a station is a traffic and equipment of courses.
Table of contents
definitions and designations
in Germany defines the building of railways and factory regulations of stations as follows:
- “Stations are railway facilities with at least one switch,where courses begin, ends, crosses, to overhaul or with track change to turn may. “
Thus an entrance place without switch is not a station, but a critical point. Apart from the stations and critical points there are also still different railway facilities such as branch places, connection points, Deckungstellen, course subsequent places, Zugmeldestellenand block places as well as the terms of Hauptgleise and sidings.
In Austria a station must not have a switch according to official definition. The Austrian stop corresponds to the German critical point. In Germany again a stop is a critical point with a branch place collapses.
ThatDifference between a station and a critical point is for passengers and others in the case of a punctual distance blockage important - normally traffic on the rail up to the stations is then maintained, which are appropriate for the closed place next.
Colloquially understandsone under a station usually a plant, at which travelers of courses or leave (thus also the critical point) may mount, goods on courses en or unloaded or courses by these are again arranged or regrouped. Frequently becomes colloquial under italso only the station building understood, however in the technical language as reception building (in Switzerland and in Austria: Photograph building is designated ). The term station is not to equate with the permissible in or stepping out of travelers. This happens on platforms.
Stations are usually designated after the place or local part, in which they are. After incorporations or renaming however also historical names can remain received. Head stations from railroad lines often were in Germany after the terminator point in this stationdistance beginning designated. Thus for example the station of the Berlin Görlitzer lain in Berlin was called railway Görlitzer station. In other countries this practice was still maintained. There are several stations at a place, of those the other one operationallyor that is superordinate at least historically once was, this frequently as main station is designated.
kinds of station
Minden of stations on the one hand according to their structural arrangement track and other plants into different kinds, on the other hand also according to their verkehrlichen function.
kinds of the structural arrangement
the historically oldest building methodis the head station or bag station. Here one or more railroad lines at one point end. Reception building mostly is because of the face, so that one transverseresounds the platforms connects (e.g. Leipzig Hbf).
The most frequent station design is the through station. Hereif one or more continuous Hauptgleise go through the station area, there track connections receive and extend if necessary by additional station tracks (e.g.Hanover Hbf). Reception building lies usually laterally to the track field and is connected with the platforms by under and/or transfers. Itgives however also rider stations (also gallery stations), with which reception building is crosswise built over the track field (e.g. Kassel William height), and stations, with which the tracks lie over the reception range (e.g. Meal Hbf). Island stations are through stations, with thosereception building between the tracks lies (e.g.(Saale) Hbf resounds).
Trennungsbahnhöfe are because of a distance branch. That is appropriate for reception building here between the continuous distance and the branching branch (e.g. Pours), speaks one of a Keilbahnhof. Triangle stations offer additionallya cross connection between the two branches on the other side of the receipt building (e.g.Ludwigshafen Hbf (I hope, am correct in such a way).
A very rare type is the contact station, which will go through from two different, connected distances (e.g. Mülheim at the Ruhr Hbf).
Tunnel stationslie completely underground. It mostly concerns simple through stations or quasi underground Turmbahnhöfe, if they connect several tunnelled routes (e.g.Frankfurt Konstablerwache). In addition, the word low station is usually equivalently used, can a station in an upward open trough structuredesignate (e.g.Airport station Cologne/Bonn).
The output and/or. Terminator points of the brench lines branching from main routes are called connection stations.
- passenger traffic:
- Passenger railway stations,
- as verkehrliche special forms of the passenger railway stations: Airport stations (z. B. Berlin - beautiful field), fair stations;
- Storage sidings for passenger train railroad cars,
- post office stations ( the mailing up to their misalignment on the road in passenger trains one accomplished);
- Goods traffic:
- both kinds of traffic mostly serve:
According to the relation to be differentiated railway terminals,Unterwegsbahnhöfe and knot stations.
Station plants can be compound from several parts of different function: thus z lie. B. Goods or storage sidings with small and middle stations mostly directly beside or also frequently directly behind the passenger railway station. Many larger and some middleStations is or was attached an engine shed. In the largest railway complexes often several stations of different function are separately, for example from each other put on into Mannheim the main station and the marshalling yard.
