths. It was center of the sciences and arts, in short,it was the gloss time of Bagdad.
In the meantime the Kalif aluminium-Mu'tasim shifted, in order to keep its army away from the population, the capital after Samarra (808 - 819 and 836 - 892), but also as the Kalifat at power had lostand first the Buyiden later - dynasty (945 - 1055) and the Seldschuken (1055 1135) the Islamic realm controlled, remained it one of the most important cities of the Islamic world, until it was conquered 1258 by the Mongols under Hulagu,to 10. February 1258 the last Kalifen aluminium-Mu'tasim killed and arranged after eye-witness reports inconceivable Gräueltaten, sources report of a pyramid from dead heads. Many more weightily was however as a result of the conquest of Bagdad and the two-current country both from the defendingMamlucken and the Mongol committed destruction of the high-complex irrigation systems of the country, still which was strengthened by driving the local population out (and connected with it the loss of the knowledge by the enterprise and the maintenance of the irrigation system). The Desertifikation Mesopotamiens set, and Bagdad, before at least second largest city of the world, sank together with the remainder of Mesopotamiens in the Bedeutungslosigkeit. Until today the Iraq did not recover from the destruction of the irrigation systems. Since that 16. Century argued the rulers of Persia and Turkey several times around the city.
In the year 1652 Bagdad counted only approximately 15,000 inhabitants.
Bagdad remained under osmanischer rule, and became the capital of the province Bagdad, one of the 3 provinces from that the later Iraq developed. 1921under British control the Kingdom of Iraq was established;1932 followed the formal and 1946 complete independence. The number of inhabitants of the city rose from roughly 145,000 (1900) arrived on 580.000 (1950), particularly by immigrants from the Shiite south, those,in the capital, from substantial housing shortage suffered. Only under the rule general Quassems was provided for something remedy by the building of at that time almost exemplary satellite city “Madinat aluminium-Thaura” (“city of the revolution”), late Saddam town center, then Sadr town center. Particularly during the restaurant boom the 1970er years rose the total population further rapidly. Shiite Arabs, who lived in Slums in most precarious conditions, placed the lion's share of the immigrants. As a result of the conquest of Bagdad by the US-American armed forces in the third Gulf War 2003 numerous historically valuable becameCultural properties of the city by fighting or plunderings destroys or damages; in particular the national library with thousands of valuable old manuscripts by a fire were completely destroyed, geplündert the national museum (of the residents Iraqis). The arriving US troops did not intervene. The majority thatPieces one made however relatively fast again and is again in the Iraq.
Bagdad has 5.672.516 inhabitants (conditions 1. January 2005). The office languages of the Iraq are Arab and Kurdish.The Iraqi cities and above all Bagdad possess a well developed education system. The education is free, yet the illiterate rate is high. In Bagdad are 3 of the 6 universities of the country. The state of health is in the Iraq up to the citiesinsufficiently. The large majority of the population is Arab descent, but there is also a large Kurdish municipality, as well as an important number of Turkmenen and Assyrern. Also some Sudanesen inhabit the million-metropolis.
economics and infrastructure
in Bagdadthe majority of the Iraqi industry is settled. The most important branches of industry of Bagdad are the textile industry, Ölraffination, wood industry, the industry of building materials and food processing. Bagdad is the intersection of the 3 main railway lines of the country (momentarily not yet again in enterprise) and also the Highways. Of the fourin Bagdad and environment lying airports only one is civilian, these offers flights after Erbil, Dubai, Cairo and Amman. Up to the town centre the road system of the city of majority works planned. After the invasion of US has troopsitself the number of the passenger cars rapidly increased, which makes the roads of Bagdad not only overloaded but also extremely dangerous. This is strengthened still by the complete absence of public traffic, from which only Strassenbahnlinie built around 1870 after Qazzimiyya is not times more the route recognizably. The river Tigris, because of whose banks Bagdad is, is also an important trade route for the city. The agriculture in the surrounding countryside produces mainly Datteln and vegetables.
sons and daughters of the city
- Adil Abd aluminium-Mahdi, Schiit and Iraqi politicians, at present as a vice-president
- Iyad Allawi, Iraqi politician, in former times Prime Minister
- Zaha Hadid, Iraqi-British Architektin and Professorin
- Qusai Hussein, secondaryoldest son of Saddam Hussein
- Ibn Kammuna, philosopher
- Yaqub ibn keel-Kiel, Egyptian Wesir under the Fatimiden
- Bassam Salih Kubba, more on behalfIraqi minister of foreign affairs (April to June 2004)
- Abd aluminium-Karim Qasim, Iraqi military and politicians and from 1958 to 1963 prime ministers of its country
- Karin Rührdanz: The old Bagdad - capital of the Kalifen, Leipzig ² 1991. ISBN 3-332-00503-0
- Mona Yahia: By Bagdada dark river, Munich flows 2004. ISBN 3-423-20715-9
- Jacob leaving: The Caliph' s personal Domain. The town center plan OF Baghdad RH-Examined. IN: Hourani/star (Hrsg.): The Islamic town center. Oxford 1970.
- Jacob leaving: The Topography OF Baghdad into the Early MiddleAges. Text and Studies, Detroit 1970.
- Vincenzo Strika and Jabir Khalil: The islamic Architecture OF Baghdad. The Results OF A Joint Italian - Iraqi Survey, Napoli 1987.
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