|landscapes||Siberia, southSiberian mountains|
|catchment area||1.487.480 km ²|
|surface||31,492 km ² (without islands)|
|height||of 455 M. and. NN.|
|Maximum depth||1,637 m|
|sea-soil||1,182 M. and. NN.|
|Sea-length|| 728 km (center line) |
636 km (air line)
|sea-width||maximum 82 km|
|water volume||maximum 23,000 km ³|
|supplies (and. A.)||Selenga, upper Angara, Bargusin|
|characteristics||- volume-largest, deepest and oldest fresh water lake of the earth|
- world nature inheritance since 1996
Table of contents
of the Baikalsee is in the southSiberian mountains on the border between the Oblast Irkutsk at the western and northern bank and the Republic of Burjatien on the eastern and southern bank. To the high mountains, those that, Counts the Baikalgebirge on the northwest bank , the Stanowojhochland in the northeast , the Bargusiner of mountains as well as the Burgasy mountains on the east bank and the Sajangebirge, which rise southwest the lake, frames lake.
of the Baikalsee, its which surface (31,492 km ²) in 455 m height over the sea level is, is with 25 to 30 millions Years the oldest and with officially 1,637 m (value 1,620 m indicated former) the deepest lake of the earth. The lake, its bank length approximately2,125 km, are long from the southwest to the northeast 728 km amount to (center line of the Baikals) and maximally 82 km broad, its average width amounts to 48 km. It contains due to its depth more water than all five the large seas of North America together.
of the Baikal forms the largest fresh water reservoir of the earth with a fifth of all relevant reserves: Maximally 23,000 km fit ³ water into the lake, which is more than the Baltic Sea contains; it corresponds to the 460-fachen Wasserinhalt of the Bodensee. The catchment area of the lake covers 1.487.480 km with its supplies ²; this corresponds scarcely to the 4,2-fachen of the surface of Germany.
The Baikalsee of 365 supplies and brooks, which flow to it from the surrounding mountains, is fed among them those Upper Angara, the Selenga and the Bargusin. Only discharge is the Angara - one of the large rivers Sibiriens.
In the course of the time the lake two had other discharges: First was somewhat further north as thattoday's and had connection to the bed of the today's Lena; by Gebirgsbildung (Baikalgebirge) this was then blocked. The second discharge developed further south; by an earthquake before approximately 16,000 years its process changed, so that todaythe Angara the only discharge of the lake is. Despite its enormous discharge quantity the Angara would have to flow about 400 years long, until the Baikalsee would be emptied.
of the Baikalsee is part of a continental rift zone (Grabenbruch). This in such a way specified Baikal rift, which developed for millions of years from an attenuation zone to a rift zone, extends (to 2 cm per year) and still deepens.
Because the eurasische and the amurische plate drift apart here, tear in the earth's crust develops;this is due to the collision far of the Indian plate pre-aged south, which like a wedge the plates specified before presses apart. The zone Baikal rift, which exhibits the largest attenuation, lies in the range of the Baikalsees.
The tear, in thatthe lake is appropriate, is about 1,600 km long, for nearly 6 km deeply and with sediments filled up. Therefore the Baikalsee is enough „only “in 1.637 m depth. Thus also their deepest Kryptodepression is in the deepest lake of the earth.
within the Baikalsees 22 larger islands are and on its banknumerous isles and from the water rising up rock. Its largest island is Olchon (Ol'chon; close of the west bank; 730 km ² largely and 72 km long), whose mountains to 1,276 m are high (821 m over the sea-level). The largest Peninsula of the lake is Swjatoj Nos („holy nose "; on the east bank), whose mountains to 1,636 m rise highly (1,181 m over the sea-level) and are pre-aged the Uschkani islands (for instance in the sea-center) to that.
nature and/or. Landscapeat the Baikalsee clearing the forests becomes , excessive fishery - by industrialization , and increasing settlement (makes possible under others by the Trans-Siberian railway and the Baikal Amur Magistrale) threatens.
In order to work against the destruction of the landscape of the Baikal region, in many places protected areas became and partlyalso national park furnished. On the middle west bank of the Baikalsees the Lena Naturreservat is, at opposite lying spreads the Bargusin Naturreservat , which south the Transbaikal national park follows. At the south end of the lake the Baikal Naturreservat was furnished. Of on the west bankthe Cisbaikal national park spreads convenient island Olchon, up to few kilometers before the south end of the lake . In addition the Baikalsee is completely surrounded by a coastal protection zone.
to the localities at the lakeshore and close of the Baikalsees count:
- Baikalsk - on the outermost south bank
- Baikalskoje - nearby Nordendes
- Irkutsk- off the southwest bank, at the Angara (60 km river downward)
- Selenginsk - off the south bank, at the muzzle delta of the Selenga (50 km river upward)
- Sewerobaikalsk - at the north end, nearby east the inlet of the upper Angara
- Sludjanka - at the southwest end
- of Ust Bargusin - toEast bank, at which delta of the Bargusins
traffic evenly specified usually still the Baikalregion, in particular the area at the Baikalsee, settled relatively thinly under others with the localities, usually only with few roads in bank proximity opened.At the north end the lake is concerned by the route of the Baikal Amur Magistrale and in the south of that one the Trans-Siberian railway. In Irkutsk and Ulan Ude are important airfields. Because the Baikallsee froze over in the winter, he becomes thatTime as road uses.
Flora and fauna
For example here the only fresh water seal of the world, the Nerpa ( Baikalrobbe), the Omul , a kind of salmon , or the Golomjanka , a fat fish, lives to that most deeply living süsswasserfischthe earth. This becomes possible under others also by the low water temperature of the lake, which amounts to at the surface in the annual average only about 7 °C.
island Olchon, with Schamanka
Web on the left of
|Commons: Baikalsee - pictures, videos and/or audio files|
- http://www.baikalwave.eu.org (English.)
- http://www.irkutsk.org/baikal/ (English.)
- travel information portal (interpret. /engl.)
- http://www.baikalplan.de (interpret. /engl.)
- http://www.sbaikal.ru/eng/index.htm (English.)
- http://www.baikalsee.net (interpret.)
- Jeremy PAGE, Thirst for oil threatens A fifth OF the world's fresh more water (“The Time”, London, 08.03.2006 - see. )
Coordinates: 53° 18 ′ 10 " n. Break, 108° 0 ′ 17 " o. L.