In the initial years of the railway stations in Germany became frequentat large rivers put on, in order to connect the rail transport with well developed river transportation traffic. After the first junctions of the railways developed, the demand was placed after the project engineering of the stations under logistic criteria. The engineer and director of the Saxonian railway administration Max Maria von Weber set up in addition the first obligatory rules, which were generally recognized later.
stagnation and fall
except for some positive counter examples meant the decades after the Second World War for thoseStation culture of most countries little property. Solidium purged from shortage of money, new buildings often shifted in doubtful architectural and structural quality was established or “auto+fairly” into bad situations, with historical buildings dearless gone around. Thus remained for example in track-resounds of Frankfurt(Main) Hbf 60 years long the “provisional” board lining of the half roof receive.
In the surface stations purged appreciably. The partial or become completely functionless receipt and office building were usually supplied no Nachnutzung.
as well as thatgradual realization that the descent of the railway was not desirable into the Bedeutungslosigkeit, to be slowed down, or turned around it should, strengthened in the last quarter 20. Century also again the interest in stations.
There were new buildings of larger stations onlyfew; they mostly took place at new distances of high-speed traffic or at airports. Isolated stations are slightly shifted also by new building. More frequently replacement constructions in place of old buildings were frequent, including historical built volumes. The construction measure most frequent with distance is (financiallyusually extremely aufwändige) basic reorganization of historical stations, mostly under complete core removal, which is comparable with a new building. After decades of the Unterfinanzierung becomes in the 1990ern and at the beginning 21. Century in numerous countries an unparalleled row of force documents undertaken, around thatTo eliminate investment back pressure.
When new buildings or reorganizations in stations almost always large marketing surfaces are created. Large stations gain money for their operators today above all as trade real estate, less than traffic station. In extreme cases like e.g. with the Leipziger main station became stations ofShopping centre operators taken over. The development in the surface is coined/shaped of rationalization measures. Particularly on denationalized railways (e.g.Railways), but not only there (also e.g. with the SBB) the railway tracks are strongly made smaller many in and foreign stations and/or ofStation to the critical point back-built. This occupation of stations with personnel ends frequently by the connection of distances to central steered electronic signal towers. Tickets are sold thereafter exclusively by automats, if at all; Security and cleanliness are to become secured by video monitoring.
Upthe other side also and straight in the surface at enormous expenditure stations are reorganized. Will platforms on standard height brought, in order to make the entrance possible on the same level in Niederflurfahrzeuge, elevators or Flachrampen become built, around the platforms barrier-free accessible toomakes, and where there were elevatorsame track traversing before, new underpasses are built.
- as of a traveler usually-frequented station of the world applies the station Shinjuku in Tokyo, practically a pure commuter station with daily 1 to 4 millionPassengers.
- As of courses usually-frequented station of the world is considered the inhabitant of zurich main station. Over 2.700 courses pass the station daily.
- The oldest station of the world lies in coming to a hold on on teas (England)
- the high-altitude station of the world: Tanggula, 5,068 meters, at the Lhasa course: Golmud - Lhasa
- the largest marshalling yards of the world are followed the station Bailey yard with North plate (Nebraska , the USA), of the largest European marshalling yard meshes Rbf with Hamburg.
- The largest and longest platform shelter has the station Milano Centrale of 1931.
- The front longest with 298 m has the Leipziger main station.
- The largest surface area has the station Nagoya (410,000 m ²).
- The largest passenger railway station of Germany is the Frankfurt main station in Frankfurt/Main, however onlya siding more has valid Leipziger main station as that before than largest station, with whose change some tracks were diminished. If one takes the number of travelers as basis, that is Hamburg main station the largest German station.
- The oldest stationsGermany:
Meistfrequentierte of passenger railway stations in Germany
|Place||name|| number of the travelers |
and visitors per day
| of courses of the far from |
of traffic per day
| of courses of the close |
of traffic per day
|1.||Hamburg main station (rapid-transit railway/underground)|| ||<center> 191||<centers> 400||<centers> 11|
|2.||Frankfurt (Main) main station (rapid-transit railway/metropolitan railway)||< center> 350,000||<centers> of 342||<centers> of 290||<centers> 27|
|2.||Munich main station (rapid-transit railway/underground)||< center> of 350,000||<centers> of 240||<centers> of 510||<centers> 32|
|4.||Hanover main station (rapid-transit railway/Metropolitan railway)||< center> of 250,000||<centers> 230||<centers> of 440||<centers> 6|
|4.||Duesseldorf main station (rapid-transit railway/metropolitan railway)||<center> of 250,000||<centers> of 169||<centers> of 423||<centers> 8|
|4.||Cologne main station (rapid-transit railway/metropolitan railway)||<center> of 250,000||<centers> of 175||<centers> of 123||<centers> 10|
|7.||Stuttgart main station (rapid-transit railway/Metropolitan railway)||<center> of 220,000||<centers> of 164||<centers> of 426||<centers> 8|
|8.||Berlin zoo-logical garden (rapid-transit railway/underground)||<center> 200,000||<centers> of 206||<centers> of 250||<centers> 3|
|9.||Meal main station (rapid-transit railway/metropolitan railway)||<center> of 174,000||<centers> of 175||<centers> of 226||<centers> 6|
|10.||Leipzig main station (rapid-transit railway)||<centers> of 150,000||<centers> of 100||<centers> 248||<centers> 26|
Berlin main station - Lehrter station of which to 28. May 2006 to be opened is, is not specified here yet. There these the long-distance traffic connections and some Nahverkehrsverbindungen of the citizens of Berlin of stations zooand east station (120,000 travelers daily) takes up, becomes this according to estimation of the railways AG after its opening of approx. 300,000 travelers to be frequented.
there are quotations
- and idioms on a walking travel, during which one can step out as desired,no arrival, with which railway travel however the difference by arrival and departure by an operation, which carries out itself in the stations, these completely special places, those no part of the city and nevertheless the Essenz of their is as it were mysteriously schematizedPersonality as clearly contained as it on the signal sign their name carry. - Marcel Proust (in the shade of the young girls, ISBN 3-51857875-8, S. 219)
- I understand only station mentioned colloquially not to be able to understand somewhat.
- list of important passenger railway stations, list of important marshalling yards, list of German passenger railway stations, list of the IC stations, list of the stations in the Netherlands
- track plan, remote station, regional station, marshalling yard, U-Bahnhof.
- Otto Bluem: Person and goods stations. Second revised edition of Dr. - engineer having IL Briefly edge of body. Berlin/Goettingen/Heidelberg: Springer publishing house, 1961. (= manual for civil engineerings).
- Professor. Berthold grey: Station organization. Volumes 1 and 2. Berlin (east): Transpress VEB publishing house for traffic, 1968.
- Mihály Kubinszky: Stations of Europe.Their history, art and technology. Stuttgart: Franckh' publishing house action 1969.
- Jean Dethier: The world of the stations. Publisher: Centre national d'Art et de Culture Georges Pompidou/Centre de Création Industrielle and national arts center Berlin. Exhibition catalog. Berlin (west): Elephant press publishing house, 1980. (= EP: 47). ISBN 3-88520-047-3.
- Jean Dethier, Paul Delacroix and François Xavier Bouchard (photo): Gares d'Europe. Boulogne sur Mer: Neuilly S. E. (Denoël), 1988. ISBN 2-207-23505-X. (Outstanding book of pictures in French, also for readers and readers without French Sprachkenntnisse informatively.)
- Dr. Gérard Blier: Nouvellegéographie ferrous via Irish de la France. Paris: La Vie you Rail. Tome (volume) I: Le réseau: structure et fonctionnement. 1991, ISBN 2-902808-34-8, Tome II: L'organisation régionale you trafic. 1993, ISBN 2-902808-43-7. (Outstanding work in French among other things over FrenchStations of all kinds with schematic layout plans and many photos.)
- stations. Munich: GeraNova publishing house. (= course extra No. 53: 4/2001 August/September).
- Erich Preuss (Hrsg.): Large archives of the German stations. Munich: GeraNova magazine publishing house. Expenditure for lot sheet. ISSN 0949-2127
- Beatrice Sendner Rieger: The stations thatLudwig south north course 1841-1853. To the history of the Bavarian state building industry in 19. Century. German society for railway history e. V., 1989, ISBN 3-921700-57-4
Web on the left of
|Commons: Station - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
|Wiktionary: Station - word origin, synonyms and translations|